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-Great Migration
-Move into new jobs vacated by whites
-Black soldiers fight in segregated units,
come home w/ more pride, not willing to
accept discrimination
-Race riots in North as white soldiers come
home to reclaim jobs & neighborhoods
diversified by Great Migration
-# in workforce increases (but minimally,
b/c most actually had worked outside
home even before war)
-BUT, occupations diversify, do jobs that
were previously done by men
-more exposure to volunteer activities &
work outside home
-most actively support war effort as
nurses, raising $ for victory bonds, etc.
-suffrage movement helped b/c it seems
hypocritical to fight for democracy abroad
when women don't have it at home
-Women get 19th amendment after war…
demonstrated responsibility by supporting
war effort
-Gompers & AFL cooperate w/ gov. &
make "no strike" pledge during war
-IWW, socialists, radicals take advantage
of wartime labor shortage to go on strike…
most are arrested/deported by gov., IWW
destroyed by gov.
-War Labor Board practices "binding
arbitration" in strikes (workers and
employers had to obey whatever decision
the board made)… new role for fed. gov.
-Wages & benefits rise due to labor
shortage, but most companies try to
rescind gains during post-war recession
-Intense strike activity immediately after
the war including a "general strike" in
Seattle & controversial & violent "Boston
police strike
-Gov. spending skyrockets
-1/3 of increase paid for w/ increased
taxes (Revenue Acts of 1916-1917)
-deficit (2/3 of budget) paid for with
victory/liberty bonds (loans)
Foreign Trade
-U.S. goes from net debtor to net lender
-Economic power increases relative to
Europe (U.S. profited off of arms sales
before war & also no damage to U.S.)
Gov.-Business Cooperation
-"Cost-Plus" Program… Fed. gov.
guaranteed profits to businesses engaged
in war industries
-No competitive bidding, most contracts go
to largest corp.s (they were seen as most
-War Industries Board regulated
production & sale of goods… set prices,
rationed certain goods, etc. (mixed
success, coal shortage, weapons
production did increase, but still short of
-Corporate profits increased dramatically
during war years
*For Liberals economic successes of war
years seemed to suggest that Progressive
ideas about gov. regulation & mixed
economy worked… Fiscal conservatives
were anxious to get back to "normalcy" in
1920s w/ return to laissez-faire
Gross National Product
-GNP (size of economy) rose 237% during
-Brief post-war recession 1920-1921as
economy converts back to civilian
production & soldiers flood labor market,
increasing unemployment