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Nationalism Triumphs in Europe
The Price of Nationalism
The last half of the 1800s can be called the Age of Nationalism. By harnessing national feeling,
European leaders fought ruthlessly to create strong, unified nations. Under Otto von
Bismarck, Germany emerged as Europe's most powerful empire—but at a considerable
cost. In his 1870 diary, Crown Prince Friedrich wrote:
“[Germany had
once been admired as a] nation of thinkers and philosophers, poets and artists,
idealists and enthusiasts ... [but now the world saw Germany as] a nation of conquerors and
destroyers, to which no pledged word, no treaty, is sacred.... We are neither loved nor
respected, but only feared.”
Listen to the Witness History audio to learn more about nationalism.
Helmet from the Franco-Prussian war era
Otto von Bismarck (center), chancellor of Germany, meets with European and Turkish leaders at the Congress of
Chapter Preview
Chapter Focus Question What effects did nationalism and the demand for reform have in
Flag of Italy, 1833
Section 1
Building a German Nation
Section 2
Germany Strengthens
Section 3
Unifying Italy
Section 4
Nationalism Threatens Old Empires
Section 5
Russia: Reform and Reaction
Soviet stamp commemorating the Decembrist Revolt
Note Taking Study Guide Online
For: Note Taking and Concept Connector worksheets Web Code: nbd-2201
Blood and Iron
Prussian legislators waited restlessly for Otto von Bismarck to speak. He wanted them to vote
for more money to build up the army. Liberal members opposed the move. Bismarck rose
and dismissed their concerns:
“Germany does
not look to Prussia's liberalism, but to her power.... The great questions of the
day are not to be decided by speeches and majority resolutions—that was the mistake of
1848 and 1849—but by blood and iron!"
von Bismarck, 1862
Focus Question How did Otto von Bismarck, the chancellor of Prussia, lead the drive for
German unity?
Building a German Nation
- Identify several
- Explain
events that promoted German unity during the early 1800s.
how Bismarck unified Germany.
- Analyze the
basic political organization of the new German empire.
Terms, People, and Places
Otto von Bismarck
Note Taking
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence Keep track of the sequence of events that led to German
unification by completing a chart like the one below. Add more boxes as needed.
Otto von Bismarck delivered his "blood and iron" speech in 1862. It set the tone for his future
policies. Bismarck was determined to build a strong, unified German state, with Prussia at
its head.
Taking Initial Steps Toward Unity
In the early 1800s, German-speaking people lived in a number of small and medium-sized
states as well as in Prussia and the Austrian Hapsburg empire. Napoleon's invasions
unleashed new forces in these territories.
Napoleon Raids German Lands Between 1806 and 1812, Napoleon made important territorial
changes in German-speaking lands. He annexed lands along the Rhine River for France.
He dissolved the Holy Roman Empire by forcing the emperor of Austria to agree to the
lesser title of king. He also organized a number of German states into the Rhine
At first, some Germans welcomed the French emperor as a hero with enlightened, modern
policies. He encouraged freeing the serfs, made trade easier, and abolished laws against
Jews. However, not all Germans appreciated Napoleon and his changes. As people fought
to free their lands from French rule, they began to demand a unified German state.
Napoleon's defeat did not resolve the issue. At the Congress of Vienna, Metternich pointed out
that a united Germany would require dismantling the government of each German state.
Instead, the peacemakers created the German Confederation, a weak alliance headed by
Economic Changes Promote Unity In the 1830s, Prussia created an economic union called the
Zollverein (TSAWL fur yn). It dismantled tariff barriers between many German states.
Still, Germany remained politically fragmented.
In 1848, liberals meeting in the Frankfurt Assembly again demanded German political unity.
They offered the throne of a united German state to Frederick William IV of Prussia. The
Prussian ruler, however, rejected the notion of a throne offered by "the people."
Checkpoint What was the German Confederation?
Bismarck Unites Germany
Otto von Bismarck succeeded where others had failed. Bismarck came from Prussia's Junker
(YOONG kur) class, made up of conservative landowning nobles. Bismarck first served
Prussia as a diplomat in Russia and France. In 1862, King William I made him prime
minister. Within a decade, the new prime minister had become chancellor, or the highest
official of a monarch, and had used his policy of "blood and iron" to unite the German
states under Prussian rule.
Map Skills In the early 1800s, people living in German-speaking states had local loyalties. By
the mid-1800s, however, they were developing a national identity.
1. Locate: (a) Prussia (b) Silesia (c) Bavaria (d) Schleswig
2. Region What area did Prussia adc to its territory in 1866?
3. Analyzing Information Why do you think Austrian influence was greater among the
southern German states than among the northern ones?
Master of Realpolitik Bismarck's success was due in part to his strong will. He was a master
of Realpolitik (ray AHL poh lee teek), or realistic politics based on the needs of the state.
In the case of Realpolitik, power was more important than principles.
Although Bismarck was the architect of German unity, he was not really a German nationalist.
His primary loyalty was to the Hohenzollerns (hoh un TSAWL urnz), the ruling dynasty of
Prussia, who represented a powerful, traditional monarchy. Through unification, he hoped
to bring more power to the Hohenzollerns.
Strengthening the Army As Prussia's prime minister, Bismarck first moved to build up the
Prussian army. Despite his "blood and iron" speech, the liberal legislature refused to vote
for funds for the military. In response, Bismarck strengthened the army with money that
had been collected for other purposes. With a powerful, well-equipped military, he was
then ready to pursue an aggressive foreign policy. Over the next decade, Bismarck led
Prussia into three wars. Each war increased Prussian prestige and power and paved the way
for German unity.
Prussia Declares War With Denmark and Austria Bismarck's first maneuver was to form an
alliance in 1864 with Austria. Prussia and Austria then seized the provinces of Schleswig
and Holstein from Denmark. After a brief war, Prussia and Austria "liberated" the two
provinces and divided up the spoils. Austria was to administer Holstein and Prussia was to
administer Schleswig.
In 1866, Bismarck invented an excuse to attack Austria. The Austro-Prussian War lasted just
seven weeks and ended in a decisive Prussian victory. Prussia then annexed, or took
control of, several other north German states.
Bismarck dissolved the Austrian-led German Confederation and created a new confederation
dominated by Prussia. Austria and four other southern German states remained
independent. Bismarck's motives, as always, were strictly practical. Attempting to conquer
Austria might have meant a long and risky war for Prussia.
War and Power
In 1866, Field Marshal Helmuth von Moltke analyzed the importance of Prussia's war against
Austria. Why, according to von Moltke, did Prussia go to war against Austria?
Primary Source
war of 1866 was entered on not because the existence of Prussia was threatened, nor was
it caused by public opinion and the voice of the people; it was a struggle, long foreseen and
calmly prepared for, recognized as a necessity by the Cabinet, not for territorial expansion,
for an extension of our domain, or for material advantage, but for an ideal end—the
establishment of power. Not a foot of land was exacted from Austria.... Its center of gravity
lay out of Germany; Prussia's lay within it. Prussia felt itself called upon and strong enough
to assume the leadership of the German races.”
Austro-Prussian War painting (above) and a medal of victory (left)
France Declares War on Prussia In France, the Prussian victory over Austria angered
Napoleon III. A growing rivalry between the two nations led to the Franco-Prussian War of
Germans recalled only too well the invasions of Napoleon I some 60 years earlier. Bismarck
played up the image of the French menace to spur German nationalism. For his part,
Napoleon III did little to avoid war, hoping to mask problems at home with military glory.
Bismarck furthered the crisis by rewriting and then releasing to the press a telegram that
reported on a meeting between King William I and the French ambassador. Bismarck's
editing of the "Ems dispatch" made it seem that William I had insulted the Frenchman.
Furious, Napoleon III declared war on Prussia, as Bismarck had hoped.
A superior Prussian force, supported by troops from other German states, smashed the badly
organized and poorly supplied French soldiers. Napoleon III, old and ill, surrendered
within a few weeks. France had to accept a humiliating peace.
