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The Industrial Revolution
A new kind of revolution
What was revolutionary about the Industrial
 It
changed the way people worked!
The Industrial Revolution is the era when
power-driven machinery was developed.
 What
power-driven machines do you use in your
everyday life?
Causes of the
Industrial Revolution
 The Agrarian
 A population
 A revolution
in energy
Agrarian Revolution
Famers improved
livestock breeding and
created better varieties
of crops
 Jethro Tull invented the
seed drill
 Made
planting grain
more efficient
Enclosure movement
 Wealthy
farmers bought up land and combined
small fields to created larger, fenced-in fields
 Allowed for more efficient farming methods
 Kicked poor famers off their land
Crop rotation
 Rotated
crops to prevent a field from losing all of
its important minerals
Population Growth
 Greater
food supply led to a population
 Poor famers moved into cities
 Human numbers through the ages
The Energy Revolution
From the beginning of history, the physical
labor of humans and animals provided energy
for work
 This all changed when we began to harness the
power of water and coal
In 1769 James
Watt developed
the steam engine
powered by coal
 This
would run the
machines of the
James Watt and his
steam engine
Britain starts the
Industrial Revolution
Britain leads the way
began in Britain, and
by the 1800s would
spread to the United
States, Japan,
Germany, and other
Exploration and colonization
 Colonies around
the world provided raw materials
 Colonies also became new markets for finished
As an island, Britain had many natural harbors and
rivers that could be used for trade, transportation,
and a power source for factories.
 Britain also had an abundance of coal and iron.
Political stability
 Britain
had a strong, stable government that
supported businessmen. The powerful British navy
also protected overseas trade.
Growth of private investment
 Because
of their huge overseas empire the British
had a very strong economy. Wealthy middle-class
Englishmen invested their money in mines,
railroads, inventions, and factories.
Factors of Production
Britian had all three factors of
 Land
 Natural
resources like coal, rivers, harbors, etc.
 Labor
 A growing
population that made a willing workforce
 Capitol
 Funds
for investment from wealthy citizens
Advances of the
Industrial Revolution
Before the Industrial
Revolution, spinners and
weavers made clothing at home
by hand. Cotton was spun into
thread, and then woven into
cloth. Later the cloth was dyed
by an artisan.
This was known as the cottage
industry, or domestic system,
which was very slow.
Textiles: Inventions
The old ways of making cloth were completely
transformed with industrialization
 Flying
shuttle- John Kay
 Spinning Jenny- James Hargreaves
 Water frame- Richard Arkwright
 Spinning Mule- Samuel Crompton
Flying shuttleJohn Kay
 Hand-operated
 Wove
more quickly
 One
could spin
16 threads
at once
Water frameRichard
 Faster,
Spinning Mule- Samuel Crompton
 Fastest
of all, produced the best thread
Because the spinning mule needed water
power to function, producers set up factories
with water wheels along streams.
 Factory – place where workers and machines
are brought together to produce large
quantities of goods.
Mass Production
 The
system of manufacturing large
numbers of identical items
possible by interchangeable parts and
the assembly line
 Interchangeable
parts: identical, machine-made
 Assembly line: production moves from worker to
worker, items made more quickly
In the early 1800s George Stephenson
developed steam-powered locomotives to pull
carts along rails. Railroads increased trade and
industry, and connected Britain from one end
to the other
In 1807
Fulton, an
used Watt’s
steam engine
to power a
boat up the
Effects of the
Industrial Revolution
During the Industrial Revolution, people
moved from villages and towns into cities
 Urbanization: movement of people to cities
 Garbage filled overcrowded city streets and
disease spread
“It was a town of red brick, or brick that would
have been red if the smoke and ashes had
allowed it; but, as matters stood, it was a town
of unnatural red and black, like the painted
face of a savage. It was a town of machinery
and tall chimneys, out which interminable
serpents of smoke trailed themselves forever
and ever, and never got uncoiled. It had a black
canal, and a river ran purple with ill-smelling
 Charles Dickens, Hard Times
Poor Working Conditions
Factory conditions were very harsh. Men, women,
and even children worked 12 to 16 hours a day
Work was monotonous and boring, and could also be
dangerous and unhealthy
Women were hired because they could be paid less
than men
Children were hired by textile mills and mines
because of their size
New Class Structure
Upper class: rich, industrial business owners
 Upper middle class: professionals like doctors
and lawyers
 Lower middle class: teachers, shop owners,
office workers
 Working class: factory workers
New Class Structure
Impact on Women
 Middle
class women
Enjoyed more economic opportunities
Greater access to education
Affected by idea of “separate spheres”
 Working-class
Separated from families
Found jobs because more people could afford to hire them
Some or no improvement to status
New ideas about
 The
problems caused by the Industrial
Revolution caused many to look for
solutions. While some believed the
market would eventually fix the
problems, others believed there should be
a change in government.
Laissez-faire Economics
The idea that government
should not interfere with
business- “free to do”
 Adam Smith
 Wealth
of Nations
 Father of economics
 Promoted laissez-faire
capitalism (means of
production privately owned
for profit)
Smith argued that free market forces of supply
and demand would produce more goods at
lower prices
 It
would also encourage investors to invest money
in new ideas
Claimed that the “invisible hand” of capitalism
would lead individuals to work for their own
good and the good of the entire community
Thomas Malthus
 In
his 1798 Essay on the Principle of
Population, Malthus predicted that
population growth would outpace
food supply
 Warned that the poor would suffer
from starvation and that the only
option was to have fewer children
 His predictions didn’t come true: food
supply grew faster than the population
A system in which
the people as a
whole rather than
private individuals
own all property
and operate all
Socialists claimed
that industrial
capitalism had
made a large gap
between the rich
and the poor
Socialists cared
less about
ownership rights,
and more about the
interests of society
Utopian Socialism
Sought to create selfsufficient communities
where all property and
work would be shared,
and fighting would end
Robert Owen set up a
utopian community in
 Provided
housing fair
wages, education
Karl Marx and
Friedrich Engels
promoted “scientific
socialism” in their
work The
A form of socialism
that sees class struggle
between employers and
employees and
History was a class
struggle between the
bourgeoisie (wealthy
capitalists) and the
proletariat (working
The proletariat
would eventually
revolt and create
their own classless
 1917 revolt in
Russia set up the
first communist