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Transcript
French Revolution,
Napoleon &
Methodism
Unit 8
• Unit is primarily on France
• French Revolution affected other European nations
• Estates General’s Job is to approve certain taxes
Pre notes
Part 1 The Crisis of the French Monarchy and The
Revolution of 1789 Reading Assignment pg. 594-603
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Legal Orders and Social Realities
Orders or Estates
1. * First Estate = clergy – 100,000 people= .5% or 1/200 ppl
a. owned 10% of land
b. paid voluntary gift to the French State every 5 years
*Second Estate = nobility – 400,000 people= 1.5% or 1/66 ppl
owned 25% of land
lightly taxed
“useful privileges” = Banalities, Corvee
*Third Estate = commoners – everyone else= 97.8%
a. rich merchants, doctors, lawyers, artisans, unskilled laborers,
peasants= 90%
• 1. bourgeoisie = middle class
• b. heavily taxed
• c. few rights
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The Breakdown of the Old Order/Old Regime –Europe before FR
Financial difficulties
national debt & budget deficit soared
expenses of Am. War (Seven Years War) and later on Amer.
Revolution
interest on borrowed money
money to maintain army
expenses of king-Versailles Palace
solutions
declare bankruptcy – can’t = most debt owed to upper class
print more money – cause inflation
raise taxes
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The Monarchy Seeks New Taxes
Louis XV (1770)
appoints Rene Maupeou as chancellor
attempted to increase taxes on nobility
abolished the parlements – local legislative bodies with too
much power
Louis XV dies in 1774
Louis XVI (1774)—dismisses Maupeou
restored all parlements & their powers; parlements spoke for the
aristocracy.
appointed Jacques Necker- director general of finances
revealed a large portion of royal expenditures went to pensions
for aristocrats and other royal court favorites
aristocrats forced Necker to leave office
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. appointed Charles de Calonne minister of finance
a. proposed to encourage internal trade
b. proposed to lower some taxes (gabelle—tax on salt)
c. proposed to transform peasants’ services to money
payments= Lords will have to pay peasants
• d. *proposed a new land tax – require payments from
all landowners regardless of their social status
• e. establish new local assemblies to approve land taxes
• voting power depended on amount of land owned rather
than on social status of owner
• asked Assembly of Notables (Clergy and Nobles) to meet with
Calonne to approve land taxes
• refused the land tax
• claimed they had no right to consent to taxes and that such a
right was vested only in the Estates General – hadn’t met since
1614— 175 years
• notables knew Estates General would allow aristocrats and
church to dominate monarchy
• b. Louis XVI dismisses Assembly of Notables
• dismissed Calonne
• appointed Charles de Brienne minister of finance
• sought to impose the land tax
• *Parlement of Paris said it lacked authority to authorize the tax
and only the Estates General could do so.
• declares taxes null and void
• b. Louis XVI tries to exile judges of Parlement
• 1788 - *King Louis XVI is forced to call the Estates General to raise
tax revenues
• Brienne resigns – Necker returns (rehired)
• Estates General = three separate houses meet separately, only two
branches (estates) needed to approve matters
• aristocrats demanded an equal number of representatives for each
estate
• each order (estate) has one vote
• June 1789 third estate refused to meet unless all estates sat together
• National Assembly formed – a few priests and small majority of
nobles join.
• *Tennis Court Oath = 3rd estate meets in a tennis court on the
grounds of Versailles after being locked out of the EG meeting and
agreed that:
• “we will not disband until France has a constitution”
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• National Constituent Assembly – new legislative assembly
(king eventually recognizes Nat. Con. Assembly) 1 & 2
estate join.
• voting by head and not by order (estate)
• basic agreements
• agreement that royal absolutism should give way to
constitutional monarchy
• individual liberties must be guaranteed by law
• economic reforms such as the abolition of internal trade
barriers.
• C. Marie Antoinette: Louis XVI’s wife, daughter of Maria
Theresa. Has a gambling and spending problem. Very
fancy taste in clothing (fashion), elaborate hairstyles, &
food.