Checkpoint What techniques did Bismarck use to unify the German states?
Birth of the German Empire
Delighted by the victory over France, princes from the southern German states and the North
German Confederation persuaded William I of Prussia to take the title kaiser (KY zur), or
emperor. In January 1871, German nationalists celebrated the birth of the Second Reich, or
empire. They called it that because they considered it heir to the Holy Roman Empire.
A constitution drafted by Bismarck set up a two-house legislature. The Bundesrat (BOON dus
raht), or upper house, was appointed by the rulers of the German states. The Reichstag
(RYKS tahg), or lower house, was elected by universal male suffrage. Because the
Bundesrat could veto any decisions of the Reichstag, real power remained in the hands of
the emperor and his chancellor.
Checkpoint How was the new German government, drafted by Bismarck, structured?
Vocabulary Builder
edit—(ED it) v. to make additions, deletions, or other changes to a piece of writing
SECTION 1 Assessment
Progress Monitoring Online
For: Self-quiz with vocabulary practice Web Code: nba-2211
Terms, People, and Places
1. For each term, person, or place listed at the beginning of the section, write a sentence
explaining its significance.
Note Taking
2. Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence Use your completed chart to answer the Focus
Question: How did Otto von Bismarck, the chancellor of Prussia, lead the drive for German
Comprehension and Critical Thinking
3. Summarize What territorial and economic changes promoted German unity?
4. Analyze Information Identify three examples of Bismarck's use of Realpolitik.
5. Draw Conclusions How did the emperor and his chancellor retain power in the new German
Writing About History
Quick Write: Generate Arguments Choose one topic from this section that you could use to
write a persuasive essay. For example, you could write about whether Germany's war
against Austria was justifiable. Make sure that the topic you choose to write about has at
least two sides that could provoke an argument.
French bayonet
The New German Empire
In 1870, German historian Heinrich von Treitschke (yawn TRYCH kuh) wrote a newspaper
article demanding the annexation of Alsace and Lorraine from France. A year later,
annexation became a condition of the peace settlement in the Franco-Prussian War:
“The sense of
justice to Germany demands the lessening of France.... These territories are ours
by the right of the sword, and ... [by] virtue of a higher right—the right of the German
nation, which will not permit its lost children to remain strangers to the German Empire.”
Focus Question How did Germany increase its power after unifying in 1871?
Germany Strengthens
- Describe how
- Explain
- List
Germany became an industrial giant.
why Bismarck was called the Iron Chancellor.
the policies of Kaiser William II.
Terms, People, and Places
William II
social welfare
Note Taking
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence Keep track of the sequence of events described in this
section by completing a chart like the one below. List the causes that led to a strong
German nation.
In January 1871, German princes gathered in the glittering Hall of Mirrors at the French palace
of Versailles. They had just defeated Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War. Once home
to French kings, the palace seemed the perfect place to proclaim the new German empire.
To the winners as well as to the losers, the symbolism was clear: French domination of
Europe had ended. Germany was now the dominant power in Europe.
Germany Becomes an Industrial Giant
In the aftermath of unification, the German empire emerged as the industrial giant of the
European continent. By the late 1800s, German chemical and electrical industries were
setting the standard worldwide. Among the European powers, German shipping was
second only to Britain's.
Making Economic Progress Germany, like Great Britain, possessed several of the factors that
made industrialization possible. Germany's spectacular growth was due in part to ample
iron and coal resources, the basic ingredients for industrial development. A disciplined and
educated workforce also helped the economy. The German middle class and educated
professionals helped to create a productive and efficient society that prided itself on its
sense of responsibility and deference to authority. Germany's rapidly growing population—
from 41 million in 1871 to 67 million by 1914—also provided a huge home market along
with a larger supply of industrial workers.
The new nation also benefited from earlier progress. During the 1850s and 1860s, Germans had
founded large companies and built many railroads. The house of Krupp (kroop) boomed
after 1871, becoming an enormous industrial complex that produced steel and weapons for
a world market. Between 1871 and 1914, the business tycoon August Thyssen (TEES un)
built a small steel factory of 70 workers into a giant empire with 50,000 employees. Optics
was another important industry. German industrialist and inventor Carl Zeiss built a
company that became known for its telescopes, microscopes, and other optical equipment.
Promoting Scientific and Economic Development German industrialists were the first to see
the value of applied science in developing new products such as synthetic chemicals and
dyes. Industrialists, as well as the government, supported research and development in the
universities and hired trained scientists to solve technological problems in their factories.
The German government also promoted economic development. After 1871, it issued a single
currency for Germany, reorganized the banking system, and coordinated railroads built by
the various German states. When a worldwide depression hit in the late 1800s, Germany
raised tariffs to protect home industries from foreign competition. The leaders of the new
German empire were determined to maintain economic strength as well as military power.
Checkpoint What factors did Germany possess that made industrialization possible there?
Vocabulary Builder
synthetic—(sin THET ik) adj. prepared or made artificially
Vocabulary Builder
coordinate—(koh AWR dih nate) v. to design or adjust so as to have harmonious action
On the domestic front, Bismarck applied the same ruthless methods he had used to achieve The
Iron Chancellor
As chancellor of the new German empire, Bismarck pursued several foreign-policy goals. He
wanted to keep France weak and isolated while building strong links with Austria and
Russia. He respected British naval power but did not seek to compete in that arena. "Water
rats," he said, "do not fight with land rats." Later, however, he would take a more
aggressive stand against Britain as the two nations competed for overseas colonies.
Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) spent his early years on his father's country estate. He worked
briefly as a civil servant, but found the work boring. At 24, Bismarck resigned his post as a
bureaucrat. "My ambition strives more to command than to obey," the independent-minded
young man explained.
The resignation did not end his career in government. While he was a delegate to a United Diet
that was called by Prussian King Frederick William IV, Bismarck's conservative views and
passionate speeches in defense of government policies won him the support of the king. He
then served as a diplomat to the German Federation. He became chancellor of the German
empire in 1871, a position he held for 19 years. What path did Bismarck take to win
political power?
On the domestic front, Bismarck applied the same ruthless methods he had used to achieve
unification. The Iron Chancellor, as he was called, sought to erase local loyalties and crush
all opposition to the imperial state. He targeted two groups—the Catholic Church and the
Socialists. In his view, both posed a threat to the new German state.
Campaign Against the Church After unification, Catholics made up about a third of the
German population. Bismarck, who was Lutheran, distrusted Catholics—especially the
clergy—whose first loyalty, he believed, was to the pope instead of to Germany.
In response to what he saw as the Catholic threat, Bismarck launched the Kulturkampf (kool
TOOR kahmpf), or "battle for civilization," which lasted from 1871 to 1878. His goal was
to make Catholics put loyalty to the state above allegiance to the Church. The chancellor
had laws passed that gave the state the right to supervise Catholic education and approve
the appointment of priests. Other laws closed some religious orders, expelled the Jesuits
from Prussia, and made it compulsory for couples to be married by civil authority.
Bismarck's moves against the Catholic Church backfired. The faithful rallied behind the
Church, and the Catholic Center party gained strength in the Reichstag. A realist, Bismarck
saw his mistake and worked to make peace with the Church.
Campaign Against the Socialists Bismarck also saw a threat to the new German empire in the
growing power of socialism. By the late 1870s, German Marxists had organized the Social
Democratic party, which called for parliamentary democracy and laws to improve
conditions for the working class. Bismarck feared that socialists would undermine the
loyalty of German workers and turn them toward revolution. Following a failed
assassination plot against the kaiser, Bismarck had laws passed that dissolved socialist
groups, shut down their newspapers, and banned their meetings. Once again, repression
backfired. Workers were unified in support of the socialist cause.
Bismarck then changed course. He set out to woo workers away from socialism by sponsoring
laws to protect them. By the 1890s, Germans had health and accident insurance as well as
old-age insurance to provide retirement benefits. Thus, under Bismarck, Germany was a
pioneer in social reform. Its system of economic safeguards became the model for other
European nations.
