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Ancient Greece … Ancient Rome
Name: _______________________________________________________
Homework: Ancient Greece … Ancient Rome
DUE: MON. 21 OCT 2013
Global History 2 H
- located in Southeastern Europe
- land mountainous
- surrounded by Mediterranean Sea ... south
- birthplace of "democracy"
- when people participate in government
... ruling themselves
... or giving their consent to be ruled by others
- 1200 BC
- people start inhabiting northern Greece
- Greek mythology
- polytheistic
- Gods are "immortal" ... control all parts of nature
- "city-state"
a walled city and its surrounding villages and land
- many start out as "oligarchies"
- government run by a few
- known for military ... warriors
- Spartan male was a life of discipline, self-denial,
and simplicity
- allows for "orderly" society
- "birthplace" of democracy
- DIRECT democracy
- people "themselves" run the government
- direct participation
- restricted to males who were citizens
- seen as privilege & duty
- people could be shunned ... kicked out of area - 10 years
- Pericles .... 460 BC
- great speaker ... orator ...
- persuasive
- "pro" citizen & almost mandatory participation
in democracy
"Classical Age"
- time of great cultural achievement
- architecture:
- Parthenon .... on top of the Acropolis
- sculpture - literature
- Socrates
- philosopher
- examine why world is the way it is
- hypothesis
... statement
Ancient Greece … Ancient Rome
- prove ... or disprove
- via series of questions
- wrote "the Republic"
- ideal state has "3 classes"
- government should be ruled by "philosopher-kings"
- trained to rule
- protected (security) by military
- economic survival controlled by merchants
- develop "HELLENIC" (Greek Empire)
- 338 BC Philip V unites all Greek city-states under him
- Alexander the Great succeeds him
- develops GREEK / Hellenic Empire
- from Greece ... Egypt ... India
+ spreads Greek culture
- library developed in Alexandria, Egypt
- Jewish Torah translated & thus preserved
- vowels added to Phoenician alphabet
215 BC ... Rome begins to threaten Greece
149 BC ... Rome conquers Greece
- will adapt Greek culture
- located on Peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea
- has "some" fertile land
- settled 800 BC ... by Etruscans
- early government
- monarchy
- had "imperial" / "royal" power
- term "Emperor" comes from it
- Senate
- had to agree to what monarch wanted
- served as a "check" on monarch's power
- Assembly
- people vote for the leader
500 BC - middle period of government
- Patricians
- upper class ... "aristocracy"
- rich folks, land owners, merchants
- able to sit in Senate
- censors ... tax collectors
- Plebians
- lower class ... but make up the majority
- farmers, do work by hand
- FORCE Patricians to "write down" the laws
... called "the Twelve Tables"
... all people know the rules ... brings order
+ similar to "Code of Hammurabi"
- Government itself
Ancient Greece … Ancient Rome
- Representative Democracy
- people elect others to run the government for them
... give their consent
...... people debate & vote on possible rules & laws
- Consuls - 2 Patricians ... lead the Government
- Senate - Patricians
- Assembly - Patricians
- Roman Empire expands
- 100 BC
Julius Caesar
- Roman military general
- "Veni, Vidi, Vici" ... I came, I saw, I conquered
+ Mediterranean Sea becomes a "Roman Lake"
- Roman Empire controls all of the land bordering this Sea
- this includes Palestine: Bethlehem & Jerusalem
- killed off .... Shakespeare ... "Beware the Ides of March"
- 27 BC Caesar Augustus rules Rome
- 200 years of Roman Peace
- known as "PAX ROMANA"
- Roman culture spreads throughout Europe & Mediterranean
- Greek culture blended into Roman world
- sculpture, architecture
- example of "cultural diffusion"
- Romans build:
- roads ... to control & unite the Empire
- Aqueducts ... to bring water
- sewer system
- Colosseum ... used for sports
- 14 AD Caesar Augustus dies
- monarchs who follow him are corrupt, & or mentally ill
- Nero .... Nero fiddled as Rome burned
- 313 AD ... Roman Emperor Constantine the Great
- adopts Christianity as the "official" Roman religion
- Christians HAD been persecuted
... just like Jews
- Christianity now spreads quickly
throughout Europe
- 400 AD
- beginning of DECLINE
of Roman Empire
- Roman Empire being attacked by Germanic tribes
- people who didn't have any culture
- Roman Army also being watered down
... people from conquered lands could belong ... lack loyalty
- Roman water pipes made from lead - - -> poisoning
of people
- Roman leadership ... poor
476 AD
Ancient Greece … Ancient Rome
- End of Roman Empire
- Rome splits
- Byzantium
- - -> Byzantine Empire
..... preserves Roman culture &
- western Rome ... enters the Middle Ages
1. An important factor that prevented the ancient Greek city-states from uniting to form a single
nation was the
(1) lack of a common language
(3) size of the desert regions
(2) mountainous topography of the region
(4) cold, hostile climate
Which heading best completes the partial outline below?
