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U.S. History: 1865 to the Present
Study Guide
HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE STANDARDS OF LEARNING CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK 2008 (NEW)
Reformatted version created by SOLpass - www.SOLpass.org
S TA N D A R D U S II. 4A –
W ES TW AR D E X P AN S IO N
The student will demonstrate knowledge of
how life changed after the Civil War by
a) identifying the reasons for westward
expansion, including its impact on American
Indians.
New opportunities and
technological advances led
to westward migration
following the Civil War.
Why did westward expansion occur after the
Civil War?
Reasons for increase westward expansion
•
Opportunities for land ownership
•
Technological advances, including
the Transcontinental Railroad
•
Possibility of obtaining wealth,
created by the discovery of gold and
silver
•
Desire for adventure
•
Desire for a new beginning for
former enslaved African Americans
How did the lives of American Indians change
with western expansion?
Impact on American Indians
1
•
Opposition by American Indians to
westward expansion (Battle of Little
Bighorn, Sitting Bull, Geronimo)
•
Forced relocation from traditional
lands to reservations (Chief Joseph,
Nez Percé)
•
Reduced population through
warfare and disease (Battle of
Wounded Knee)
•
Assimilation attempts and lifestyle
changes (e.g., reduction of buffalo
population)
•
Reduced their homelands through
treaties that were broken
S TA N D A R D U S II. 4 B – IM M I G R A T I O N & GR O W T H O F C I T I ES
b)
The reasons for the increase in immigration, growth of cities, and challenges arising from this expansion.
Population changes, growth of cities, and
new inventions produced interaction and
often conflict between different cultural
groups.
Population changes, growth of cities, and
new inventions produced problems in urban
areas.
What challenges faced Americans as a result of these social and
technological changes?
Rapid industrialization and urbanization led to overcrowded
immigrant neighborhoods and tenements.
Efforts to solve immigration problems
Why did immigration increase?
Reasons for the increase in immigration
•
Hope for better opportunities
•
Desire for religious freedom
•
Escape from oppressive governments
•
Desire for adventure
•
Settlement houses, such as Hull House founded by
Jane Addams
•
Political machines that gained power by attending
to the needs of new immigrants (e.g., jobs, housing)
Discrimination against immigrants
•
•
Chinese
Irish
Challenges faced by cities
Why did cities grow and develop?
Reasons why cities grew and developed
2
•
Specialized industries, including steel (Pittsburgh)
and meat packing (Chicago)
•
Immigration to America from other countries
•
Movement of Americans from rural to urban areas
for job opportunities
•
Tenements and ghettos
•
Political corruption (political machines)
S TA N D A R D U S II. 4C - SE GRE GAT ION
c) racial segregation, the rise of “Jim Crow,” and other constraints
faced by African Americans and other groups in the postReconstruction South.
Discrimination against African Americans
continued after Reconstruction.
“Jim Crow” laws institutionalized a system of
legal segregation.
How were African Americans discriminated against?
“Jim Crow” laws
•
African Americans differed in their
responses to
discrimination and “Jim
Crow.”
• Made discrimination practices
legal in many communities and states
• Were characterized by unequal
opportunities in housing, work, education,
and government
What is racial segregation?
Racial segregation
•
Based upon race
•
Directed primarily against African
Americans, but other groups also
were kept segregated
•
Passed to discriminate against African Americans
How did African Americans respond to
discrimination and “Jim Crow”?
African American responses
• Booker T. Washington: Believed
equality could be achieved through
vocational education; accepted social
segregation
American Indians were not
considered citizens until 1924.
• W.E.B. DuBois: Believed in full
political, civil, and social rights for African
Americans.
S TA N D A R D U S II. 4D – I NVE NT IO NS , B IG B US INE S S , I NDUS T R Y
d)
The impact of new inventions, the rise of big business, the growth of industry, and life on American farms.
Between the Civil War and World War I, the
United States was transformed from an
agricultural to an industrial nation.
Inventions had both positive and negative
effects on society.
What inventions created great change and
industrial growth in the United States?
Inventions that contributed to great
change and industrial growth
•
•
3
Electric lighting and mechanical
uses of electricity (Thomas
Edison)
Telephone service (Alexander
Graham Bell)
What created the rise in big business?
Reasons for the rise and prosperity of big
business
•
National markets created by
transportation advances
• Captains of industry (John
D. Rockefeller, oil; Andrew
Carnegie, steel; Cornelius
Vanderbilt, shipping and railroads)
• Advertising
• Lower-cost production
What factors caused the growth of
industry?
Factors that resulted in growth of industry
•
Access to raw materials and energy
•
Availability of work force due to immigration
•
Inventions
•
Financial resources
Examples of big business
•
Railroads
•
Oil
•
Steel
How did industrialization and the rise in big business influence
life on American farms?
Postwar changes in farm and city life
•
Mechanization (e.g., the reaper) reduced farm labor
needs and increased production.
•
Industrial development in cities created increased
labor needs.
•
Industrialization provided new access to consumer
goods (e.g., mail order).
S TA N D A R D U S II. 4E – PR O G R E S S IV E MO V E ME NT
e) The impact of the Progressive Movement on child labor, working conditions, the rise of organized labor, women’s suffrage, and
the temperance movement.
The effects of industrialization led to the
rise of organized labor and important
workplace reforms.
How did the reforms of the Progressive Movement change
the United States?
How did workers respond to the negative effects of
industrialization?
Negative effects of industrialization
•
Child labor
•
Low wages, long hours
•
Unsafe working conditions
Rise of organized labor
Women’s suffrage
•
Formation of unions: Growth of American
Federation of Labor
•
Increased educational
opportunities
•
Strikes: Aftermath of Homestead Strike
•
Attained voting rights
–
Women gained the right to
vote with passage of the
19th Amendment to the Constitution of the
United States of America.
–
Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
worked for women’s suffrage.
Temperance movement
Progressive Movement workplace reforms
4
•
Improved safety conditions
•
Reduced work hours
•
Placed restrictions on child labor
•
Composed of groups opposed to the making and
consuming of alcohol
•
Supported the 18th
Amendment to the
Constitution of the United
States, prohibiting the
manufacture, sale, and
transport of alcoholic
beverages