Although workers benefited from Bismarck's plan, they did not abandon socialism. In fact, the
Social Democratic party continued to grow in strength. By 1912, it held more seats in the
Reichstag than any other party. Yet Bismarck's program showed that conditions for
workers could be improved without the upheaval of a revolution. Later, Germany and other
European nations would build on Bismarck's social policies, greatly increasing
government's role in providing for the needs of its citizens.
Checkpoint Why did Bismarck try to crush the Catholic Church and the Socialists?
Analyzing Political Cartoons
A Political Game of Chess This political cartoon shows Otto von Bismarck and Pope Pius IX
trying to checkmate each other in a game of chess.
1. How does this cartoon reflect the relationship between Bismarck and the Catholic Church?
2. How did the conflict between church and state affect German politics in the 1870s?
Kaiser William II
In 1888, William II succeeded his grandfather as kaiser. The new emperor was supremely
confident in his abilities and wished to put his own stamp on Germany. In 1890, he
shocked Europe by asking the dominating Bismarck to resign. "There is only one master in
the Reich," he said, "and that is I."
William II seriously believed that his right to rule came from God. He expressed this view
when he said:
Primary Source
“My grandfather
considered that the office of king was a task that God had assigned to him....
That which he thought I also think.... Those who wish to aid me in that task ... I welcome
with all my heart; those who oppose me in this work I shall crush.”
Not surprisingly, William resisted efforts to introduce democratic reforms. At the same time,
however, his government provided programs for social welfare, or programs to help
certain groups of people. His government also provided services such as cheap
transportation and electricity. An excellent system of public schools, which had flourished
under Bismarck, taught students obedience to the emperor along with reading, writing, and
Like his grandfather, William II lavished funds on the German military machine, already the
most powerful in Europe. He also launched an ambitious campaign to expand the German
navy and win an overseas empire to rival those of Britain and France. William's
nationalism and aggressive military stance helped increase tensions on the eve of World
War I.
Checkpoint Why did William II ask Bismarck to resign in 1890?
Social Reform
Under Bismarck's leadership, Germany pioneered social reform. By 1884, Germans had health
and accident insurance. By 1889, they had disability and old-age insurance. Why did
Bismarck introduce these social reforms?
SECTION 2 Assessment
Progress Monitoring Online
For: Self-quiz with vocabulary practice Web Code: nba-2222
Terms, People, and Places
1. For each term, person, or place listed at the beginning of the section, write a sentence
explaining its significance.
Note Taking
2. Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence Use your completed chart to answer the Focus
Question: How did Germany increase its power after unifying in 1871?
Comprehension and Critical Thinking
3. Summarize How did Germany become an industrial giant in the late 1800s?
4. Demonstrate Reasoned Judgment Do you think Bismarck's methods were justified by his
social reforms? Explain.
5. Draw Conclusions Do you think the supporters of a democratic government in Germany in
the late 1800s had hope of success? Explain.
Writing About History
Quick Write: Answer Opposing Arguments To write a strong persuasive essay, you need to
address arguments that can be used to contradict your position. Choose a topic from the
section. For example, think about whether a government should guarantee that its citizens
have adequate healthcare. List the arguments for and against your position on a piece of
Stirrings of Nationalism
After a failed revolution against Austrian rule in northern Italy, many rebels, fearing
retribution, begged for funds to pay for safe passage to Spain. Giuseppe Mazzini (mat SEE
nee), still a boy, described his reaction to the situation:
“He (a
rebel) held out a white handkerchief, merely saying, 'For the refugees of Italy.' My
mother ... dropped some money into the handkerchief.... That day was the first in which a
confused idea presented itself to my mind ... an idea that we Italians could and therefore
ought to struggle for the liberty of our country....”
—Giuseppe Mazzini,
Life and Writings
Focus Question How did influential leaders help to create a unified Italy?
Unifying Italy
- List
the key obstacles to Italian unity.
- Understand
what roles Count Camillo Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi played in the struggle
for Italy.
- Describe the
challenges that faced the new nation of Italy.
Terms, People, and Places
Camillo Cavour
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Note Taking
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence As you read, create a timeline showing the sequence of
events from 1831 to 1871 that led to Italian unification.
'Although the people of the Italian peninsula spoke the same language, they had not
experienced political unity since Roman times. By the early 1800s, though, Italian
patriots—including Mazzini, who would become a revolutionary—were determined to
build a new, united Italy. As in Germany, unification was brought about by the efforts of a
strong state and furthered by a shrewd, ruthless politician—Count Camillo Cavour (kah
Obstacles to Italian Unity
For centuries, Italy had been a battleground for ambitious foreign and local princes. Frequent
warfare and foreign rule had led people to identify with local regions. The people of
Florence considered themselves Tuscans, those of Venice Venetians, those of Naples
Neapolitans, and so on. But as in Germany, the invasions of Napoleon had sparked dreams
of national unity.
The Congress of Vienna, however, ignored the nationalists who hoped to end centuries of
foreign rule and achieve unity. To Prince Metternich of Austria, the idea of a unified Italy
was laughable. At Vienna, Austria took control of much of northern Italy, while Hapsburg
monarchs ruled various other Italian states. In the south, a French Bourbon ruler was put in
charge of Naples and Sicily.
In response, nationalists organized secret patriotic societies and focused their efforts on
expelling Austrian forces from northern Italy. Between 1820 and 1848, nationalist revolts
exploded across the region. Each time, Austria sent in troops to crush the rebels.
Mazzini Establishes Young Italy In the 1830s, the nationalist leader Giuseppe Mazzini
founded Young Italy. The goal of this secret society was "to constitute Italy, one, free,
independent, republican nation." In 1849, Mazzini helped set up a revolutionary republic in
Rome, but French forces soon toppled it. Like many other nationalists, Mazzini spent much
of his life in exile, plotting and dreaming of a united Italy.
Nationalism Takes Root "Ideas grow quickly," Mazzini once said, "when watered by the
blood of martyrs." Although revolution had failed, nationalist agitation had planted seeds
for future harvests.
To nationalists like Mazzini, a united Italy made sense not only because of geography, but also
because of a common language and history. Nationalists reminded Italians of the glories of
ancient Rome and the medieval papacy. To others, unity made practical economic sense. It
would end trade barriers among the Italian states and stimulate industry.
Checkpoint What forces hindered Italian unity?
The Struggle for Italy
After 1848, leadership of the Risorgimento (ree sawr jee MEN toh), or Italian nationalist
movement, passed to the kingdom of Sardinia, which included Piedmont, Nice, and Savoy
as well as the island of Sardinia. Its constitutional monarch, Victor Emmanuel II, hoped to
join other states to his own, thereby increasing his power.
Cavour Becomes Prime Minister In 1852, Victor Emmanuel made Count Camillo Cavour his
prime minister. Cavour came from a noble family but favored liberal goals. He was a
flexible, practical, crafty politician, willing to use almost any means to achieve his goals.
Like Bismarck in Prussia, Cavour was a monarchist who believed in Realpolitik.
Once in office, Cavour moved first to reform Sardinia's economy. He improved agriculture, had
railroads built, and encouraged commerce by supporting free trade. Cavour's long-term
goal, however, was to end Austrian power in Italy and annex the provinces of Lombardy
and Venetia.
Vocabulary Builder
constitute—(KAHN stub toot) v. to set up; establish
Opposing Austrian Rule
In March 1848, nationalists in Venice took over the city's arsenal and declared the
establishment of the Republic of Venice (left). Their success was short lived, however, as
the republic was soon disbanded and Venice again fell under the rule of Austria in 1849.
The image above is a draft of a speech written by Camillo Cavour in 1861.
Vocabulary Builder
successor—(suk SES ur) n. a person who succeeds another to an office or rank
Intrigue With France In 1855, Sardinia, led by Cavour, joined Britain and France against
Russia in the Crimean War. Sardinia did not win territory, but it did have a voice at the
peace conference. Sardinia also gained the attention of Napoleon III.
