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Transcript
United Nations
PART TWO
Continue
Introduction

In Part 1 the first attempt to create
a worldwide organisation was
examined.

The League of Nations had failed
to
prevent
another global
conflict, but it had shown the way
forward. When this second world
wide war was over it would be
time to try again.
Continue
The First Steps

The first step towards the
creation of the future UNITED
NATIONS was made in 1942 by
the nations who had allied
together
to
fight
the
aggression of Germany, Japan
and Italy.

This was followed by the
Moscow Declaration of 1943
which began to set out what
the allied nations wanted to
achieve.
Continue
Dumbarton Oaks
Continue

The main proposals for the
future UNITED NATIONS were
worked out a conference in
1944 held at Dumbarton Oaks
in Washington, USA.

The final agreements were
made at the conference of 3
of the main Allied leaders at
Yalta in 1945.
The Conference

It was agreed that every
nation would be invited to
send representatives to a
conference where the final
Charter of the United Nations
would be agreed.

This conference was held in….
London
Moscow
San Francisco
United Nations Charter

Everyone agreed that the new
United Nations organization had to
be more effective than the
League of Nations had been. The
problem was how to make this
happen.

The League had failed because
the powerful nations had walked
out if they disagreed – there had
to be a way to stop this
happening again.
Continue
Securing Agreement

The League of Nations had always had
problems in getting agreement because
under its rules everyone had to agree and
that was not only difficult, but took a very
long time.

It meant that the League could not react
quickly to a crisis. It was proposed that the
United Nations should have a smaller
decision-making body that would be able
to work much faster. This was to be the …
Security
Council
UN
Secretariat
The Structure of the United Nations

The UN has a GENERAL
ASSEMBLY at which every
member nation has delegates.
It has regular meetings, but
can also have emergency
meetings if the need arises.
Each nation has a vote and
although a simple majority is
accepted for most issues, for
very important matters there
has to be a two thirds majority.
Continue
The General Assembly

The assembly has a President
who is elected by the member
nations. The World is divided
into regions and each region,
in turn, provides the President.
The General Assembly can
deal with any subject except
one.
Peace and
Security
Finance
The Security Council

The Security Council can
debate any matter. It can
make decisions, but, if it made
a decision that one of the
major powers did not like, then
they would be very unhappy.
If they were very unhappy
what might happen?
Leave the UN
Protest
The Veto

The solution to this problem was to
prevent the Security Council
making a decision that one of the
powerful nations did not like. The
5 permanent members were given
the power to VETO any decision
that they did not like. This stopped
the Security Council from making
a decision, but it also made it
unnecessary for a nation to leave
the UN.
Continue
Other UN Organisations

The UN system is based on 5 major
organizations. Two of them, the GENERAL
ASSEMBLY and the SECURITY COUNCIL
have already been examined. The other
3 are:-

The UN Secretariat

The International Court of Justice

The Economic & Social Council
Continue
The Secretariat

The secretariat is made up of the
people who run the United Nations
organization.
The most important
person is the Secretary General.

The Secretary General serves for one or
two terms of 5 years.
They are
recommended
to
the
General
Assembly by the Security Council.

The Secretary General must be from..
Any country
Any neutral
country
A nation on
the Security
Council
UN Headquarters

The UN Headquarters is in
Manhattan, New York, USA
and this is where the General
Assembly and Security Council
meet.

The UN also has main offices in
3 other cities, 2 in Europe and 1
in Africa. The African office is
in…
Liberia
Tunisia
Kenya
Other UN Agencies

The UN Charter requires the organization to do all it
can to ensure the health and well-being of everyone
in the World. The UN has several agencies to do this.

World Bank

WHO (World Health Organization)

World Food Programme

UNESCO (United Nations Economic, Social & Cultural
Organization)

UNICEF (United Nations International Children’s
Emergency Fund)

One of these agencies receives funds from the UN;
which one?
UNESCO
WHO
UNICEF
Who pays for the UN?

Each member country pays a
contribution to the work of the United
Nations. The amount they pay is
based on the nation’s income, so
richer countries pay more.

Where the UN has to do a major job it
has to ask the members for extra
funding.

The ordinary UN budget for a year is
roughly how big?
$500 Million
$2000 Million
$1000 Million
Summary

You should now have a basic
understanding of what the UN is,
what it does and how it is
organized.

You may need this information
when you start to see how the
United Nations might respond to a
disaster.
Continue
How much do you understand?

You have completed this activity!
San Francisco

This is correct!

The United States agreed to hold the conference in San
Francisco as they had the resources to host such a big
conference and San Francisco could easily be reached by
ship, by plane and by train.
Continue
Security Council

This is correct.

The answer was to create a smaller group, known as the Security
Council, which would be made up of permanent members and
temporary members chosen by all the other nations.

The permanent members were the USSR, UK, USA, China and France.
The way in which the Security Council works will be looked at later.
Continue
Peace and Security

This is correct!

Issues of peace and security are the concern of the
Security Council. The Council has 15 members. 5 are
permanent members and 10 are elected on a regional
basis to serve for 2 years.
Continue
Leave the UN

This is correct.

This was the problem that defeated the League of
Nations. There had to be a way to prevent a powerful
nation walking out of the United Nations.
Continue
From any country

This is correct.

In the UN Charter it is quite clear that the Secretary General
can be from any country. However, it has become the
accepted rule that the Secretary General comes from a
neutral country and from the different regions of the World
in turn.
Continue
Kenya

This is correct.

The UN’s major office is in Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya.
The other major offices are in Geneva in Switzerland and
Vienna in Austria.
Continue
UNESCO

This is correct.

This agency was built to carry on the work of the League of
Nations in promoting peace through understanding of
other people and cultures. It receives UN funding.
Continue
$2000 Million

This is about right.
Continue
Moscow

This is incorrect

Moscow would have been a difficult location for the
conference as much of Russia had been a battlefield until
1943 and there had been much damage.
Continue
London

This is incorrect.

London had been badly damaged by air attack during
the war. In 1945 it did not have the resources to hold such
a big conference.
Continue
The UN Secretariat

This is incorrect.

This is the staff of the organisation who deal with all the
regular administration issues. They are not leaders or
representatives of member nations and thus cannot make
decisions.
Continue
Finance

This is incorrect.

The General Assembly is very concerned with financial
matters as it controls the UN budget.
Continue
Protest

This is incorrect.

Powerful nations would certainly protest. They would also
be very likely to refuse to obey a Security Council decision
if they felt it was putting their nation in some danger.
Continue
From any neutral country

This is incorrect.

In the UN Charter it is clear that the Secretary General can
be from any country, but they must be recommended by
the Security Council.
Continue
From a nation represented on the
Security Council

This is incorrect.

The UN Charter does not require the Secretary General to
be from a nation on the Security Council, although the
permanent members do have the power of VETO on any
recommendation.
Continue
Tunisia

This is not correct.

The UN has no major office in this country, but its agencies
have offices in many parts of the world.
Continue
Liberia

This is not correct.

The UN has no major office in this country, but its agencies
have offices in many parts of the world.
Continue
WHO

This is incorrect.

This agency is dedicated to improving the health of
everyone by controlling disease and developing heath
care. It no receives UN funding.
Continue
UNICEF

This is incorrect.

This agency, which is dedicated to helping children
anywhere in the world is funded in two ways. Where there
is a UNICEF branch in a country it may receive funding
from the government of that country. However, much of
its funding comes from donations.
Continue
$500 Million

This amount is far too small!
Continue
$1000 Million

This amount is not enough!
Continue