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Citizenship in the World
Troop 270
Mount Prospect, IL
We share the planet with more than 6 billion people.
Most of the people want:
good health
personal security
freedom of religion
freedom of speech
choose our style of life
elect are own leaders
In the United States, the Declaration of Independence defines the basic rights
of people. However, many people outside the U.S. are not allowed to exercise
their natural rights. How do we know?
The Internet and TV provides us easy access to information all around the
We must recognize that we are living independently. We depend on the other
countries and they depend on us. Our actions impact other countries and their
actions impact us.
Being a good citizen depends on your willingness to understand and appreciate
the values, traditions, and concerns of people in other countries. (Req 1)
Citizenship can be acquired by:
1. blood - born to U.S. parents
2. by soil - the country you were born in.
3. naturalization (adults)
4. naturalization of parents (children)
Rights associated with citizenship: (Req 2)
fair trial
bear arms
freedom of religion
freedom of speech
freedom of the press
Duties (Req 2)
serve on juries
informed about important issues so that you can make a good choice
when you vote.
Citizenship (Permanent Residence)
Emigrate - people leave their own country to live elsewhere.
Immigrant Visa - an ID card that allows a foreigner to stay in the U.S.
permanently. It's issued to people who wish to become lawful permanent
residents (LPR's) of the U.S. LPRS's can:
stay in the U.S. indefinitely
work in the U.S.
bring certain family members to the U.S.
they must pay taxes but cannot vote.
Citizenship (Naturalization)
Naturalization (Req 2)
To apply for citizenship:
1. you need an immigrant visa
2. demonstrate you know English
3. you need to know about U.S. history and how the government works
4. you have to pass an interview, an English test, a civics test, and take
the oath of allegiance.
Obligations: (Req 2)
1. obey U.S. laws
2. serve in the U.S. armed forces
3. pay taxes
After taking an oath of allegiance, an applicant gets a certificate of
naturalization (proof of U.S. citizenship). Now he/she can apply for a U.S.
Citizenship (World)
Each person is not only a citizen of his/her nation, but also a citizen of the
world. We have to respect cultural diversity and the rights of other
The UN tracks information about how well countries care for their citizens.
1. Gross domestic product (GDP) is the monetary value of all final goods and
services produced by a country.
2. A large GDP per person means a high standard of living. (p.17 chart)
3. Being a good world citizen requires speaking out and taking action against
violations of human rights.
Comparative Political Systems
Power to Rule : Who has sovereignty?
sovereignty - supreme authority and power to make, implement, and enforce
laws, and settle disputes about the laws.
Basic forms of government (political systems):
autocracy - unlimited power to govern (one leader)
oligarchy - unlimited power to govern (few persons or minority)
democracy - unlimited power to govern (majority of citizens)
republic - limited power to govern (elected representatives)
theocracy – ruled by one or more religious leaders
junta – a military leader backed by armed forces who seized power
emir – the ruler of an Islamic nation
Comparative Political Systems
Constitutional Governments
Three requirements:
1. The government must be limited in its power
2. Follow a higher law
3. Have constitutional stability
Limited Power
The government and its officers must follow the laws. There is a limit which
describes what they can do. If an officer violates the law, he/she can be
removed from office.
Higher Law
The constitution is the highest law of the land. Individual rights are protected
from infringement. It provides limitations on power. This is achieved through
checks and balances.
Comparative Political Systems
Constitutional Stability
The constitution cannnot be changed without the consent of citizens, using
established amendment procedures.
Nonconstitutional Governments
Authoritarian government – the authority to rule is in the hands of an autocratic
leader or an oligarchy. The government rules without restraint or limitations. It’s
not consitutionally bound and it is not responsible to the people. It remains in
control as long as it pleases or until its overthrown.
Requirement 5a – Discuss the differences between constitutional and nonconstituional governments.
5b. See chart p. 27; republic, federal republic, etc,
5c. See chart p. 27; and use a world map
Comparative Political Systems
Distribution of Power (p. 25)
Unitary government – all of the powers of the government are held by a single central
source (dictator, single political party, ruling group, or parliament).
Federal government - is based on the division of powers between a national government
and several local governments.
Executive and Legislative Branches (p.26)
Presidential government
1. executeive and legislative branches are independent of each other
2. the powers of executive branch are separate from legislative
3. both have equal power
Parliamentary government
1. The executive branch is made up of an executive chief and cabinet.
2. They are both members of the legislative branch
3. The exectutive branch is under direct control of the legislative branch
National Interest
public interest – these are domestic (internal) concerns (education, health care,
national interest – refers to issues that afffect foreign relations/foreign policy.