In 1858, Cavour negotiated a secret deal with Napoleon, who promised to aid Sardinia in case it
faced a war with Austria. A year later, the shrewd Cavour provoked that war. With help
from France, Sardinia defeated Austria and annexed Lombardy. Meanwhile, nationalist
groups overthrew Austrian-backed rulers in several other northern Italian states. These
states then joined with Sardinia.
Garibaldi's "Red Shirts" Next, attention shifted to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in
southern Italy. There, Giuseppe Garibaldi (gah ree BAHL dee), a longtime nationalist and
an ally of Mazzini, was ready for action. Like Mazzini, Garibaldi wanted to create an
Italian republic. He did not hesitate, however, to accept aid from the monarchist Cavour.
By 1860, Garibaldi had recruited a force of 1,000 red-shirted volunteers. Cavour provided
weapons and allowed two ships to take Garibaldi and his "Red Shirts" south to Sicily. With
surprising speed, Garibaldi's forces won control of Sicily, crossed to the mainland, and
marched triumphantly north to Naples.
Unity at Last Garibaldi's success alarmed Cavour, who feared that the nationalist hero would
set up his own republic in the south. To prevent this, Cavour urged Victor Emmanuel to
send Sardinian troops to deal with Garibaldi. Instead, the Sardinians overran the Papal
States and linked up with Garibaldi and his forces in Naples.
In a patriotic move, Garibaldi turned over Naples and Sicily to Victor Emmanuel. Shortly
afterward, southern Italy voted to approve the move, and in 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was
crowned king of Italy.
Two areas remained outside the new Italian nation: Rome and Venetia. Cavour died in 1861,
but his successors completed his dream. In a deal negotiated with Bismarck after the
Austro-Prussian War, Italy acquired Venetia. Then, during the Franco-Prussian War in
1870, France was forced to withdraw its troops from Rome. For the first time since the fall
of the Roman empire, Italy was a united land.
Checkpoint What steps did Camillo Cavour take to promote Italian unity?
Challenges Facing the New Nation
Italy faced a host of problems. Like the German empire that Bismarck cemented together out of
many states, Italy had no tradition of unity. Few Italians felt ties to the new nation. Strong
regional rivalries left Italy unable to solve critical national issues.
Divisions The greatest regional differences were between the north and the south. The north
was richer and had more cities than the south. For centuries, northern Italian cities had
flourished as centers of business and culture. The south, on the other hand, was rural and
poor. Its population was booming, but illiterate peasants could extract only a meager
existence from the exhausted farmland.
Hostility between Italy and the Roman Catholic Church further divided the nation. Popes
bitterly resented the seizure of the Papal
Unifying Italy
The Italian peninsula had been divided into small independent states since the fall of the
Roman empire in 476. Political unification seemed impossible. However, rebellion,
nationalism, and unity slowly took hold with the help of four individuals: a revolutionary, a
statesman, a soldier, and a king.
1. Giuseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Mazzini, founder of Young Italy, helps set up a revolutionary
republic in
Rome in 1849. French troops soon topple it.
2. Camillo Cavour In 1859, prime minister Camillo Cavour provokes a war with Austria after
secret negotiations with Napoleon III, who promised aid to Sardinia.
3. Nationalist Revolts Italian nationalists overthrow Austrian-backed rulers in several northern
4. Giuseppe Garibaldi In 1860, Cavour provides weapons to Giuseppe Garibaldi, who invades
Sicily with 1,000 Red Shirt volunteers (below). Garibaldi then captures Naples.
5. Victor Emmanuel II In a patriotic move, Garibaldi turns over Naples and Sicily to Victor
Emmanuel, who is crowned king. In 1870, Italians conquer Rome, which becomes the
capital city of a unified Italy.
Thinking Critically
1. Map Skills What route did Garibaldi's expedition take?
2. Draw Conclusions Why was Italian unification difficult to achieve?
Italian Emigration
Emigrants crowd the port of Naples (above). Why did Italians immigrate to other countries in
the early 1900s?
States and of Rome. The government granted the papacy the small territory of the Vatican.
Popes, however, saw themselves as "prisoners" and urged Italian Catholics—almost all
Italians—not to cooperate with their new government.
Turmoil Under Victor Emmanuel, Italy was a constitutional monarchy with a two-house
legislature. The king appointed members to the upper louse, which could veto bills passed
by the lower house. Although the lower house consisted of elected representatives, only a
small number of men had the right to vote.
In the late 1800s, unrest increased as radicals on the left struggled against a conservative
government. Socialists organized strikes while anarchists, people who want to abolish all
government, turned to sabotage and violence. Slowly, the government extended suffrage to
more men and passed laws to improve social conditions. Still, the turmoil continued. To
distract attention from troubles at home, the government set out to win an overseas empire
in Ethiopia.
Economic Progress Despite its problems, Italy did develop economically, especially after
1900. Although the nation lacked important natural resources such as coal, industries did
sprout up in northern regions. Industrialization, of :ourse, brought urbanization as peasants
flocked to the cities to find jobs in factories. As in other countries, reformers campaigned
to improve education and working conditions.
The population explosion of this period created tensions. One important safety valve for many
people was emigration, or movement away from their homeland. Many Italians left for the
United States, -2anada, and Latin American nations. By 1914, the country was significantly
better off than it had been in 1861. But, it was hardly prepared for he great war that broke
out in that year.
Checkpoint What problems did Italians experience after unification?
SECTION 3 Assessment
Terms, People, and Places
1. For each term, person, or place listed at the beginning of the section, write a sentence
explaining its significance.
Note Taking
2. Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence Use your completed timeline to answer the Focus
Question: How did influential leaders help to create a unified Italy?
Comprehension and Critical Thinking
3. Summarize (a) What obstacles to unity did Italian nationalists face? (b) What conditions
favored unity?
4. Analyze Information (a) What was the source of conflict between Garibaldi and Cavour?
(b) How was the conflict resolved?
5. Express Problems Clearly What challenges did Italians face after unification?
Progress Monitoring Online
For: Self-quiz with vocabulary practice Web Code: nba-2233
Writing About History
Quick Write: Decide on an Organizational Strategy Using clear organization to present a
logical argument is a good way to keep the reader's attention in a persuasive essay. Choose
an issue from the section about which you could make an argument. Then write an outline
showing how you would organize a persuasive essay.
Austria-Hungarian empire flag
Balkan Nationalism
“How is
it that they [European powers] cannot understand that less and less is it possible ... to
direct the destinies of the Balkans from the outside? We are growing up, gaining
confidence, and becoming independent ...”
statesman on the first Balkan War and the European powers
Focus Question How did the desire for national independence among ethnic groups weaken
and ultimately destroy the Austrian and Ottoman empires?
Nationalism Threatens Old Empires
- Describe how
- List
nationalism contributed to the decline of the Hapsburg empire.
the main characteristics of the Dual Monarchy.
- Understand
how the growth of nationalism affected the Ottoman empire.
Terms, People, and Places
Francis Joseph
Ferenc Deák
Dual Monarchy
Note Taking
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence Complete a table like the one below to keep track of the
sequence of events that led Austria into the Dual Monarchy. Look for dates and other clues
to sequence in the text.
Hungarian parliament passes legislation funding an army to fight against the Hapsburg empire, 1848
Napoleon had dissolved the Holy Roman Empire, which the Hapsburgs had led for nearly 400
years. Austria's center of power had shifted to Central Europe. Additional wars resulted in
continued loss of territory to Germany and Italy. Why did nationalism bring new strength
to some countries and weaken others?
In Eastern and Central Europe, the Austrian Hapsburgs and the Ottoman Turks ruled lands that
included diverse ethnic groups. Nationalist feelings among these subject peoples
contributed to tensions building across Europe.
The Hapsburg Empire Declines
In 1800, the Hapsburgs were the oldest ruling house in Europe. In addition to their homeland of
Austria, over the centuries they had acquired the territories of Bohemia and Hungary, as
well as parts of Romania, Poland, Ukraine, and northern Italy.