I. ________________________________
A. Established a direct but limited democracy
B. Stressed the importance of the individual
C. Considered the political ideas of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
D. Encouraged all citizens to participate in government
(1) Political Developments of the City-State of Athens
(2) Effects of the Roman Empire on Economic Development
(3) Influence of Belief Systems on Byzantine Society
(4) Achievements of the Age of Enlightenment
3. The Ancient Greek city-state of Sparta
1. was primarily concerned with the health of their people
2. was a powerful military state
3. marked a Golden Age of Greek architecture and literature
4. granted universal suffrage to their people
5. placed great emphasis on literature and the arts
4. Alexander the Great’s conquests of Greece, Asia Minor, Egypt, and Persia led to the
1. spread of Hellenic culture
2. adoption of a feudal system
3. establishment of representative democracy
4. spread of Islamic culture throughout Europe
5. isolated Athens and Sparta from the modern world
5. All citizens in ancient Athens had the right to attend the Assembly, where they could meet
in open discussion and cast votes. This situation is an example of
1. direct democracy
2. totalitarianism
3. representative democracy
4. absolutism
5. Monotheism
6. The ancient Athenians are credited with
1. inventing and using the wheel.
2. establishing governments that had democratic elements.
3. eliminating slavery.
4. inventing the printing press.
Ancient Greece … Ancient Rome
7. A direct democracy is one in which
1. religious holy books such as the Koran form the basis for civil law.
2. the ruler receives his power to rule directly from God.
3. the people elect others to rule for themselves.
4. the people are directly engaged in the day-to-day workings of the government.
8. A representative democracy is one in which
1. religious holy books such as the Koran form the basis for civil law.
2. the ruler receives his power to rule directly from God.
3. leaders rule with the consent of the people.
4. the people are directly engaged in the day to day workings of the government.
“Let me say that our system of government does not copy the institutions of our neighbors. It is more
the case of our being a model to others than of our imitating anyone else. Our constitution is called
a democracy because power is in the hands, not of a minority, but of the whole people.”
9. Which early society is most likely described in this quotation?
1. Spartan
2. Babylonian
3. Athenian
4. Egyptian
5. Phoenician
10. The Golden Age of Greece was characterized mainly by
1. religious revival.
2. economic decline.
3. tyrannical governments
4. social reform and economic upheaval.
5. artistic and literary achievements.
11. Which theme is most heavily emphasized in the writings of Plato, Machiavelli, and John Locke?
1. the economic interpretation of history.
2. the nature and purpose of government.
3. the elimination of all political opposition.
4. the benefits of invading other nations.
12. Which point of view best represents the philosophy of the Renaissance?
1. The Greek and Roman civilizations are worthy of study.
2. Class distinctions in society should be abolished.
3. Religious doctrines are the only subject of value.
4. The glorification of human beings is sinful.
13. One way in which the writers of the Renaissance were influenced by the writers of ancient Greece
was that the Renaissance writers
1. promoted the religious doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church
2. showed little interest in secular affairs
3. produced few new scientific ideas
4. stressed the power of human reason
14. The ideals developed in the Athens of Pericles and in Republican Rome influenced the development
(1) a parliament in Britain
(3) military juntas in Latin America
(2) a communist government in China
(4) a theocracy in Iran
Ancient Greece … Ancient Rome
15. One way in which the Code of Hammurabi, the Ten Commandments, and the Twelve Tables, were
similar is that they
(1) emphasized social equality
(3) provided a written set of laws
(2) established democratic governments
(4) proposed economic goals
16. The ideals developed in the Athens of Pericles and in Republican Rome influenced the development of
(1) absolute monarchy
(2) democracy
(3) monotheism
(4) polytheism
17. A similarity of the rule of the Persians, ancient Greeks, and the Romans is that they
1. protected the human rights of the peoples they controlled
2. destroyed the civilizations they defeated
3. remained isolated and peaceful for centuries
4. established vast empires and spread their cultures
18. A similarity of the rule of the Persians, ancient Greeks, and the Romans is that they
1. protected the human rights of the peoples they controlled
2. destroyed the civilizations they defeated
3. remained isolated and peaceful for centuries
4. established vast empires and spread their cultures
19. Which geographic characteristic is shared by both Greece and Rome?
(1) vast deserts
(3) Mediterranean coastline
(2) tropical rain forests
(4) abundant mineral resources
20. A major contribution of the Roman Empire to Western society was the development of
1. an effective legal system
3. monotheism
2. gunpowder
4. ostracism
5. the principles of revolutionary socialism
21. What did the Romans blend into their culture?
1. Greek art and philosophy
2. French cuisine (food) and literature
3. Islamic religion and architecture
4. Chinese government and literature
22. Buildings such as the Parthenon in ancient Greece, Persepolis in Persia, the Pyramids in Giza, Egypt,
the Coliseum in ancient Rome, and the Gothic cathedrals in western Europe and reflect each society's
1. belief in democracy
3. imperialist attitudes
2. cultural values
4. rigid social structure
5. agricultural harvest
23. One way in which Pax Romana and Pax Mongolia are similar is that both were characterized by
(1) political stability
(3) representative forms of government
(2) unifying religious institutions
(4) social equality for men and women
[REGENTS: January 2009]
24. The Twelve Tables were the written laws of
(1) ancient Babylonia
(3) the British Empire
(2) the Mauryan Empire
(4) ancient Rome
[REGENTS: January 2009]
25. A geographic similarity between Italy and India is that both of these countries are located
(1) on peninsulas
(2) on archipelagos
(3) between two oceans
(4) south of the equator
[REGENTS: January 2010]