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Introduction to Sociology
Exam 2
Chapters 7-11
1. Which of the following sociological terms refers to the recognized
violation of cultural norms?
a. deviance
b. crime
c. unsuccessful socialization
d. juvenile delinquency
2. “Crime” differs from “deviance” in that crime
a. is always more harmful.
b. is always less harmful.
c. is a violation of norms enacted into law.
d. refers to a much wider range of behavior.
3. Every society regulates the thoughts and behavior of individuals. This
process of regulation is called
a. neighborhood watch.
b. childhood socialization.
c. social control.
d. the legal system.
4. Emile Durkheim’s basic insight is that deviance is
a. a normal element of social organization.
b. linked to flaws in our human nature.
c. less common in modern societies than in traditional societies.
d. defined by the rich and used against the poor.
5. Which of the following statements is consistent with the thinking of
Emile Durkheim?
a. When people engage in deviance, this behavior erodes moral boundaries.
b. Responding to deviance divides people in a community.
c. Deviance affirms cultural values and norms.
d. Police and courts are needed to stem the tide of deviance caused by selfish
human nature.
6. Which of the following concepts is used in Robert Merton’s strain
theory of deviance to refer to theprocess of seeking conventional
goals but rejecting the conventional means to achieve them.
a. innovation
b. ritualism
c. retreatism
d. rebellion
7. According to Robert Merton’s strain theory, which of the following
concepts correctly describes the behavior of a radical who rejects
cultural goals and means in favor of some alternative system?
a. innovation
b. ritualism
c. retreatism
d. rebellion
8. The basic idea behind labeling theory is that
a. deviance is actually useful in a number of ways.
b. deviance arises not so much from what people do as how others respond
to what they do.
c. power has much to do with how a society defines deviance.
d. people rarely define even harmful wrongdoing as deviance.
9. According to the social-conflict approach, what a society labels as
deviant is based mostly on
a. how often certain acts occur.
b. the moral values of the culture.
c. how harmful the act is to the public as a whole.
d. patterns of inequality and which categories of people have more power.
10.A hate crime is defined as
a. any crime targeting a member of a minority.
b. any crime involving powerful emotions.
c. a criminal act motivated by racial or other bias.
d. any violation of federal, state, or local anti-discrimination laws.
11."Social stratification" is a concept that refers to
a. specialization in productive work.
b. society ranking categories of people in a hierarchy.
c. the idea that all people are created equal.
d. differences in people’s individual ability.
12.A caste system is defined as
a. social stratification based on ascription, or birth.
b. social stratification based on individual achievement.
c. a meritocracy.
d. any social system in which categories of people are unequal.
13.The concept “meritocracy” refers to social stratification
a. with no social mobility.
b. in which all people “know their place.”
c. based entirely on personal merit.
d. as it is commonly found in agrarian societies.
14.Following Karl Marx's analysis, we would expect to find alienation
among which category of people?
a. the nobility
b. the rich factory owners
c. the working people, or proletariat
d. government officials
15.__________ refers to wages or salary from work, plus earnings from
any investments.
a. Income
b. Personal property
c. Wealth
d. Power
16.Roughly 40 to 45 percent of the U.S. population falls within the
a. upper-upper class.
b. middle class.
c. lower class.
d. upper-middle class.
17.Following the analysis of Karl Marx, which class forms the core of
the industrial proletariat?
a. the upper-middle class
b. the middle class
c. the upper class
d. the working class
18.__________ refers to change in social position during a person's
a. Intragenerational social mobility
b. Intergenerational social mobility
c. Structural social mobility
d. Horizontal social mobility
19.__________ refers to upward or downward social mobility of
children in relation to their parents.
a. Intragenerational social mobility
b. Intergenerational social mobility
c. Structural social mobility
d. Horizontal social mobility
20.Most low-income nations are found in
a. Africa and Asia.
b. Latin America.
c. Eastern Europe.
d. North America.
21.Modernization theory claims that
a. poor nations can never become rich in today’s world.
b. the main causes of poverty include traditional culture and lack of
advanced technology.
c. the main causes of poverty involve the operation of multinational
d. most poor nations were richer in the past than they are today.
22.Modernization theory identifies __________ as the greatest barrier to
economic development.
a. having too few people
b. multinational corporations
c. capitalism
d. tradition
23.Dependency theory differs from modernization theory by
a. making poor nations responsible for their own fate.
b. supporting capitalism as a path to development.
c. explaining global inequality in terms of the exploitation of poor countries
by rich countries.
d. claiming that economic development is not a desirable goal.
24.According to dependency theory, poor countries have become
dependent on rich nations because
a. poor countries sell raw materials for low prices to rich nations.
b. rich countries bring tourism dollars to poor countries.
c. rich nations buy manufactured goods from poor countries.
d. poor nations benefit more than rich nations from the global economy.