Austria Faces Change Since the Congress of Vienna, the Austrian emperor Francis I and his
foreign minister Metternich had upheld conservative goals against liberal forces. "Rule and
change nothing," the emperor told his son. Under Francis and Metternich, newspapers
could not even use the word constitution, much less discuss this key demand of liberals.
The government also tried to limit industrial development, which would threaten traditional
ways of life.
Vocabulary Builder
fraternal—(fruh TUR nul) adj. brotherly
Austria, however, could not hold back the changes that were engulfing the rest of Europe. By
the 1840s, factories were springing up. Soon, the Hapsburgs found themselves facing the
problems of industrial life that had long been familiar in Britain—the growth of cities,
worker discontent, and the stirrings of socialism.
A Multinational Empire Equally disturbing to the old order were the urgent demands of
nationalists. The Hapsburgs presided over a multinational empire. Of its 50 million people
at mid-century, fewer than a quarter were German-speaking Austrians. Almost half
belonged to different Slavic groups, including Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Ukrainians, Serbs,
Croats, and Slovenes. Often, rival groups shared the same region. The empire also included
large numbers of Hungarians and Italians. The Hapsburgs ignored nationalist demands as
long as they could. When nationalist revolts broke out in 1848, the government crushed
Francis Joseph Grants Limited Reforms Amid the turmoil, 18-year-old Francis Joseph
inherited the Hapsburg throne. He would rule until 1916, presiding over the empire during
its fading days into World War I.
An early challenge came when Austria suffered its humiliating defeat at the hands of France
and Sardinia in 1859. Francis Joseph realized he needed to strengthen the empire at home.
Accordingly, he made some limited reforms. He granted a new constitution that set up a
legislature. This body, however, was dominated by German-speaking Austrians. The
reforms thus satisfied none of the other national groups that populated the empire. The
Hungarians, especially, were determined to settle for nothing less than total selfgovernment.
Checkpoint What actions did Francis Joseph take to maintain power?
Formation of the Dual Monarchy
Austria's disastrous defeat in the 1866 war with Prussia brought renewed pressure for change
from Hungarians within the empire. One year later, Ferenc Deák (DEH ahk), a moderate
Hungarian leader, helped work out a compromise that created a new political power known
as the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
The Austria-Hungary Government Under the agreement, Austria and Hungary were separate
states. Each had its own constitution and parliament. Francis Joseph ruled both, as emperor
of Austria and king of Hungary. The two states also shared ministries of finance, defense,
and foreign affairs, but were independent of each other in all other areas.
Nationalist Unrest Increases Although Hungarians welcomed the compromise, other subject
peoples resented it. Restlessness increased among various Slavic groups, especially the
Czechs in Bohemia. Some nationalist leaders called on Slays to unite, insisting that "only
through liberty, equality, and fraternal solidarity" could Slavic peoples fulfill their "great
mission in the history of mankind." By the early 1900s, nationalist unrest often left the
government paralyzed in the face of pressing political and social problems.
Checkpoint How did Hungarians and Slavic groups respond to the Dual Monarchy?
Map Skills In the late 1800s, the Balkans had become a center of conflict, as various peoples
and empires competed for power.
1. Locate (a) Black Sea (b) Ottoman empire (c) Serbia (d) Greece (e) Austria-Hungary
2. Place Which four large seas border the Balkan Peninsula?
3. Identify Central Issues Why do you think competing interests in the Balkans led the region
to be called a powder keg?
"The Sick Man of Europe"
Turkey's Abdul Hamid II (right) reacts to Bulgarian and Austrian rulers claiming parts of the
Ottoman empire. How does this cartoon show the Ottoman empire as "the sick man of
The Ottoman Empire Collapses
Like the Hapsburgs, the Ottomans ruled a multinational empire. It stretched from Eastern
Europe and the Balkans to North Africa and the Middle East. There, as in Austria,
nationalist demands tore at the fabric of the empire.
Balkan Nationalism Erupts In the Balkans, Serbia won autonomy in 1830, and southern
Greece won independence during the 1830s. But many Serbs and Greeks still lived in the
Balkans under Ottoman rule. The Ottoman empire was also home to other national groups,
such as Bulgarians and Romanians. During the 1800s, various subject peoples staged
revolts against the Ottomans, hoping to set up their own independent states.
European Powers Divide Up the Ottoman Empire Such nationalist stirrings became mixed
up with the ambitions of the great European powers. In the mid-1800s, Europeans came to
see the Ottoman empire as "the sick man of Europe." Eagerly, they scrambled to divide up
Ottoman lands. Russia pushed south toward the Black Sea and Istanbul, which Russians
still called Constantinople. Austria-Hungary took control of the provinces of Bosnia and
Herzegovina. This action angered the Serbs, who also had hoped to expand into that area.
Meanwhile, Britain and France set their sights on other Ottoman lands in the Middle East
and North Africa.
War in the Balkans In the end, a complex web of competing interests contributed to a series of
crises and wars in the Balkans. Russia fought several wars against the Ottomans. France
and Britain sometimes joined the Russians and sometimes the Ottomans. Germany
supported Austrian authority over the discontented national groups. But Germany also
encouraged the Ottomans because of their strategic location in the eastern Mediterranean.
In between, the subject peoples revolted and then fought among themselves. By the early
1900s, observers were referring to the region as the "Balkan powder keg." The explosion
that came in 1914 helped set off World War I.
Checkpoint How did the European powers divide up Ottoman lands?
SECTION 4 Assessment
Progress Monitoring Online
For: Self-quiz with vocabulary practice Web Code: nba-2244
Terms, People, and Places
1. For each term, person, or place listed at the beginning of the section, write a sentence
explaining its significance.
Note Taking
2. Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence Use your completed table to answer the Focus
Question: How did the desire for national independence among ethnic groups weaken and
ultimately destroy the Austrian and Ottoman empires?
Comprehension and Critical Thinking
3. Identify Alternatives What alternatives did Francis Joseph have in responding to nationalist
demands? How might Austrian history have been different if he had chosen a different
course of action?
4. Draw Conclusions Why did the Dual Monarchy fail to end nationalist demands?
5. Identify Central Issues How did Balkan nationalism contribute to the decline of the
Ottoman empire?
Writing About History
Quick Write: Draft an Opening Paragraph In a persuasive essay, you want to grab the
reader's attention by opening with a strong example, and then convincingly stating your
views. Choose a topic from the section, such as whether the Hapsburgs or the Ottoman
Turks could have built a modern, unified nation from their multinational empires. Then
draft an opening paragraph.
Concept Connector
How have people used nationalism as a basis for their actions?
Starting in the late 1700s, a spirit of nationalism swept across Europe and the Americas.
Nationalism is a powerful force characterized by strong feelings of pride in and devotion to
one's nation. It gives people a sense of identity beyond their family and local area.
Nationalism can compel people to fight to establish their own nation, through revolution. It
can move people to volunteer to defend their country from outside attack. It can even cause
people to attack another country in order to acquire more territory for the homeland.
Consider the following examples:
The American Revolution may have been the first major eruption of nationalism. Americans
sought liberty and equality. This search, prevented by Britain's efforts to maintain control,
helped unify the diverse American colonies. Americans already spoke the same language
and followed the same basic religion. Faced with Britain's tyranny, nationalist feelings
arose in the form of patriotism. Those feelings gained full expression in the Declaration of
Independence of July 4, 1776.
Three Sarajevan girls run through "Sniper Alley" in Sarajevo.
In June 1940, the British expected an invasion. Their nation stood alone against the German
military machine, which was ready to strike as soon as Britain's defenses weakened. They
never weakened. Prime Minister Winston Churchill set the tone when he urged the nation
to stand up to Hitler. The British responded with courage and devotion to the cause of
freedom. Despite a bombing blitz that devastated London, British morale remained high,
and Hitler gave up his plans.