• The Revolt of the Poor and the Oppressed
• King Louis XVI calls in royal troops to Versailles & Paris maybe to
disrupt National Constituent Assembly and to crush the support of the
Parisians had given to the NCA.
• King Louis XVI dismisses Necker—
• Economic hardships
• poor harvest in 1787 & 1788
• food prices were higher
• wages had not kept up with the rise in prices
• winter of 1788-1789 unusually cold – many people suffered from
hunger
• a. *bread riots =bakers & bread shopkeepers were hung, flour had to be
transported w/ army escorts
• high unemployment
• Revolutionary Stage (Letters A, B, and C above set stage for revolution)
• July 14, 1789, Paris= people storm the *Bastille – What and Why?
• Bastille-fortress prison, during Louis XIV it was used for torture
(symbol of king’s power), but was a modern day prison for nobility—
symbol of what was wrong with France’s social system—Peasants are
looking for guns & gunpowder
The Bastille was a symbol of the king’s power
French King Louis XVI
• July 15, 1789 = Militia of Paris changes name to the National
Guard
• Marquis de Lafayette – commander
• Cockade(badge) = red and blue stripes of Paris separated by
white stripe of the king (Bourbon family)
• flag of the revolution
• peasants began insurrections (armed uprisings) against lords
• *Great Fear = peasants were on the rampage against their lords,
trying to retake their land
• a. burning of chateaux = destruction of lord’s records and
documents
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b. peasants refuse to pay feudal dues— banalties
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c. attack on aristocratic lands (stealing grain)
• August 4, 1789 = aristocrats and clergy in National
Constituent Assembly met
• renounced their feudal rights, dues, and tithes
• renounced hunting and fishing rights, judicial authority,
and special exemptions— agree to pay their taxes in full
• all French citizens were subject to the same and equal laws
• *Assembly wants a _limited__ monarchy
• (constitutional monarchy)
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• 4. A member of the third estate, Maximilien Robespierre,
makes his appearance in the NCA
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A Limited Monarchy
National Constituent Assembly meets – August 27, 1789
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (not a const.)
proclaimed that all men were “born and remain free and equal in
rights”
“liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression are
natural rights”
governments existed to protect those rights
all citizens were to be equal before the law and were to be
“equally admissible to all public dignities, offices, and
employments”
there was to be due process of law and presumption of innocence
until proof of guilt
freedom of religion was affirmed
taxation was to be apportioned equally according to capacity to
pay
King Louis stalls in signing
• Women’s March – Oct. 5, 1789—hatred of the Queen,
Marie Antoinette. Why? Spending problem
• scared Louis may try to use troops to dismiss National
Constituent Assembly
• bread continued to be scarce
• unemployment in garment industry
• lack of upper class to buy goods
• March on Versailles Palace: angry fishmonger women
• King Louis XVI forced to move to Paris and live in the
Tuileries palace
• King signs Declaration Rights of _Man___ and
_Citizen_____
• b. National Constituent Assembly moves to Paris
Part 2 The Reconstruction of France Reading
Assignment pg. 603-609
• Political Reorganization
• Summer of 1791: National Const. Assembly began
constructing the Constitution of 1791 (new constitution
would not take effect until October 1791)
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1. unicameral Legislative Assembly in which all laws
would originate
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2. monarch was allowed a suspensive veto that could
delay but not halt legislation
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3. powers of war and peace were vested in the Nat.
Const. Assembly
• Constitution of 1791 would Divided Citizens into Active and Passive Citizens
• only active citizens—men paying annual taxes equal to three days of local
wages—could vote. They chose electors, who in turn chose members of the
legislature
• further property qualifications were required to serve as an elector or serve in the
_legislature___
• 3. political power was based on wealth not birth status
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C. Olympe de Gouge’s Declaration of The Rights of Women
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1. the Declaration Rights of Man only applied to men
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2. she issued a similar declaration wanting it applied to
women—never passed
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a. wanted women to be referred to as citizen
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D. Departments and Courts
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1. provinces were replaced with departments— 83
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2. all ancient courts including the courts of the nobility and local
parlements were abolished and replaced with national uniform
courts
• II.
