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Regional Cassava Processing and Marketing Initiative

14-16 November 2007
Hotel Somatel - Douala, Cameroon
Cassava processing and marketing

Root and Tuber Expansion Programme (RTEP)
Federal Department of Agriculture
Cassava processing and marketing

RTEP Milestones
1995: RTEP formulated by FAO and appraised by WB;
2000 (December) : RTEP launched;
2001 (July) : RTEP declared loan effective;
2002 (June): RTEP became disbursement effective;
2003 (June): first deposit for project implementation.
 Objective RTEP: to address post-harvest losses, inappropriate
processing technologies and lack of marketing opportunities.
Cassava processing and marketing

Programme Components
1. Development of Root Crop Technologies
2. Multiplication of Improved Planting Material
3. Improved Adaptive Research and Extension
4. Diversification of Processing Options
5. Programme Management and Evaluation
Cassava production (development) is executed under the first three
Cassava processing and marketing

Development of R&T Crop Technologies
Activities implemented
Farming system surveys,
On-farm testing of alternative soil,
Fertility maintenance options,
Breeding and selection of new R&T varieties,
Pre-release testing of new cassava varieties,
Reinforcement of cassava pest biological control,
Conduct of a pest survey.
Cassava processing and marketing

Development of R&T Crop Technologies
 Breeding of new cassava varieties: done by NRCRI and IITA.
Exchange of germplasm to broaden genetic liability and enhance
incorporation of useful traits;
 A crossing block is established annually (for hand and open
pollinated seed production) for cassava flowering induction: best
performing local clones are included along with best performing
improved varieties.
 Overall target: to release 4-5 varieties every two years.
 Nominated genotypes undergo on station multi-locational testing for
two years under the Nationally Coordinated Research Project (NCRP)
followed by one-year on-farm multi-location testing of the most promising
 4-5 multi-location tests conducted every year to integrate farmers
reactions, before a technical sub-committee recommend the release of
improved varieties to the National Crop Varieties Registration and
Release Committee.
Cassava processing and marketing

 Each zonal OFAR team meets annually to plan, monitor and evaluate trials
and to formulate packages of production recommendations for the ADPs;
 OFAR is implemented in four stages:
 Diagnostic survey,
 Experimental trials,
 On-station and on-farm,
 Technology transfer to farmers.
 Each ADP runs an average 1-3 trails/annually across 10-30 farms to test new
cassava varieties, alternate crop arrangements, fertilizer/pesticides
 Mass adoption and promotion through the Small Plot Adoption Technique
(SPAT) on plots 10m x 10m.
 Farmers involved in planning, designing and evaluation of the trials.
Cassava processing and marketing

(ii) Multiplication of Improved Planting Materials
 Activities:
Multiplication of breed stock by NRCRI,
Foundation seed by RTEP-SMU,
Certification of seed by ADPs,
Training (of ADP zonal seed multiplication staff in rapid multiplication
techniques and multiplication plot management and of ADP Seed
Quality Control Officers in the release of diseases-free and true-totype varieties to farmers).
 Results:
 Adoption rate of improved varieties is 70%; new improved varieties
adopted ll over Nigeria;
 Production and productivity significantly increased.
Cassava processing and marketing

 Two strategies adopted to ensure adequate supply of planting materials:
 ADP farm direct operation and
 Out grower schemes (individual or through producer associations -CBSPA).
 The Outgrower Scheme: implemented under two arrangements:
(i) Individual farmers are selected by the ADPs which provides them planting
materials, fertilizers and quality control while the farmers will be responsible for
land preparation, weeding and harvesting. A memorandum of understanding
regulate relationship between farmer and ADP;
(ii) Community based planting material producer association (CBSPA): the
association is responsible for planting, fertilizer application and harvesting, while
the project will be responsible for land preparation, weeding/herbicide, fertilizers,
planting materials, technical trainings, provision of credit and quality control.
Also in this case, a memorandum of understanding regulate relationship
between CBSPAR and ADP.
Cassava processing and marketing

Performance of Outgrowers
 Performance of outgrowers:
 76% of total ha under foundation seed;
 52% of total bundles foundation stocks produced;
 8,730ha of certified seed stocks against 4,529ha of ADP farms.
 Problems of outgrowers
 Conflict between project’s needs and the farmers’ desire about
when to harvest;
 Outgrowers not really accessible to ordinary farmers;
 Some outgrowers preferred to reserve all cuttings for their own use;
 At times, farmers not aware about multiplication plots near them
where they could buy cuttings of improved planting material;
 Planting R&T materials are heavy, bulky, difficult to transport;
 Weak organization of the R&T market.
Cassava processing and marketing

