* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Roman Building •Greek elements •Concrete (with marble or mosaic veneer) •Arch (making possible aqueducts, colosseum, triumphal arches, sewers) •Use of space – light and soaring structures •Solid walls and roads (lava stone) Domus Basic Traditional Elements • • • • • • • • Atrium – initial room Compluvium – opening in the ceiling Impluvium – collection pool for water Alae – ‘wings’ off the atrium Tablinum – reception area, back of atrium Cubiculum – sleeping room Fauces – entrance hall Peristyle – open garden behind the atrium with colonade and rooms around it Atrium Domus, continued… • Doors (Janua) opened inward – bolts and bars and doorkeepers. • Furniture – lectus, or couch, used for sleeping, reading, writing, conversation, eating. • Décor used mosaics and wall paintings Domus • Faced inward – light and air from the compluvium and peristyle • No view out – windows are rare • Usually a single floor • Single purpose rooms (e.g. cubiculum, triclinium) • Sometimes rooms on street opened out and were rented out out as shops (taberna) Wealthy Domus Thermae – Public hot baths • Available to everyone – wealthy, poor, slaves • Men and women bathed at different times or in different areas • Open at noon, often signaled by a gong • Participants usually alternated cold and hot baths, hot first • Strigils (scrappers) used for cleaning, soda for soap, towels and slaves to assist. • Shavers and depilators available at extra charge • Busiest in the late afternoon – after work and before dinner Baths could involve multiple ‘stations’ • Apodyterium – changing room • Frigidarium – cold bath • Tepidarium – transit room between hot and cold • Caldarium – hot bath Additional features • Palaestra – room for wrestling or gymnastics • Unctorium – room for oiling down • Natorium – open air swimming pool • Laconicum – hot room for sweating • Libraries Bath design Hypocaust system of heating The closer to the fire, the warmer the room above and water piped in. Public Latrines Latrines provided with water circulating under the seating holes. Water also flowed in the trough in front of the seats for rinsing the cleansing sponges Latrine drawing, cutout, and sponge model Forum – ‘open space’ • Leveled oblong piece of ground surrounded by buildings – houses, temples, basilicas, or porticoes (markets or courts) Basilica – State building used as public meeting place/hall of justice A basilica used the arch in construction, of course. Basilica of Constantine Pattern adapted to later Christian use • Central great room often with curved ‘apse’ at end • Columned side halls Pantheon – ‘All Gods’ • Built during period of the five ‘good’ emperors (Hadrian?) • Huge domed structure • Converted to a Christian church in 609 18th century painting of interior Only light source is the oculus above.