Economic Policy of the National Constituent Assembly
• *Chaplier Law outlawed workers associations or unions.
• 1. guilds of the Old Regime had been abolished
• 2. peasants and city workers were left to the mercy of the
marketplace
• B. Peasants had to still pay residual feudal dues
• C. Confiscation of Catholic Church Lands
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1. the Nat. _Constituent___ Assembly would not
repudiate the royal debt, because it
•
was owed to the bankers and the merchants of the
upper classes of the _3rd__ Estate—bourgeoise
• 2. National Constituent Assembly replaced indirect taxes with
new land taxes that proved to be insufficient
• 3. to raise funds they decided to seize the land of the RCC in
France and then sell it
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a. caused further inflation, religious schism (fight/dispute),
and eventually a civil war—a revolution inside a revolution
• The Civil Constitution of Clergy
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A. The Nat. Const. Assem. in July 1790, issued the Civil Constitution of the
Clergy
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1. made the Roman Catholic Church a part of the secular state
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2. priests and bishops were elected, salaried, employees of the state
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3. dissolved all religious orders except those who ran schools or cared for
the ___sick____
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4. all clergy had to take an oath to support the Civil Constitution of Clergy
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• B. Civil Constitution of Clergy was a major blunder of the National Const.
Assembly
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1. created immense conflict within France
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2. only seven bishops and about half the lower clergy took the oath of
support
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a. clergy who refused to take the oath were labeled refractory and
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removed from the clergy by the NCA
• Pope Pius VI condemned the Civil Constitution of Clergy and Declaration
Rights of Man.
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this marked the beginning of conflict between the revolutionaries and the pope
some French citizens followed the clergy created by the CCC and others followed the refractory
clergy
• Counterrevolutionary Activity
• *émigrés
• aristocrats and ___clergy____ who fled France
• sought to start counterrevolution
• Flight to Varennes, France by Louis XVI and family: June 20,
1791: dressed up (or down, rather) as servants & headed to
Austrian Netherlands where Marie’s brother was ruler. Stopped
for the night a few hours shy of the border (still in Fr), and
checked into a little Inn. Bellhop recognized the King and. . .
• C. Declaration of Pilnitz August 27, 1791
• 1. issued by HRE Leopold II (King of Austria and brother
of Marie Antoinette) and Frederick William II of Prussia
• 2. promised to protect the royal family and to preserve the
monarchy
• 3. was taken very seriously by the revolutionaries
Part 3 The End of the Monarchy: The Second
Revolution Reading Assignment pg. 609-612
• On October 1, 1791, the new Constitution took effect and the
National Constituent Assembly became known as the Legislative
Assembly.
• Filled with completely new members
• Emergence of the Jacobins  NOT the Jacobites from Eng.!!!
• Since the calling of the Estates General in 1789, like minded
individuals of the Third Estate had formed political clubs to
represent their interest. One such very powerful club was the
Jacobins (most Jacobins were middle class)
• one of the most powerful members was Maximilien Robespierre
• Jacobins wanted
• a republic
• civic virtue by all— everybody serves the gov’t.
• common will (general will) above individual freedom
• Jacobins: _middle__ class
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*radicalized (quick sudden change) the French Revolution
*best organized club of the __3rd___ Estate
*embraced Rousseau’s emphasis on equality and _civic_ virtue.
*established a network of clubs in the provinces/now departments
• The new Legislative Assembly (1791-1792) suffered
from factionalism (diversity becomes so bad you can’t work together)
• more conservative group of Jacobins known as the Girondists
were the first to assume leadership of the Legislative
_Assembly____
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led the Assembly to declare pre-emptive war on Austria and Prussia
Louis XVI actually approved the war. Why??
Wants revolutionaries to lose; wants popularity
initially the war effort went poorly
• i. Duke of Brunswick, commander of Prussian army, was
advancing closer to France and issued a manifesto
threatening to level Paris if the French royal family was
harmed
• another group of Jacobins, who were radical, took the name the
Mountain.
• 3.
