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CHAPTER 2
EXPLORING THE
AMERICAS
Section 1
A Changing World
VOCAB.


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Classical
Technology
Astrolabe
Pilgrimage
Mosque
Quran
Acquire
Impose
NEW IDEAS AND NATIONS

Crusades



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1095 Expedition by European Christians
Regain control of holy sites from Muslims
Brought Europeans into Contact with Middle
East
Merchants sold goods from Asia to Europeans

Spices, sugar, silk, and others
Growth of Trade

European traders interested in Asian
goods


Bought goods from Arab traders in Middle
East
Sent back to major European cities



Venice, Genoa, and Pisa
Arab merchants charged high prices on goods
Europeans began looking for route to the
East to bypass the Arab merchants
Growth of Ideas

Age of Enlightenment



Began studying classical work


In the 1300s new wealth from trade
Europeans wanted to improve knowledge
Ancient Greek and Roman philosophies
New experimental approach to science



Rationalism
Scientific Revolution
Investigated nature of the world and universe
Renaissance

Period of Intellectual and Artistic activity



“rebirth” in French
Renewed interest in Greek and Roman learning
Changed the way Europeans thought about
themselves and the world
Nation States

Development of kingdoms in 1400s



Monarchs came to power
Formed national laws, courts, taxes, and
militaries
Enhanced trade and overseas exploration
Impact of Technology

Technology

Enhanced European exploration
Better Maps and Instruments
 Better Ships


Printing press increased book production and
communication
African Kingdoms

Flourished from 400 to 1600



Gold, copper, and iron ore mines
Trade with Islamic societies in North Africa
Ghana – African Trade Center


West Africa between salt and gold mines
Prospered from 400 to 1100
African Kingdoms (cont.)

Mali – A Powerful Kingdom


North Africa
Mansa Musa
1324 Pilgrimage to Mecca
 Returned to Mali with Arab architect to build great
Mosques


Songhai


Built navy to control Niger River
Captured Timbuktu from Mali in 1468
Chapter 2
Section 2
Early Exploration
Vocab.

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Saga
Line of demarcation
Strait
Circumnavigate
Devote
Alter
Seeking New Trade Routes

Early explorers


Unaware of Americas
Assumed only one large land mass


Europe, Africa, and Asia
Maps used did not include the Americas
Early Portuguese Voyages

Henry the Navigator



Sailed up and down African Gold Coast



1420 – promoted explorations
Sarges – center for exploration
Trading posts
Bought slaves
1480s – King John urges exploration
further south
Bartholomeu Dias

Sent by King John to reach Asia


Sailed south around the tip of Africa



Two caravels and a supply ship
Forced off route by storm
Returned back home
Cape Of Good Hope


Southern tip of Africa
Named by King John of Portugal
Vasco da Gama


First Portuguese to land in India
July 1497 – set out with four ships



Sailed around the cape and up the east coast
of Africa
Made many stops on the eastern coast
Landed in Calicut India in May 1498
Portuguese Trading Empire

13 Ships sent East 6 months after Gama’s
return to Portugal




Returned with Asian goods
Repeated the journey annually (yearly)
Established permanent forts in India
Trade success made the Portuguese
capitol, Lisbon, the European trade center.
Columbus Crosses the Atlantic

Christopher Columbus



Born in Italy
Sailed for Portugal
Planned to reach Asia by sailing West around
the unexplored world
The Viking Voyages

Vikings


First Europeans to sail to North America
800s and 900s visited Iceland and Greenland
Made Settlements
 Norse Sagas tell of exploration of land west of
Greenland called the “Vinland”
 Historians believe this to be North America

Spain Backs Columbus


Spain interested in trade success
Queen Isabella decides to sponsor
Columbus on his journeys west


Columbus promises to spread Christianity
Open a trade route to Asia to make Spain rich
Columbus’s First Voyage

August 3, 1492




Set out from Palos, Spain
Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria
Headed West across the unknown Atlantic
Ocean
After a month at sea crew worried

Determined to make it to India
“Tierra! Tierra!”

October 12, 1492


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Thought it was East Indies

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
Columbus’s fleet meets land
Columbus claims San Salvador for Spain
Actually the Caribbean Islands
Found natives he called “Indians”
Returns to Spain, and the king and queen
agree to sponsor future voyages.
Dividing the World

Spain and Portugal lead world in
Exploration


Turned to Pope Alexander VI to protect claims
Line of Demarcation –
Divided the unexplored world between Spain and
Portugal
 Later moved further west to make the land control
more equal

Exploring America

Amerigo Vespucci


1502 – sailed along coast of South America
Determined that it was not part of Asia


Decided it was a continent by itself
Geographers called it America
Sailing Around the World

Ferdinand Magellan


Portuguese man that sailed for Spain
Sailed around the southern tip of South
America
Named the ocean the Pacific
 “Pacifico” – peaceful in Spanish


Crew sailed all the way to Spain 1522

First to circumnavigate the world
Chapter 2
Section 3
Spain in America
Vocab.