25.Gender refers to
a. only whether people are male or female.
b. the secondary sex characteristics of men and women.
c. the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to
being female and male.
d. people’s sexual orientation.
26.The point of describing gender in the Israeli kibbutzim is
a. to show that gender is based in biology.
b. to show that women can dominate men.
c. to show that cultures define gender in different ways.
d. to show that boys and girls should not be raised by biological parents.
27.Margaret Mead's research on gender in three societies supports the
conclusion that
a. all societies define "masculine" the same way.
b. all societies define "feminine" the same way.
c. societies may define both "masculine" and "feminine" differently.
d. societies are as likely to display matriarchy as patriarchy.
28.Based on George Murdock's global study of gender, we should
conclude that
a. there was almost no agreement as to feminine and masculine tasks.
b. men are farmers but women rarely engage in farming.
c. most societies do not assign work to one sex or the other.
d. many tasks are considered masculine by some societies and feminine by
29.__________ is a form of social organization in which females
dominate males.
a. Patriarchy
b. Matriarchy
c. Monarchy
d. Gerontocracy
30.Which of the following concepts refers to social organization in
which males dominate females?
a. patriarchy
b. matriarchy
c. monarchy
d. gerontocracy
31.In the United States, the costs of sexism for men include
a. having less power than women.
b. having fewer privileges than women.
c. engaging in many high-risk behaviors.
d. having less income than women.
32.The “beauty myth” refers to the idea that
a. women learn to measure their personal importance in terms of physical
b. beautiful women are free from control by men.
c. men prefer women who are physically attractive.
d. men today are as physically attractive as women are.
33.Which of the following concepts refers to an invisible, yet real,
barrier that prevents many women from rising beyond middlemanagement positions?
a. "glass ceiling"
b. "second-shift sexism"
c. "comparable worth"
d. "pink-collar ghetto"
34.Intersection theory focuses on
a. migration of women from all over the world to the United States.
b. ways in which men and women cooperate in the workplace.
c. the interplay of race, class, and gender often leading to multiple
d. how mothers and fathers each make special contributions in raising young
35.Structural-functional analysis points out that industrialization
a. men to take control of the workplace.
b. the lessening of gender differences and a trend towards gender equality.
c. women to have more children.
d. societies to give greater importance to muscle power.
36.Which type of feminism links the social disadvantages of women to
the capitalist economic system?
a. liberal feminism
b. socialist feminism
c. radical feminism
d. All three types of feminism do this.
37.Friedrich Engels claimed that capitalism
a. reduces all forms of social inequality.
b. reduces men’s domination of women.
c. has little change on men’s domination of women.
d. increases men’s domination of women.
38.Which type of feminism seeks to end patriarchy by eliminating the
idea of gender itself?
a. liberal feminism
b. socialist feminism
c. radical feminism
d. All three types of feminism do this.
39.Gender refers simply to whether people are female or male.
40.Like race or social class, gender is a major dimension of social
41.The concept “race” refers to
a. members of any minority within a multicultural society.
b. skin color, when it is other than white.
c. a shared cultural heritage, including language and religion.
d. a socially constructed category composed of people who share
biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important.
42.Which of the following concepts refers to cultural heritage?
a. race
b. minority
c. ethnicity
d. stereotype
43.Which of the following concepts refers to a category of people,
distinguished by physical or cultural traits, who are socially
a. minority
b. ethnic category
c. racial category
d. out-group
44.Which of the following concepts refers to a rigid and irrational
generalization about an entire category of people?
a. scapegoating
b. racism
c. prejudice
d. discrimination
45.Stereotypes refer to
a. any generalizations about social life.
b. exaggerated descriptions applied to everyone in some category.
c. only positive statements about a minority.
d. only negative statements about a minority.
46.__________ refers to a belief that one racial category is innately
superior or inferior to another.
a. Scapegoating
b. Discrimination
c. Prejudice
d. Racism
47.Conflict theory states that prejudice is
a. used by powerful people to justify oppressing others.
b. part of culture itself.
c. common among disadvantaged people.
d. common among certain people raised to have rigid personalities.
48.Based on scapegoat theory, you would conclude that prejudice is
caused by
a. culture itself.
b. high levels of immigration.
c. frustration among people who are themselves disadvantaged.
d. people with rigid personalities.
49.Assimilation refers to the pattern by which
a. people come to accept minorities.
b. minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant category.
c. minority categories become more equal in social standing.
d. people regain a lost cultural heritage.
50.__________ refers to the physical and social separation of categories
of people.
a. Pluralism
b. Assimilation
c. Segregation
d. Miscegenation
(Conceptual; answer: c; page 311)