Yugoslavia has been an ethnic powder keg since its creation in 1918. Nationalist tensions broke
up this federation of six republics after the fall of communism. Four republics declared
their independence, but the republic of Serbia aggressively tried to keep the nation
together. It supported Serbian nationalists in civil wars and used "ethnic cleansing" to clear
regions of non-Serbs in hopes of absorbing those regions into a "Greater Serbia."
Intervention by NATO finally ended this practice and restored an uneasy peace in 1999.
Queen Elizabeth and King George VI of Great Britain visit a London neighborhood that had been bombed by
Germany in 1941.
Thinking Critically
1. (a) Is nationalism a positive force? Explain your answer. (b) What event or events in recent
years brought out nationalistic feelings among Americans? Why?
2. Connections to Today Do library research to identify an example of nationalism today.
Plight of the Serfs
Although serfdom had almost disappeared in Western Europe by the 1700s, it survived in
Russia. Masters exercised almost total power over their serfs. A noble turned revolutionary
described the treatment of the serfs:
“I heard
... stories of men and women torn from their families and their villages, and sold, or
lost in gambling, or exchanged for a couple of hunting dogs, and then transported to some
remote part of Russia to create a [master's] new estate; of children taken from their parents
and sold to cruel ... masters."
—Peter Kropotkin,
Memoirs of a Revolutionist
Focus Question Why did industrialization and reform come more slowly to Russia than to
Western Europe?
Russia: Reform and Reaction
- Describe major obstacles
- Explain
to progress in Russia.
why tsars followed a cycle of absolutism, reform, and reaction.
- Understand
why the problems of industrialization contributed to the outbreak of revolution.
Terms, People, and Places
Alexander II
Crimean War
Peter Stolypin
Note Taking
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence Create a timeline of Russian events like the one below to
keep track of the sequence of events that led to the revolution of 1905. Look for dates and
other clues to sequence in the text.
Reformers hoped to free Russia from autocratic rule, economic backwardness, and social
injustice. But efforts to modernize Russia had little success, as tsars imprisoned critics or
sent them into exile.
Conditions in Russia
By 1815, Russia was not only the largest, most populous nation in Europe but also a great
world power. Since the 1600s, explorers had pushed the Russian frontier eastward across
Siberia to the Pacific. Peter the Great and Catherine the Great had added lands on the
Baltic and Black seas, and tsars in the 1800s had expanded into Central Asia. Russia had
thus acquired a huge multinational empire, part European and part Asian.
Other European nations looked on the Russian colossus, or giant, with a mixture of wonder and
misgiving. Russia had immense natural resources. Its vast size gave it global interests and
influence. But Western Europeans disliked its autocratic government and feared its
expansionist aims. Despite efforts by Peter and Catherine to westernize Russia, it remained
economically undeveloped. By the 1800s, tsars saw the need to modernize but resisted
reforms that would undermine their absolute rule.
Russia's Social Structure A great obstacle to progress was the rigid social structure.
Landowning nobles dominated society and rejected any change that would threaten their
privileges. The middle class was too small to have much influence. The majority of
Russians were serfs, or laborers bound to the land and to masters who controlled their
Most serfs were peasants. Others were servants, artisans, or soldiers forced into the tsar's army.
As industry expanded, some masters sent serfs to work in factories but took much of their
Many enlightened Russians knew that serfdom was inefficient. As long as most people had to
serve the whim of their masters, Russia's economy would remain backward. However,
landowning nobles had no reason to improve agriculture and took little interest in industry.
Ruling With Absolute Power For centuries, tsars had ruled with absolute power, imposing
their will on their subjects. On occasion, the tsars made limited attempts at liberal reform,
such as easing censorship or making legal and economic reforms to improve the lives of
serfs. However, in each instance the tsars drew back from their reforms when they began to
fear losing the support of nobles. In short, the liberal and nationalist changes brought about
by the Enlightenment and the French Revolution had almost no effect on Russian
Checkpoint Describe the social structure that existed in Russia during the 1800s.
Emancipation and Stirrings of Revolution
Alexander II came to the throne in 1855 during the Crimean War. His reign represents the
pattern of reform and repression used by his father and grandfather, Alexander I and
Nicholas I. The Crimean War had broken out after Russia tried to seize Ottoman lands
along the Danube River. Britain and France stepped in to help the Ottoman Turks, invading
the Crimean peninsula that juts into the Black Sea. The war, which ended in a Russian
defeat, revealed the country's backwardness. Russia had only a few miles of railroads, and
the military bureaucracy was hopelessly inefficient. Many felt that dramatic changes were
Freeing the Serfs A widespread popular reaction followed. Liberals demanded changes, and
students demonstrated, seeking reform. Pressed from all sides, Alexander II finally agreed
to reforms. In 1861, he issued a royal decree that required emancipation, or freeing of the
Freedom brought problems. Former serfs had to buy the land they had worked, but many were
too poor to do so. Also, the lands allotted to peasants were often too small to farm
efficiently or to support a family. Peasants remained poor, and discontent festered.
Still, emancipation was a turning point. Many peasants moved to the cities, taking jobs in
factories and building Russian industries. Equally important, freeing the serfs boosted the
drive for further reform.
Introducing Other Reforms Along with emancipation, Alexander II set up a system of local
government. Elected assemblies, called zemstvos, were made responsible for matters such
as road repair, schools, and agriculture. Through this system, Russians gained some
experience of self-government at the local level.
The Decembrist Revolt
In 1825, army officers led an uprising known as the Decembrist Revolt (below). They had
picked up liberal ideas while fighting in Western Europe and demanded reforms and a
constitution. Tsar Nicholas I repressed the revolt. This stamp (inset) commemorates the
125th anniversary of the revolt. How did the revolt symbolize Russia in the 1800s?
Vocabulary Builder
radical—(RAD ih kul) n. a person who favors great changes or reforms
The tsar also introduced legal reforms based on ideas like trial by jury, and he eased censorship.
Military service terms were reduced, and brutal discipline was limited. Alexander also
encouraged the growth of industry in Russia, which still relied heavily on agriculture.
Revolutionary Currents Alexander's reforms failed to satisfy many Russians. Peasants had
freedom but not land. Liberals wanted a constitution and an elected legislature. Radicals,
who had adopted socialist ideas from the West, demanded even more revolutionary
changes. The tsar, meantime, moved away from reform and toward repression.
In the 1870s, some socialists went to live and work among peasants, preaching reform and
rebellion. They had little success. The peasants scarcely understood them and sometimes
turned them over to the police. The failure of this movement, combined with renewed
government repression, sparked anger among radicals. Some turned to terrorism. On March
13, 1881, terrorists assassinated Alexander II.
Crackdown Alexander III responded to his father's assassination by reviving the harsh
methods of Nicholas I. To wipe out liberals and revolutionaries, he increased the power of
the secret police, restored strict censorship, and exiled critics to Siberia. The tsar also
launched a program of Russification aimed at suppressing the cultures of non-Russian
peoples within the empire. Alexander insisted on one language, Russian,
Tug of War: Reform and Repression by the Russian Tsars
The five tsars that ruled Russia from 1801 to 1917 all followed a similar pattern of autocratic
rule: at times they appeared open to liberal ideas and enacted reforms to satisfy the groups
demanding change. In every case, however, the tsars pulled back on these reforms and
launched a battery of repressive measures designed to preserve their absolute power and
the support of the nobles.
Tsars Alexander I, Nicholas I, Alexander II, Alexander III. Nicholas I
A Jewish men survey damage done to sacred Torah scrolls during an 1881 pogrom in Russia.
The Tsars Resist:
Repression and Crackdown
- Secret
- Strict
police, arrests, executions
censorship of liberal ideas
- Exiling liberals
- Bolstering Russian
- Insisting on
Orthodox Church
the absolute power of the state
- Persecuting non-Russian
groups within empire
The Tsars Give In:
Concessions and Reforms
- Easing censorship
- Revising law
- Limiting the
power of landowners
- Freeing serfs
- Creating local
self-government, or zemstovs
- Creating national
- Land
legislature, or Duma
Russian peasants in a rural village around 1900
Opposing the Tsars
Liberals, socialists, nationalists, army officers, workers
Thinking Critically
1. Identify Main Ideas What factors brought about so much opposition to the tsars?
2. Draw Conclusions Why do you think the tsars swung back and forth between repression and
and one church, the Russian Orthodox Church. Poles, Ukrainians, Finns, Armenians, Muslims,
Jews, and many others suffered persecution.