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Conquistador
Pueblo
Mission
Encomienda
Plantation
Grant
Found
Explorers and Conquest
●
Conquistadors
−
−
Received grants from Spanish rulers
Explored and established settlements in the
Americas
Cortes Conquers the Aztec
●
Hernan Cortes
−
−
●
Landed in Mexico in 1519 with 500 soldiers
Made alliances with Aztec enemies
Montezuma
−
−
−
−
Aztec Emperor
Welcomed Cortes at first
Taken prisoner by Spanish
Aztec rebelled in 1520 and Montezuma was
killed
Pizarro Conquers the Inca
●
Francisco Pizarro
−
−
●
Atahualpa
−
−
−
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Sailed Pacific (West) Coast of South America
1523: captured Inca ruler with 180 soldiers and
destroyed most of the Inca military
Inca leader
Falsely accused of crimes and executed by
Spanish
Inca unable to fight without leader
Pizarro gained control of the Empire
Why Spain Succeeded
●
Weapons and Animals
−
−
●
Other Natives in the Areas
−
−
●
Guns and Cannons
Horses and dogs
Disliked Aztec and Inca
Assisted Spanish
Disease
−
Natives had no immunity to European illness
Spain in North America
●
Juan Ponce De Leon
−
−
−
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First Spanish landing in North America
East coast of Florida in 1513
Hoped to find “Fountain of Youth”
St. Augustine
−
−
Settled 1565 in modern Florida
First Spanish settlement in North America
The Seven Cities of Cibola
●
Mythical empire of great riches
−
−
Rumored to exist in the southern part of
North America
Many European explorers searched but never
found
Hernando de Soto
− Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
−
Spanish Rule
●
3 kinds of settlements
−
−
−
Pueblos: towns
Missions: religious communities
Presidios: military fort
Social Classes
Peninsulares
Born in Spain
Owned Land
Served the Church/Ran Local Govt.
Creoles
Born in Americas to Spanish Parents
Mestizos
People with Spanish and Native American parents
Native Americans
Lived in Great Poverty
African Slaves
Only class below Native Americans
Social Classes (cont.)
●
Encomienda System
−
−
−
Granted by Spanish government
Right to demand labor and taxes from natives
Led to formation of plantations
Plantation System
●
●
●
Large profits for Spanish from exporting
crops
Used natives to work the fields
Bartolome de Las Casas
−
−
Spanish priest
Suggested using African Slaves rather than
Native Americans as slaves
Chapter 2
Section 4
Exploring North America
Vocab

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Mercantilism
Columbian exchange
Northwest passage
Coureur de bois
Globe
Chart
A Divided Church
●
Martin Luther
−
−
●
German Priest
1517: Nailed list of complaints about Catholic
Church on church door
Protestant Reformation
−
−
−
Religious movement
Followers broke away from Catholic Church
Rejected church practices
Protestantism Spreads in Europe
●
King Henry VIII
−
−
●
Left catholic church
Denied authority of pope
Church of England
−
−
Formed in 1534
Headed by King Henry VIII
Religious Rivalries in the Americas
●
Religious divisions spread to America
−
Catholics: Spanish and French
•
−
Worked to spread their faith to natives
Protestants: Dutch and English
•
Established colonies to practice beliefs in peace
10/7/2011

Make sure you have your study guide and
an AR book with you.
For the next 5 minutes, QUIETLY get out
your study guide and review for the test.
Economic Rivalries
●
Mercantilism
−
−
Theory that a nation’s power is based on its
wealth
Encouraged settlement of North America
•
•
–
Resources
Trade
Increased rivalry between nations
The Columbian Exchange
●
Two halves of the world brought together
for the first time
–
–
–
•
Plants
Animals
Diseases/Illness
Both Hemispheres greatly affected
A Northwest Passage
●
●
Europeans hoped to find a direct water route to
Asia through the Americas
John Cabot
−
−
●
Sent by England in 1497
Landed in modern Newfoundland
Jacques Cartier
−
−
−
French explorer who sailed up the St. Lawrence River
in 1535
Finally reached what is now Montreal
Never found sea passage to Asia
Hudson's Discoveries
●
Henry Hudson
−
−
−
English sailor
1609: discovered and sailed the Hudson river
to what is now Albany
1610: found the Hudson Bay
•
•
•
Thought he was in the Pacific
Crew became unhappy and rebelled
Hudson sent off in a small boat
French Trading Posts
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●
French uninterested in permanent
settlement of North America
Only wanted resources for trade
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−
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Fishing
Animal Fur
Settled Quebec and spread to other areas
of Canada
Dutch Settlements
●
Settle the North East
−
−
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Fort Orange (now Albany) on the Hudson
River
Fort Nassau (near Philadelphia)
Governor Peter Minuit
−
−
−
1626: traded with Manhates people for
Manhattan Island
60 Dutch guilders (about $24)
Today New York City