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“Artificial intelligence (AI)
may be defined as the
branch of computer science
that is concerned with the
automation of intelligent
- Luger
Siti Zaiton Mohd Hashim, Phd
What is artificial intelligence
History of AI
What is computational intelligence
What does
“artificial” intelligence mean?
Programming a computer to successfully
perform tasks that are thought to require
Playing chess
„ Proving theorems
„ Translating Malay into English
„ Walking across a room
„ Recognizing a familiar face
„ Understanding directions
Ali always scores 100% in all
his tests. He is ________ boy.
A. a clever
B. an intelligent
C. a lucky
Other possible AI definitions
• AI is a collection of hard problems which can be solved by
humans and other living things, but for which we don’t
have good algorithms for solving.
– e. g., understanding spoken natural language, medical
diagnosis, learning, self-adaptation, reasoning, chess
playing, proving math theories, etc.
• Other Definition : a program that
– Acts like human (Turing test)
– Thinks like human (human-like patterns of thinking
– Acts or thinks rationally (logically, correctly)
• Some problems used to be thought of as AI but are now
considered not.
What is Artificial Intelligence?
„ The
use of computer programs and programming
techniques to cast light on the principles of
intelligence in general and human thought in
particular (Boden)
„ The study of intelligence independent of its
embodiment in humans, animals or machines
„ The pursuit of metaphysics by other means
(Longuet-Higgins) -it can be identified as the study of any of the
most fundamental concepts and beliefs about the basic nature of reality
„ AI
is the study of how to do things which at the
moment people do better (Rich & Knight)
„ AI is the science of making machines do things
that would require intelligence if done by men.
History of AI
Definition: Computational Intelligence
A methodology involving computing that exhibits an
ability to learn and/or to deal with new situations, such
that the system is perceived to possess one or more
attributes of reason, such as generalization, discovery,
association and abstraction (Russel et al, 1998).
Scope of CI
practical adaptation concepts, paradigms,
algorithms and implementations that enable or
facilitate appropriate actions (intelligent behavior)
in complex and changing environments.
CI in Computer Science
A universally accepted definition of CI is hard to
There is a broad consensus CI in Computer
Science: Fuzzy, Neuro and Evolutionary
computing also DNN computing.
Good candidates for CI
•Fuzzy, imprecise or imperfect data
•No available mathematical algorithm
•Optimal solution unknown
•Rapid prototyping required
•Only domain experts available
•Robust system required
More recently:
• DNA Computing
• Quantum Computing
Recent Developments
The Importance of CI
Solve the problems in realistic situation ( not ideal) such
as fuzzy, imperfect or incomplete, only domain experts
Complementary approaches with mathematical based
algorithm solutions
Encourage new technology development especially in
Quantum and DNA computing.
CI : Techniques & Applications
Genetic Algorithm
Neural Network
Fuzzy Logic
Rough Set
Case-based Reasoning
Hidden Marcov Model
Support Vector Machine
Hybrid Algorithm
Modelling and Simulation
Pattern Recognition
Data Mining
Class Group Presentation
„ Address
„ Explore literatures
„ Discuss works and finding
„ Write a paper and
„ present it (formal way)