Persecution and Pogroms Russia had acquired a large Jewish population when it carved up
Poland and expanded into Ukraine. Under Alexander III, persecution of Jewish people in
Russia increased. The tsar limited the number of Jewish people who were allowed to study
in universities and practice certain professions. He also forced them to live in restricted
Official persecution encouraged pogroms, or violent mob attacks on Jewish people. Gangs beat
and killed Jewish people and looted and burned their homes and stores. Faced with savage
persecution, many left Russia. They became refugees, or people who flee their homeland to
seek safety elsewhere. Large numbers of Russian Jews went to the United States.
Checkpoint How did Alexander Ill respond to the murder of his father?
The Drive to Industrialize
Russia finally entered the industrial age under Alexander III and his son Nicholas II. In the
1890s, Nicholas' government
Watch Crisis and Revolution in Russia on the Witness History Discovery School™ video
program to examine the discontent in tsarist Russia.
Bloody Sunday
An artist's depiction shows the execution of workers in front of the Winter Palace in Saint
Petersburg, January 9, 1905 (below). The magazine cover (inset) shows "Le Tzar Rouge,"
or "The Red Tsar." Compare and contrast these images of Bloody Sunday.
focused on economic development. It encouraged the building of railroads to connect iron and
coal mines with factories and to transport goods across Russia. It also secured foreign
capital to invest in industry and transportation systems, such as the Trans-Siberian
Railroad, which linked European Russia to the Pacific Ocean.
Political and social problems increased as a result of industrialization. Government officials
and business leaders applauded economic growth. Nobles and peasants opposed it, fearing
the changes it brought. Industrialization also created new social ills as peasants flocked to
cities to work in factories. Instead of a better life, they found long hours and low pay in
dangerous conditions. In the slums around the factories, poverty, disease, and discontent
multiplied. Radicals sought supporters among the new industrial workers. At factory gates,
Socialists often handed out pamphlets that preached the revolutionary ideas of Karl Marx.
Checkpoint How did Russia industrialize?
Turning Point: Crisis and Revolution
When war broke out between Russia and Japan in 1904, Nicholas II called on his people to
fight for "the Faith, the Tsar, and the Fatherland." Despite all of their efforts, the Russians
suffered one humiliating defeat after another.
Bloody Sunday News of the military disasters unleashed pent-up discontent created by years
of oppression. Protesters poured into the streets. Workers went on strike, demanding
shorter hours and better wages. Liberals called for a constitution and reforms to overhaul
the government.
As the crisis deepened, a young Orthodox priest organized a peaceful march for Sunday,
January 22, 1905. Marchers flowed through the streets of St. Petersburg toward the tsar's
Winter Palace. Chanting prayers and singing hymns, workers carried holy icons and
pictures of the tsar. They also brought a petition for justice and freedom.
Fearing the marchers, the tsar had fled the palace and called in soldiers. As the people
approached, they saw troops lined up across the square. Suddenly, gunfire rang out.
Hundreds of men and women fell dead or wounded in the snow. One woman stumbling
away from the scene moaned: "The tsar has deserted us! They shot away the orthodox
faith." Indeed, the slaughter marked a turning point for Russians. "Bloody Sunday" killed
the people's faith and trust in the tsar.
The Revolution of 1905 In the months that followed Bloody Sunday, discontent exploded
across Russia. Strikes multiplied. In some cities, workers took over local government. In
the countryside, peasants revolted and demanded land. Minority nationalities called for
autonomy from Russia. Terrorists targeted officials, and some assassins were cheered as
heroes by discontented Russians.
At last, the clamor grew so great that Nicholas was forced to announce sweeping reforms. In
the October Manifesto, he promised "freedom of person, conscience, speech, assembly,
and union." He agreed to summon a Duma, or elected national legislature. No law, he
declared, would go into effect without approval by the Duma.
Results of the Revolution The manifesto won over moderates, leaving Socialists isolated.
These divisions helped the tsar, who had no intention of letting strikers, revolutionaries,
and rebellious peasants challenge him.
In 1906, the first Duma met, but the tsar quickly dissolved it when leaders criticized the
government. Nicholas then appointed a new prime minister, Peter Stolypin (stuh LIP yin).
Arrests, pogroms, and executions followed as the conservative Stolypin sought to restore
Stolypin soon realized that Russia needed reform, not just repression. To regain peasant
support, he introduced moderate land reforms. He strengthened the zemstvos and improved
education. Unfortunately, these reforms were too limited to meet the broad needs of most
Russians, and dissatisfaction still simmered. Stolypin was assassinated in 1911. Several
more Dumas met during this period, but new voting laws made sure they were
conservative. By 1914, Russia was still an autocracy, but one simmering with unrest.
Checkpoint Why was Bloody Sunday a turning point for the Russians?
SECTION 5 Assessment
Progress Monitoring Online
For: Self-quiz with vocabulary practice Web Code: nba-2255
Terms, People, and Places
1. For each term, person, or place listed at the beginning of the section, write a sentence
explaining its significance.
Note Taking
2. Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence Use your completed timeline to answer the Focus
Question: Why did industrialization and reform come more slowly to Russia than to
Western Europe?
Comprehension and Critical Thinking
3. Summarize What conditions in Russia challenged progress during the early 1800s?
4. Draw Conclusions How did Russian tsars typically react to change?
5. Draw Inferences What does Bloody Sunday suggest about the relationship between the tsar
and the Russian people?
Writing About History
Quick Write: Gather Evidence to Support Thesis Statement Choose a topic from the
section, such as whether you think emancipation helped or hurt Russian serfs. Make a list
of evidence from the section that supports your view.
Quick Study Guide
Progress Monitoring Online
For: Self-test with vocabulary practice Web Code: nba-2266
Effects of Nationalism
Nationalism by Region
- German
states unite under William I.
- Empire takes
- Bismarck
leading role in Europe.
becomes known as the Iron Chancellor.
- Mazzini
founds Young Italy.
- Garibaldi
leads Red Shirts.
- Victor
Emmanuel II makes Cavour prime minister of Sardinia.
- Italian
states become unified by 1871.
- Francis
- Dual
I and Metternich uphold conservative goals.
Monarchy with Hungary is set up.
- Nationalist
groups grow restless.
- Empire becomes
- Serbians
achieve autonomy in 1830.
- Greeks
achieve independence in the 1830s
- European
- "Balkan
nations divide up Ottoman lands.
powder keg" helps set off World War I
- Serfs
are freed in 1861.
- Alexander
III encourages persecution and pogroms.
- Russia enters
the industrial age late.
- Bloody Sunday leads
- Duma has
to revolution in 1905.
limited power.
Key Leaders
Otto von Bismarck, chancellor
William I, Prussian king, German kaiser
William, kaiser
Giuseppe Mazzini, founder of Young Italy
Victor Emmanuel II, king
Count Camillo Cavour, prime minister
Giuseppe Garibaldi, leader of Red Shirts
Ferenc Deák, Hungarian politician
Francis Joseph, Austrian emperor, Hungarian king
Alexander II, tsar of Russia
Alexander Ill, tsar of Russia
Nicholas II, tsar of Russia
Unification in Europe, 1873
As the map below shows, nationalist movements led to the creation of several new nations
across Europe
Key Events of Nationalism
Early 1800s Nationalism rises in Germany.
1804 Haiti declares independence from France.
1814 The Congress of Vienna redraws the map of Europe after Napoleon's defeat.
1830s Giuseppe Mazzini founds Young Italy to encourage Italian unification.