In Paris a radical group of workers took over the city
government
• a. city government (Paris Commune) controlled by a radical
group of poor workers called the *sans-culottes= w/o knee
pants; poor, want lower food prices & a republic nation
• b. the sans-culottes, and others, stormed the Tuileries palace,
home of King Louis XVI and family
• i. King’s guards were massacred and several
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Parisian citizens lay dead
• ii. Louis fled to the assembly, was placed under
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arrest, and the constitutional monarchy was
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no more—a _republic__ was born.
• The September Massacres and the Convention
• September Massacres 1792
• sans-culottes, who made up most of the Paris Commune,
murdered 1,200 people in the Paris city jails. Why?? They’re
afraid Prussian armies will set the prisoners free & take
vengeance out on revolutionaries
• Who died??
• Refractory Priests & nobility & common criminals
• *The Convention
• Paris Commune and the more radical Jacobins, the Mountain,
compelled the Legislative Assembly to call for the election by
universal male suffrage of still another new assembly to write a
new constitution.
• this assembly became known as the _Convention____.
• Day after Convention meets, French army halted the Prussian &
Aus. armies advance at the Battle of Valmy: Sept. 20, 1792
• Radical Jacobins (the _Mountain-middle class___ ) and
sans-culottes (lower class)
• had some differences but began to work together
• they became allies
• The Mountain ran the national government (the Convention)
• Sans-culottes controlled local government (The Paris Commune)
• more conservative Girondists get isolated
• January 21, 1793: Execution of Louis XVI
• Louis XVI was put on trial and found guilty of treason among
other charges.
• the Mountain and sans-culottes wanted him executed
• Girondists wanted to spare his life
• Convention declared war on Great Britain, Holland, and Spain.
Why? To spread the revolution
• (Spring 1793-1796) Royalists Vendee Rebellion:
• A counter-revolution, 100,000 ppl died
Part 4 The Reign of Terror Reading
Assignment pg. 615-620
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France at War with Europe
A. William Pitt the Younger (PM of UK)
1. feared the revolutionary ideas might spread to Britain
2. tried to regulate those ideas through laws which suppressed
___speech____ and popular movements.
B. *By April 1793, the French were at war with the nations of the
*First Coalition:
1. Austria
Minor members: Portugal
2. Prussia
Naples and Sicily
3. Great Britain
4. Spain
5. Sardinia-Piedmont
6. Holland
C. The Convention felt threatened because some of its citizens were
conspiring with foreign countries to overthrow the revolution. This led to
the Reign of Terror.
• The Republic Defended
• The Committee of Public Safety
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created by the _Convention___
eventually had almost dictatorial power
made up of 12 people from the Mountain (collective dictatorship)
decided who would live and die by sitting up tribunals (kangaroo
courts)
• most powerful member was *Maximilien Robespierre
• *Robespierre did not embrace Christianity.
•
6. Took away the Declaration of the Rights of Man
• Levee en Masse
• Sans-Culottes invade the Convention and kicks out the near
powerless Girondists
• leaves the Mountain in total control of the Convention
• *Levee en Masse was established by the CPS =Committee of Public
Safety
• *a military requisition on the entire population, conscripting
males into the army and directing economic production to
military purposes.
• *Republic of Virtue; and Why use Terror?
• People have to give up their own interests and serve the
government, use terror to serve the government
• Who died in the Reign of Terror? (Sept 1793—July 1794)
• Marie Antoinette, first victim
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b. Girondists
c. women who had demanded equality
d. complainers of bread prices
e. using _mademoiselle___ and __monsieur___
f. not being excited enough about the revolution
g. neighbors turning in neighbors to make themselves
look good
2. June 1794—the Great Terror
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D. De-Christianization
1. redo calendar—10 day week, 3 weeks a month, 1793=year 1
2. replace Christianity with God of Reason
3. destroy some churches; rename streets
4. Cathedral of Notre Dame renamed “Temple of
Reason”
Robespierre: Reign of Terror
Sans culottes
William Pitt
The Executioner
during the Reign of Terror
• The End of the Reign of Terror (The Great Terror) and the Fall of
Robespierre
• George Danton, who had been a member of the CPS, wanted the Terror to
stop (Dantonist)
• 1. April 1794: Danton was executed by his old friend _Robespierre__
• Festival (Cult) of Supreme Being: June 7, 1794 (20 Prairial, year II)
• Deist cult, “worshipping reason is too abstract”, build huge paper
mache mountain w/ goddess of wisdom, death carts stop, Robespierre
dressed up as God
• *Robespierre and the Robespierrest began executing people at will, not
even requiring evidence to be admitted that would prove their guilt (*Law
of 22 Prairial) June 22 = doesn’t have to have proof of evidence to prove
guilt
• many of sans-culottes, who had been allies of the Mountain were killed. A
total of at least 40,000 individuals died in the Reign of Terror.