Examples: military actions, international trade.
national security – defense of the homeland, preservation of borders, health
and safety of the citizens.
nation’s economic welfare – health of its economy
foreign aid – transer of money, goods, services from one country to another for
the benefit of both countries.
humanitarian assistance – acts of kindness in response to natural disasters,
civil war, or outbreaks of disease.
The U.S. spreads its national values by providing foreign aid and humanitarian
National Interest
International Relations
World problems cannot be solved by one nation, but require international cooperation.
1. Drug trafficking
2. Famine
3. Pandemics
Nations form temporary alliances. They pledge to support one another in times of conflict.
Some form alliances around economic, environmental, humanitarian concerns.
Foreign Policy
This includes all the positions and actions a nation takes in its relationship with the rest of
the world.
1. Isolationism – a nation refuses to get involved with the affairs of the rest of the world.
2. Unilateralism – a nation makes one-sided decisions, relying on its own resources
3. Bilateralism/multilateralism – a nation coordinates deliberate actions with two or
more countries to achieve certain objectives.
National Interest
Foreign Policy (continued)
National interest is never static – it changes in response to changes in domestic and
international fronts.
A good citizen pays attention to international issues and advises his/her elected officials
on how to vote.
The World Order of Nations
first world nation - a modern country with top rate industrial and technological
second world - an industrial country that is not as advanced or as prosperous
as a first world nation.
third world – a poor country where high birth rates, poor health care, and lack of
education contribute to a low standard of living.
fourth world – a country which is on the bottom of the economic hierarchy;
people live in extreme poverty. The agricultural economy is based on
subsistence farming which means that the crops and dairy products provide the
minimum amount of food necessary to support the farm family.
The World Order of Nations
Economic Activities Around the World
primary sector – extracting raw materials from the Earth’s surface; agriculture,
forestry, fishing, and mining.
secondary sector – transform raw materials into finished goods; manufacturing
and construction
tertiary sector – intangibles, also known as services; these include retail trade,
banking, investment services, health care, communications, transportation, and
nonproift organizations. Most of the economic activities in the first world
countries occur in the tertiary sector.
The World Order of Nations
Where a country is located makes a big difference in whether it will prosper or
1. Farmers in temperate climates have a better chance of producing crops than farmers
in other climate regions.
2. Earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes, tornadoes, droughts cause deaths, damage,
and food shortages
The geographical location of a country is important.
The World Order of Nations
Natural Resources
Natural resources are important to a country’s economy.
1. Inexhaustible – sources of energy; sun, tides, water, wind
2. Renewable – crops, fisheries, forests, soils; these resources can be depleted by
3. Non-renewable – fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, natural gas; land, metals.
Coal, oil and natural gas supply 80% of the world’s energy and are not renewable.
Nations form alliances to use and protect them.
Countries with abundant resources can thrive.
Countries with scarce natural resources are usually poor.
Place to Place
Countries that are most successful trading with other countries have long coastlines with
ports and harbors.
Some of the poorest countries are landlocked. Why? Because its difficult to get their
goods to a port to ship to other countries. They have to use roads or rivers that cross
national borders. In Africa, rebels illegally seize shipments.
The World Order of Nations
Population growth is a global issue that has to be tackled by all nations.
The global community has to coordinate efforts to solve this issue.
Three quarter of the world’s population lives in third world nations.
80% of the population increase is in under developed countries.
Health of Environment
The environment is also a global issue.
Sustainable development is important to the environment. Sustainable development
balances the needs of humanity and industrialization with care for the environment.The
main way to achieve sustainable development is through resource management. This
involves decisions about which natural resources should and should not be developed.
So, population and pollution are global issues which require the world’s nations to act
together as a team to solve.
International Trade and Commerce
Countries exchange resources and products with each other. This is called international
trade, global trade, foreign trade, or international commerce.
Economic Systems and Ideologies
Capitolism – is market basked; the law of supply and demand applies to capitolism. It’s
also called free enterprise, private enterprise, or free market economy.
The entrepeneur drives the economy. Any person has the right to start and run his or her
own business.
Competition is a key feature of the free enterprise system.
The U.S. government has to regulate certain economic activities to protect the public.
Pure food and drug laws
Anti-pollution standards
This econoimc system where the private sector produces goods and services and the
public sector regulates business is called a mixed economy.
International Trade and Commerce
Economic Systems and Ideologies
Socialism is based on the idea that all citizens should be econoimically and politically
They try to distribute wealth equally among all citizens.
1. Under strict socialism, the government owns and operates all businesses.
2. Countries that provide employment, housing, and healthcare are called welfare
3. A command economy or centrally planned is an economy in which the government
controls the factors of production and distribution.
