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SOL Review Packet #5 Answers WHI.7 – Byzantine Empire and Russia 1. Name four advantages of Constantinople’s location. Provided safe harbors for ships, privded natural defenses, it had easy access to the Mediterranean Sea, and was located on the Silk Road which was good for trade. 2. Name three accomplishments of Justinian. Justinian created the Justinian code, which put Roman laws in writing. He also expanded the empire and built the Hagia Sophia and the Hippodrome. 3. What is a mosaic? What about an icon? - A mosaic is made up of small tiles or glass that make an image. It is typically religious themed and uses neutral colors. - An icon is a small, religious image of God, the angels, or Mary that Christians use to help focus their prayers. 4. What was the result of the differences between the Eastern and Western Christian churches? - The Eastern Orthodox Church allowed priests to marry, allowed divorce, allowed the use of icons, and was led by a patriarch who shared power with the Pope. - The Roman Catholic (Western) Church did not think priests should marry, did not allow divorce, prohibited icons, and the Pope had supreme power. WHI.8 – Islamic Civilization 5. Who was Muhammad and why was he important to Islam? The last great prophet of Islam and considered the founder of the religion who helped it spread throughout the Arabian peninsula. 6. What does Allah mean? Allah is the Arabic word for God. 7. Name the Five Pillars of Islam. The five pillars are to profess your belief in Allah, give alms to the poor, pray toward Mecca five times a day, make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in your life, and fast from sunrise to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. 8. Name three prophets Muslims believe in. Muslims believe in Moses, Abraham, and Jesus as prophets. 9. Where did Islam spread and along what type of routes? Islam spread from Mecca throughout the Arabian peninsula, over into parts of southern Europe and northern Africa. Islam spread mainly along trade routes. 10. What are the two divisions of Islam and why did they divide? The Sunni and the Shi’ite divided because they thought caliphs should be chosen in different ways. The Sunni felt the leaders of the community should chooose the caliphs, while the Shi’ite thought caliphs should be descendants of Muhammad. 11. What battle “saved” Europe from the Muslims? In the Battle of Tours, Christians led by Charles Martel stopped the Muslims from invading. 12. Name three contributions of Islamic society. Algebra, calligraphy, hospials, the ciy of Baghdad, the compass, and many others. WHI.9 – Early Middle Ages 13. When did the pope anoint Charlemagne and what title did he gain? In 800 C.E. the pope crowned Charlemagne the Holy Roman Emperor. 14. What kind of system was established in Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire? A feudal system of governing. 15. A fief is the land a vassal received from a lord. 16. What kind of class structure did medieval Europe have? Kings were at the top, then lords, lesser lords (or vassals), and serfs at the bottom. 17. Who was invading Europe? Germanic tribes were invading, such as the Vikings and theMughals. 18. Name three results of the Germanic invasions on medieval Europe. The results were that trade was disrupted, cities were abandoned, a common language was lost, and learning became less important. WHI.10 – China, Japan, Africa 19. Trade routes developed between what three continents? Trade routes developed between Europe, Asia, and Africa. 20. What was traded across the Trans-Saharan trade route? Gold and salt were traded for spices, olive oil, silk, etc. 21. What two inventions came from China? Inventions were porcelain, gunpowder, a mechanical clock, and a magnetic compass. 22. What two religions coexist in Japan? Name three important features of Shintoism. Buddhism and Shintoism coexist. Three features of Shintoism are that it is only worshipped in Japan, there are no sacred texts or priests, and ancestor worship is important. 23. Name three Chinese influences on Japanese culture. Three influences are architecture, writing system or alphabet, and Buddhism. 24. What three African civilizations developed in West Africa? Three civilizations were Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. 25. What civilization was located near the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers? The Zimbabwe civilization was near those rivers. 26. What was Great Zimbabwe? The Great Zimbabwe was a city center of trade and the gateway to southern Africa. 27. What is animism? Animism is the belief that animals and plants, not just humans, have souls. 28. What religions did many civilizations of West Africa practice? What religion did Axum practice? Most civilizations practiced Islam, while Axum practiced Christianity. WHI.11 – Latin America 29. What were the three civilizations of the Western Hemisphere? The Maya, the Aztecs, and the Inca were the three civilizations. 30. Where was the Mayan civilization located? The Maya were located in central America. 31. What was Chichén Itzá? It was an example of step pyramids that the Maya built to preserve the bodies of rulers. 32. Where was the Aztec civilization located and what was the main city? The Aztecs were in Mexico and thir main city was Tenochtitlan. 33. Where was the Incan civilization located and what was the main city? The Incas were in Peru and their main city was Machu Picchu. 34. Who ruled the Incas? An emperor, who was both a spiritual and political leader, ruled the Incas. 35. Name three contributions of the Aztecs, Incas and Mayans. Three contributions were our modern calendar, dental cavity removal, elaborate road systems, and many more.