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Objective Assessment of the Ankle and Foot
1. Informal Observation:
 Physical behaviour
 Illness behaviour
2. Formal Observation:




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

Foot index pattern
i.
Pronation/Supination
ii.
Inversion/Eversion
iii.
Thickness of Achilles
iv.
Ability to weight bear
Symmetry
i. Bony landmarks
ii. Skin Creases
iii. Lateral Shift
Muscle Bulk
i. Wasting,
ii. Spasm
Posture
i. Lordosis
ii. Kyphosis
iii. Scoliosis
Skin Colour
i. Health
ii. Scaring- healing or infection
iii. bruising
Functional Demonstration:
Gait
i. Stride length,
ii. Willingness to weight bear
iii. Muscle function
 Active Range of Motion (AROM)- Supine half lying
Apply over pressure if no pain on active

DorsiFlexion

Plantarflexion



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Inversion

Eversion

PROM- Prone

Passive physiological
o IV
o EV
o PF
o DF

Passive accessory movements- only if limited active and
passive range of motion- or if not highly irritable.
o P-A Glide of the calcaneus (PF)
 P-A force is applied to the calcaneus whilst a A-P
force is applied to the talus/tibia.
o A-P Glide of the tibia (DF)
 A-P force is applies to the tibia whilst a P-A pressure
stabilises the back of the patient’s leg.
o Anterior Tibiofibular joint (lateral/medial malleolus
AP-PA glide)
 A-P= heel of the left hand applies P-A force to tibia
whilst right hand applies A-P force to fib.

P-A= heel of right hand applies to A-P force to tibia
whilst the left applies P-A force to fib
o Medial/Lateral Rotation of the tib/fib- hands both
around the subtalar joint.
o ADD/ABD CALCANEOUS- One hand stabilises while the
other and applies a pronation or supination of the foot in
different areas.
 midfoot/distal/proximal
o A-P-P-A Toes
 One hand stabilises the foot and each tarsal whilst
the other applies an anterior or posterior glide of
the toes.

Muscle Length tests
o Gastrocnemius

Isometric Test
i.
DF
ii.
PF
iii.
IV
iv.
EV

Palpation
o Tib ant
o Tarsal Tunnel (nerve runs through)
o Gastroc belly
o Plantar fascia insertion

Special test
o Thompsons test (rupture of the achillies)
o Anterior draw (all the lateral ligaments of the ankle)
o Talar tilt (rupture of the calcanofibular ligament)