Communism: Cuba and North Korea are two of the few remaining communist countries.
Communism is based on a centrally planned economy.
Scarcity and Surplus
Countries depend on resources to produce goods and services such as natural
resources, human capital, physical capitol, and technical knowledge.
International Trade and Commerce
Import /Export
Most nations concentrate on producing what they can most easily and cheaply transport
to other markets.
Free Trade, Barriers, Economic Alliances
When domestic producers are feeling the negative effects of importing goods, they will
pressure the government to levy a tarriff on imports.
The tax raises the price of the imported product. The tariff reduces the quantity of imports
and generates revenue for the government.
Industries can also pressure the government to impose quotas on the amount of items
that can be imported.
Tariffs and quotas are called trade barriers because they block free trade.
International Trade Agreements and Economic Alliances
International trade agreements are treaties to develop and promote trade among nations.
Nations often agree to buy specific products form each other. These treaties provide the
participating countries with special treatment such as easing or elminating trade barriers.
International Trade and Commerce
Balance of Payments and Foreign Exchange
Balance of trade – is the difference between the value of a country’s imports and exports.
If the value of what a country exports is greater than what it imports, the country has a
trade surplus. If the value of its imports is greater than the value of its exports, the
country has a trade deficit.
Foreign exchange rate – is the price of one currency in terms of another. Exchange rates
are important because they affect the relative price of domestic and foreign goods.
Tourists traveling abroad hope that their money is strong compared to the currency in the
foreign country because meals, hotels, and sourvenirs will not cost much.
For example, lets say you went to the Phillippines on vacation. You see a pocket knife
that you like. You ask your parent “how much does this knife cost?” Your parent uses the
exchange rate to figure out how much the knife costs in U.S. dollars. He/she figures out
its about $2. That’s not a bad price. The U.S. dollar is stronger than the money in the
Phillippines, so the pocket knife is affordable.
1 U.S. dollar = 50 pesos.
A pocket knife costs 100 pesos, so how much does it cost in U.S. dollars?
International Trade and Commerce
Now lets say you go to Europe on vacation. You see the same pocket knife and you ask
your parent “how much does this knife cost”? Your parent uses the exchange rate to
figure out how much the knife costs in U.S. dollars.
1 U.S. dollar = 100 Euros
The knife costs 1,000 Euros, so how much does it cost in U.S. dollars?
The exchange rate depends on the supply and demand for the currency in the foreign
exchange market, so the rate changes every day. The exchange rate on a particular day
is called the spot rate. The exchange rate for a particular transaction is called the cross
rate. Foreign currencies can be bought or sold now and delivered in the future. The
exchange rate used for these transcations is called the forward rate.
You can find foreign exchange rates in the business section of many newspapers.
United Nations System
The United Nations is a multinational organization established after World War II to
ensure that nations would work together to avoid war in the future. It is neither a
government nor a nation, so its has no sovereign power of its own.
The goals of the United Nations are to maintain international peace and the collective
security and promote cooperation in solving political, economic, social, cultural, and
humanitarian problems.
Its key objectives for the 21st century include:
o Promoting the creation of independent and democratic societies
o Protecting human rights
o Saving children from starvation and disease
o Providing relief assistance to refugees and disaster victims
o Countering global crime, drugs, and disease
o Assisting countries devastated by war and the long term threat of land mines
Global Issues, Watchdogs, and Advocates
Because its easy to ignore issues that don’t seem to affect us, we tend to leave the
world’s problems to the politicians. However, global issues such as environmental
damage, contaminated food, and infectious diseases affect us all.
Activists such as watchdogs and advocates keep these problems in front of world
citizens, policymakers, and intergovernmental agencies. United Nations organizations
often appoint celebrities as goodwill ambassadors to bring attention to global issues.
Amnesty International
Amnesty International is a worldwide movement dedicated to protecting human rights as
outlined by the United Nations. This organization works to gain the release of people who
have been imprisoned for theier political or religious beliefs, racial or ethnic origin
provided they have not used or encouraged violence. They campaign to abolish the
death penalty, torture, and degrading punishment. They advocate prompt and fair trials
for political prisoners.
Cooperative for American Relief Everwhere (CARE)
CARE is an international relief agency dedicated to ending poverty. CARE provides food,
disaster aid, health care training, self-help development programs, and economic
Global Issues, Watchdogs, and Advocates
International Red Cross
The mission of the International Red Cross is to provide protection and assistance to
victims of armed conflict. Its efforts include visiting prisoners of war, tracing missing
persons, and re-establishing contact between family members separated by war or
World Health Organization
The main purpose of the World Health Organization is to collaborate with governments,
health professionals, and international organizations to increase the level of health of all
people. WHO has a global strategy to improve primary health care.