• July 26, 1794, (8th Thermidor) Robes. speech to the Convention:
• goes into convention, gives a list of traitors he wants to kill, the
Committee plots to kill him in case they were on the list
• July 27, 1794, (9th Thermidor) the fall of Robespierre & the Robespierrest:
• Place Robespierre under arrest when he tried to read “the List”, he shot his own jaw off in
attempt of suicide & the next day his head was cut off
Part 5 The Thermidorian Reaction (July 28, 1794-Aug.
22, 1795) Reading Assignment pg. 620-624
• Robespierre’s death was a major turning point in the French Revolution
•
A. The Reign of Terror came to an end
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B. What was the Thermidorian Reaction?
•
1. a tempering of the revolution=less radical
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2. weariness of the Terror
•
3. Girondists in hiding returned to the Convention
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4. diminished the power of the CPS
•
• 5. Paris Commune outlawed
•
a. *sans-culottes lost their political power
•
b. Convention lifted price controls and bread price went out of
•
control—bread riots.
•
i. October 5, 1795, sans-culottes, and royalists taking
•
advantage of their discontent staged a revolt
•
against the Convention.
•
ii. revolt was crushed by general Napoleon Bonaparte
• 6. *Paris Jacobin club outlawed
•
7. repealed Law 22 Prairial
•
8. “White Terror” began against those responsible for
the Reign of Terror
• a. murdering and execution of Jacobins (Girondists
excluded)
•
9. worship of Catholicism returned
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a. refractory priests returned
•
10. *Treaties of Basel, March and June 1795,
concluded peace with Prussia and Spain.
• France remained at war with _Austria__ and Great Britain
• “Bands of Jesus”: a. they operated in the South of
Fr. including the cities of Lyon, Marseilles, Toulon.
• b. Young thugs, killed the mountain/Jacobins
• Establishment of the Directory
• A. *On November 2, 1795, a new government, the
Directory, created by the
•
Constitution of the Year III, took the place of the
Convention.
•
1. bicameral legislature instead of unicameral
•
2. executive branch was a five man Directory
•
a. to vote for members of the two houses one
must own property or be a soldier
•
B. Spring 1796: Gracchus Babeuf led the
Conspiracy of the Equals: pg 624, READ IT!!!!!!!
Part 6 The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte and The Consulate in
France Reading Assignment pg. 628-630
• Threats to the Directory
•
A. Main threat came from royalists who wanted to restore the Bourbon
monarchy (previous king’s brother).
•
1. many French were tired of the ever-changing ways of the revolution and
thought the Monarchy would bring stability.
•
2. many émigrés had returned (clergy & nobles)
•
B. Spring legislative elections of 1797
•
1. replaced most incumbents with constitutional monarchists (royalists)
•
2. Directory staged a coup d’état and put their own supporters into the
•
legislative seats the monarchists had _won__.(legislative coup d’état)
•
3. General Napoleon Bonaparte had sent a subordinate to Paris to guarantee
the success of the legislative coup the Directory had staged.
•
C. Who was Napoleon Bonaparte?
•
1. came from a poor lesser noble family on the island of Corsica
•
2. favored the revolution
•
3. was a Jacobin
•
4. had drove the British Navy from the port of Toulon with “hot
shot”
• Early Military Victories For France
•
A. Napoleon was in charge of the invasion of Italy
•
1. aimed at depriving Austria of its rich
northern It. province of Lombardy
•
2. Napoleon crushed Austrian and Sardinian
armies
•
a. *Treaty of Campo Formio: i. Aus.