1848 Revolutions take place throughout Europe.
1861 The Civil War begins in the United States.
1861 Tsar Alexander II frees the serfs.
1898 The Philippines declares independence from Spain.
1870 Bismarck provokes Franco-Prussian War to create a unified German empire.
1905 Revolution breaks out in St. Petersburg after Bloody Sunday massacre.
1914 World War I begins.
Concept Connector
Cumulative Review
Record the answers to the questions below on your Concept Connector worksheets.
1. Empire In 1871, German nationalists celebrated the birth of the Second Reich, or empire.
They called it that because they considered Germany heir to the Holy Roman Empire.
Compare the Second Reich to the Holy Roman Empire. How were they similar? How were
they different? Think about the following:
- structure of
- power
- the
of the kaiser and emperor
rule of William II and Otto I
- who
had voting rights
- who
held the real power
2. Nationalism During the early 1800s, nationalist rebellions erupted in the Balkans and
elsewhere along the southern fringe of Europe. Between 1820 and 1848, nationalist revolts
exploded across Italy. Compare and contrast Greece's unification and nationalism to Italy's.
Think about the following:
- the
empires they revolted against
- which
- the
countries they turned to for help
structure of their governments
3. Nationalism During the 1800s, various subject peoples in the Balkans revolted against the
Ottoman empire, hoping to set up independent states of their own. A complicated series of
crises and wars soon followed. Take notes on the situation in the Balkans between 1800
and the early 1900s. Why did competing interests in the Balkans lead the region to be
called a powder keg?
Connections To Today
1. Nationalism: The State of Nationalism Today You've read how nationalism was a strong
enough force in the 1800s to help unify nations, such as Italy and Germany, but threatened
to destroy the Austrian and Ottoman empires. Do you think that nationalism is still a force
in the world today? Conduct research to learn more about current nationalist issues. You
may want to focus your research on Kurdistan, Northern Ireland, the former Yugoslavia, or
Russia. Write two paragraphs on nationalism today, citing examples from current events to
support your answer.
2. Economic Systems: Social Welfare Programs Under Otto von Bismarck, Germany was a
pioneer in social reform, providing several social welfare programs to its citizens. By the
1890s, Germans had health and accident insurance as well as retirement benefits. Social
welfare programs soon spread to other European nations. Conduct research to learn more
about social welfare programs today. Compare social welfare programs in one country in
Europe with those in the United States. How are they similar? How are they different?
History Interactive
For: Interactive timeline Web Code: nbp-2264
Chapter Assessment
Terms, People, and Places
Match the following definitions with the terms listed below.
social welfare
1. someone who wants to abolish all government
2. elected national legislature in Russia
3. emperor of Germany
4. granting of freedom to serfs
5. the highest official of a monarch
6. violent attack on a Jewish community
7. movement away from one's homeland
8. realistic politics based on the needs of the state
9. programs to help people in need
Main Ideas
Section 1 (pp. 330-333)
10. What was Chancellor Otto von Bismarck's main goal? What policies did he follow to meet
that goal?
Section 2 (pp. 334-337)
11. How did Germany increase its power in the late 1800s?
Section 3 (pp. 338-342)
12. Summarize the process by which Italy unified. Include information on the leaders who
helped unify Italy.
Section 4 (pp. 343-346)
13. How did nationalism contribute to the decline of the Hapsburg and Ottoman empires?
Section 5 (pp. 348-353)
14. Why was Russia slow to industrialize?
Chapter Focus Question
15. What effects did nationalism and the demand for reform have in Europe?
Critical Thinking
16. Make Comparisons How did the nationalism represented by Bismarck differ from that
embraced by liberals in the early 1800s?
17. Make Comparisons Compare and contrast the goals and methods of Cavour in Italy and
Bismarck in Germany.
18. Analyze Information Tsar Alexander II declared that it is "better to abolish serfdom from
above than to wait until it will be abolished by a movement from below." Explain his
19. Geography and History How did regional differences contribute to continued divisions in
Italy after unification?
20. Analyzing Cartoons How does this French cartoonist view Bismarck? Explain.
21. Predict Consequences Based on your reading of the chapter, predict the consequences of
the following: (a) defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War, (b) growth of German
nationalism and militarism in the late 1800s, (c) failure to satisfy nationalist ambitions in
Austria-Hungary, and (d) weakening of the Ottoman empire.
Writing About History
Writing a Persuasive Essay Some people define nationalism as excessive, narrow, or jingoist
patriotism. A nationalist might be described as someone who boasts of his patriotism and
favors aggressive or warlike policies. The rise of nationalism in Europe led to both division
and unification. For example, it unified Germany, but it led Russian tsars to suppress the
cultures of national minorities within the country. Nationalism remains a powerful force to
this day for unifying countries and for sparking rivalries, conflicts, and bloodshed. Write a
persuasive essay in which you support or oppose the idea that nationalism is an excessive
form of patriotism.
- Collect
- Use
the examples and evidence that you need to support your position convincingly.
a graphic organizer to list points on both sides of the issue.
- Focus
on a thesis statement. Clearly state the position that you will prove. Use the rest of your
introduction to provide readers with the necessary context about the issue.
- Acknowledge the
opposition by stating, and then refuting, opposing arguments.
- Use the
guidelines for revising your essay on page SH17 of the Writing Handbook.
Document-Based Assessment
On the Crimean Front
In 1853, the British, the French, and their allies took on the vast Russian empire in the Crimean
War. Called a "perfectly useless modern war," it was fought in the Black Sea region,
although major campaigns took place well beyond that area. Like all wars, it was grim.
More than 500,000 people died during the conflict.
Document A
"[The Crimean War] was one of the last times that the massed formations of cavalry and
infantry were employed—the thin red line was to disappear forever. Henceforward, armies
would rely on open, flexible formations and on trench warfare. For the British, it was the
end of an era: never again would their soldiers fight in full-dress uniform. Never again
would the colors be carried into the fray and the infantry would no longer march into battle
to the stirring tunes of regimental bands. The Crimean War ushered in the age of the
percussion cap rifle. The new Minie rifle was the decisive weapon, replacing the clumsy ...
musket. The weapon fired a cartridge, not a ball, with accuracy far superior to the old
—From The Road
Document B
to Balaklava, by Alexis S. Troubetzkoy
"I see men in hundreds rushing from the Mamelon [bastion] to the Malakoff [tower].... with all
its bristling guns. Under what a storm of fire they advance, supported by that impenetrable
red line, which marks our own infantry! The fire from the Malakoff is tremendous—
terrible.... Presently the twilight deepens, and the light of rocket, mortar, and shell falls
over the town."
—From Journal
kept during the Russian War: From the Departure of the Army from
England in April 1854, to the Fall of Sebastopol, by Mrs. Henry Duberly, an army wife
Document C
"Men sent in there [French hospital] with fevers and other disorders were frequently attacked
with the cholera in its worst form, and died with unusual rapidity, in spite of all that could
be done to save them. I visited the hospital, and observed that a long train of ... carts, filled
with sick soldiers, were drawn up by the walls.... the quiet that prevailed was only broken
now and then by the moans and cries of pain of the poor sufferers in the carts."
—From The British
Expedition to the Crimea by W. H. Russell, Times correspondent
Document D
Treating Cholera
Analyzing Documents
Use your knowledge of the Crimean War and Documents A, B, C, and D to answer
questions 1-4.
1. According to document A, the Crimean War marked the end of
A private soldiers in war.
B most small wars in Europe.
C old ways of fighting.
D soldiers dying of diseases in military hospitals.
2. With what purpose did the author write Document B?
A to help people understand the dangers of fighting with new weapons
B to criticize inadequate technology
C to describe the state of mind of the soldiers
D to make the British public understand how quickly the war was progressing
3. With what purpose did the artist create Document D?
A to help the British public understand the dangers of fighting with new weapons
B to criticize the inadequate state of army hospitals
C to describe the dangers of soldiering and soldiers' valor
D to make the British public understand the toll that disease was taking on soldiers
4. Writing Task Suppose you are a surgeon working near the war front. Write a brief letter
home describing your impressions. Use the four documents along with information from
the chapter to write your letter.