International Law
International Conventions and Treaties
These are formal pledges between nations regarding matters of common concern.
Treaties are written contracts, which are considered legally binding on those nations that
signed the agreements.
International Customs
These are international rules that have been practiced so long that courts regard them as
unwritten laws. Most customary laws are based on Western culture and ideas. The laws
are difficult to enforce because many non-western nations are not likely to agree to the
terms of laws that differ from their own customs.
General Principals of Law
These are general principles found in the various legal systesm of many nations. One
example is a nation’s right to defend itself. The International Court of Justice may base its
rulings on genral principles of law.
Comity of Nations
This is when one nation respects another nation’s rules out of respect (in order to be
courteous). This is used in diplomatic situations.
International Law
International Court of Justice
o The International Court of Justice is the judicial organ of the United Nations.
o It handles international disputes between nations.
o The Court tries only the cases in which both nations agree to accept the judgement of
the Court.
International law is difficult to enforce. It is enforced by:
Embargoes – economic sanction; restraint on trade of a specific product or with a
particular nation.
Retorsion - a lawful retaliatory act used by a nation to pressure another nation into
reversing an unfriendly act. The action is identical or similar to the offense, such as
imposing high tariffs or discriminatory duties.
Reprisal – an act of force in response to an illegal action against a nation. For example, if
a country refused to repay a loan, the lending nation could legally seize its property.
War – This is the last resort. Sometimes the threat of war is enough to force a country to
change its ways.
International Law
International Court of Justice
The courts actions include judgements on hostage-taking, right of asylum, rights of
passage, economic rights, and nationality.
International Criminal Court
This court tries individuals accused of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against
humanity. Its goals are to promote the rule of law and ensure that those people
responsible for the most jserious crimes do not go unpunished.
International Criminal Police Organization
INTERPOL is the world’s largest police organization. It maintains information (like DNA
and fingerprints) to share with national law enforcement agencies and supports them in
cooperative efforts to combat international crime. These crimes include:
o Terrorism
o Financial crimes
o Drug trafficking
o High-tech crimes
o Theft of art work
Representation Abroad
A nation advances its foreign policy objectives through foreign assistance, official
representation, and diplomacy. Maintaining a presence in foreign countries
communicates a nation’s values and goals to the inhabitants of those countries.
The U.S. Department of State
The state department is the lead U.S. foreign affairs agency, providing direct advice to
the president through the secretary of state. It coordinates U.S. representation abroad
through Foreign Service employees at U.S. embassies and consulates in foreign
countries. The Bureau of Consular Affairs protects and assists U.S. citizens overseas.
The U.S. Agency for International Development
The USAID manages U.S. economic and humanitarian assistance programs to promote
sustainable development in more than 100 countries. They strive to improve health and
living conditions, provide education and training, protect the environment and promote
economic growth and agricultural development.
Representation Abroad
Diplomatic Relations
Right of legation – the right to send and receive diplomatic representatives to foreign
countries. A diplomat must be accredited to the foreign coutnry by presenting credentials
to the foreign government.
Diplomatic immunity – diplomats are not subject to the laws of the nation to which they
are accredited. This means diplomats cannot be arrested; however, if a diplomats
behavior is inappropriate, or if he/she is unwelcome, the nation tell the diplomat to leave
(persona non grata) or ask the sending country to recall him/her.
Embassy – the headquarters for a nation’s diplomatic relations with a host country. The
embassy is usually located in the capital city and is headed by an ambassador.
Consulate – a consulate serves as a branch of an embassy and is located in a city
outside the capital.
Consul general – person in charge of a consulate
Representation Abroad
Passports and Visas
Passport – is an official document issued to a citizen by a government affirming the
individual’s nationality. A passport permits a citizen to travel or live abroad.
Visa – this is a permit to enter another country and must be issued by the country one
wishes to enter. It is a special seal stamped on a valid passport that indicates the citizen
has permission to enter the country. Before going on a trip, the traveler applies for a visa
at an embassy or consulate representing the country he/she wants to visit.
Expand Your Own Borders
World Scouting
The World Organization of the Scout Movement is an international Scout association of
more than 28 million scouts form 21 countries and territories. Its main goal is to promote
the integrity and development of the scout movement worldwide. Every four years, they
sponsor a world scout jamboree. This is an opportunity to meet scouts from around the
Reaching Out
Try to learn about other countries and cultures:
o Learn a foreign language
o Participate in a student exchange program
o Learn about international issues
o Learn to cook international foods
As the world becomes more interdependent, people will find themselves working on
teams with people from other countries. Its important to learn how to communicate with
people from different cultures.