The Universe: Secrets of the Sun (History Channel production) 1. The Sun is a type of star called a __________________________________; although it is small for a star, you could fit ____________________ Earth’s inside the Sun. 2. Early astronomers thought the Sun generated heat by: The problem with this idea was that: 3. In the 1920’s, scientists discovered that the Sun is powered by ___________________________. This occurs under what conditions: 4. The material in the Sun is not considered a gas; it is called a ________________________. 5. The fusion of two hydrogen atoms produces helium particles with extra mass; this mass is given off as __________________________. 6. Particles of light and heat are called _________________________; once they leave the Sun’s surface they take ________________ to reach Earth. 7. The Sun originated from the “ashes” of an explosion called a _____________________________. Evidence for this are ____________________________________________ that could only be produced under such conditions. 8. Why do they reference “Goldilocks” when considering Earth’s distance from Sun? 9. Earth’s distance from the Sun is ___________________________ miles. 10. The Sun’s violent outbursts are driven by ____________________________. 11. The Sun’s plasma doesn’t rotate at the same speed from equator to pole. This is called ___________________________________________________ 12. The magnetic field structure of the Sun is marked by ____________________________________. 13. Where the Sun’s magnetic field is at its most twisted and complex, we see ___________________ ; when these release their energy, they produce explosions called ___________________________. The energy from these events can be directed inward to produce a __________________________. 14. What is a CME? __________________________________________________; the speed of this superheated radioactive plasma leaving the Sun is _____________________ meters per second. These storms will reach Earth in _______ hours. 15. What protects us from solar flares?____________________________________________________ 16. How can power operators prepare for a storm? 17. What is the “kill zone?” 18. Aurora’s work like ___________ signs. ____________ produces green colors; ___________ produces pinks and blues. 19. What could happen in a “perfect solar storm?” 20. A perfect solar storm is more like to happen during the solar maximum that occurs every ____ years; it is at this time that the Sun’s magnetic field ____________________________________. The last solar maximum was in _____________. 21. The outer atmosphere of the Sun is called the _________________________ and has the ____________ temperatures. The reason is that layer underneath is boiling with _______________ cells the size of Texas. The motion of these cells produces ______________________ energy which super-heats the atmosphere. 22. The only time you can see the corona is during a ______________________________________. This occurs when the ________________ blocks Earth’s view of Sun. This happens only rarely because the orbit of the Moon around the Earth is tilted at ___________ degrees. This occurs once every _______________________________________. 23. The Sun has a fixed amount of fuel. At it’s current rate of use, it will run out in _____________ years. 24. Why will the sun NOT erupt in a supernova? 25. What will happen to the Sun?