Solution to Problems of Outgrowers Scheme
1) Incentive packages related to services such as:
Delivery of inputs (fertilizers);
2) More research efforts towards:
Improved varieties producing high returns to seasonal labour
than higher dry matter content;
Longer (3-6 months) cuttings storage.
3) Flexible arrangements for outgrowers:
Permission granted to use crop mixes on outgrowers’ fields. This is however
acceptable provided the seed superintendents and quality control officers
take the supervision of outgrowers seriously and that.only recommended
improved varieties are multiplied for sale to other farmers.
Cassava processing and marketing

4) Other Efforts
(i) Use of Farmer-to-Farmer Diffusion:
return to the use the use of SPATs as a means to encourage farmer-tofarmer distribution of existing varieties, by which farmers were given planting
materials of cassava, enough to plant a 10m x 10m farm plot; when the
crop matured the same quantity of cuttings was collected, and passed to
another farmer. They later used the rest to plant a larger area and possibly
gave some states to other farmers.
(ii) Expanded Privatization of Planting Materials Multiplication
ADPs need exploring other avenues of privatizing cassava multiplication
(such as NGOs, limited liability companies etc).
Cassava processing and marketing

Way forward
 Focus on community seed development programme (CSDP): use
more the private sector to produce Certified Seeds.
Main CSDP objectives
 Provide cheap though good alternative sources of improved
seed to farmers;
 Demonstrate massively the potential of improved seed over
and above the traditional or local sources;
 Generate employment opportunities;
 Hasten the rapid coverage of total land area with improved
 Enable farmers to appreciate the usefulness and the need to
adopt modern technologies in farming;
 Accelerate the pace of moving improved and bulky planting
materials to farmers;
 Increase geographic coverage of extension messages.
Cassava processing and marketing

(iii) Improved Adaptive Research & Extension
 The spread of improved cassava varieties and cultural
practices is carried out through improved adaptive
research and extension component.
 Activities implemented:
 Creation of On-farm Adaptive Research (OFAR) trials,
 Establishment of demonstration plots,
 Conduct of field days,
 Spread of extension messages through leaflets, radio,
village cinema, television,
 Training of farmers’ extension agents and research officers.
Cassava processing and marketing

 Each ADP follows the T&V system of extension. States are divided into zones,
blocks and then cells of between 1,000 to 1,500 households;
 The Village Extension Agent (VEA) is located at the cell and are supported at zonal
level by Subject Matter Specialist (SMS).
 Each cell is divided into eight sub-cells of 8-10 farmers (30% women). Each farmer
manages one SPAT and should pass on extension information to 10 surrounding
 Women-In-Agriculture (WIA) extension agents called Block Extension Agents
(BEAs) are found at the block level. These BEAs are responsible for setting up one
women’s group per cell. Each women’s group is supposed to host 5-6 SPATs;
 Field problems and production recommendations are reviewed and formulated
during Monthly Technology Review Meetings (MTRM) attended by scientists from
research institutes and universities, the ADP Subject Matter Specialists (SMSs),
adaptive research and extension and commercial services representatives;
 After each MTRM, the SMSs’ instruct the field level extension workers at
Fortnightly Training (FNT) sessions on extension messages to be transferred to
contact farmers;
 Problems encountered by farmers are fed through the system of FNTs and MTRMs
to be resolved by ADP SMSs or the research institutes;
 The VEAs carry out one or two field days in their cells each year for farmer to
evaluate the technologies which have been promoted on the SPATs;
 In each ADP the extension system is supported by radio and sometimes television
broadcasts, posters, pamphlets, and mobile video/cinema units.
Cassava processing and marketing

 Over 40 high yielding, disease free varieties released,
including some targeting specifically end-products such as:
starch, flour, etc;
 Contained the incidence of mealbug and green spider
mites that negatively affected cassava production in the
 Within a decade productivities increased from 5 to 15
tonnes/ha and production from 10 to 49 million metric tonnes.
Cassava processing and marketing

Challenges and Opportunities
 Low prices of roots and its end-products;
 Inadequate extension service to transfer new
technologies to farmers.
 Poor agronomic practices applied by farmers;
 Limited input availability and high cost, which both
limit adoption of improved technologies.
Opportunities: Government policies on:
Flour import substitution; and
Renewable energy (use of ethanol from cassava
as fuel for vehicles).
Cassava processing and marketing

Thank you !!
Cassava processing and marketing