Netherlands given to Fr.
• ii. Austria drops out of the war in October of 1797
• iii. France dominates Italy and Switzerland
• Britain remained France’s only enemy
• Napoleon did not have the strength to attack the island of Great
Britain
• he decided to attack Egypt and take it from the Ottoman Empire.
How would this hurt Britain??
•
•
•
•
•
i. Drive British out of Meditterranean
ii. cut off communication with _India (tea, cotton, spices)__
iii. Damaged British trade
iv. threaten British __Empire____
b. Napoleon overran __Egypt___
• Napoleon’s army in Egypt was left stranded there when
• British Admiral Horatio Nelson defeated the French fleet at
Abukir Bay
•
2. *France was now at war with the Second Coalition:
•
•
•
•
Russia
Ottoman Empire
Austria
Britain
Minor members: Portugal
Kingdom of the Two Sicily's
• Abbe Sieyes and Napoleon’s Coup
• The Directory was losing credibility and support.
• Abbe Sieyes wanted a new government in its place
• he needed the support of Napoleon and the military to accomplish
this
• Napoleon had recently escaped Egypt and joined Sieyes
• on November 10, 1799, Napoleon’s troops overthrew the
Directory
• The Consulate (1799-1804) was the name of the government Sieyes
and Napoleon created.
• consisted of three leaders—the Consuls
• Napoleon pushed Sieyes aside
• named himself first Consul
• *establishment of the Consul marks the end of the French
Revolution.
• Read Constitution in the Year VIII pg. 629 left side
• plebiscite: popular vote by ballot (voting by all)
• Enemies in France
• Napoleon rid himself of all domestic enemies in France,
especially royalists
• Fighting the Second Coalition
• Russia and Ottomans _left the coalition___
• Austrian army defeated in Italy at the Battle of Marengo in 1800
• a. Treaty of Luneville=Austria drops out of war
•
C. *1802, Treaty of Amiens=Britain signs peace
agreement with France
•
1. Peace throughout Europe, for now . . .
•
•
•
•
•
•
Concordat with the RCC
(cult of the supreme being is basically gone by now)
Napoleon made peace with the Catholic Church
*He signed a concordat with Pope Pius VII
1. revolutionary and refractory clergy had to resign
2. French state named bishops, but pope would be their
boss.
• 3. bishops—salaried officials of the state (Pope would be the boss)
• 4. RCC gave up all claims to confiscated property
• Napoleonic Code
• A. Plebiscite made him consul for life in 1802
• B. Much of French laws had differed from region to region—
parlements
• Napoleon wanted a single legal system for the entire country.
• Napoleonic Code included:
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
privileges based on birth remained abolished (no nobility)
workers organizations forbidden (no guilds)
fathers control over their children and husbands over their wives
*property distributed among all male children not just the oldest son
VIII.Dynasty and Empire established
A. Sons would inherit his throne
B. New constitution approved by a plebiscite made him emperor
C. Pope Pius VII and the coronation of Napoleon:
at Notre Dame cathedral, took crown out of Pope’s hands as the Pope
was crowning him
•
• 1. Napoleon’s coronation marks the end of the Consulate
•
Part 7 Napoleon’s Empire (1804-1814)
Reading Assignment pg. 630-633
• No nation could match the resources of Napoleon’s army
• Napoleon had 700,000 troops under arms at one time.
• Conquering an Empire
• Spain giving the huge Louisiana Territory to France, among other
events, convinced the British that the French were trying to build a
new French empire in the America.
• New German states dependent on and allied with Napoleon.
• 1. Treaty of Campo Formio allowed Fr. to expand into
western Germ.
• Britain issued an __Ultimatum___ that Napoleon ignored
• Britain declares war on France in May 1803
• * U.K. P.M. William Pitt the Younger began to construct the
Third Coalition:
• Britain
• Russia
• Austria
Minor members: Portugal
Sweden
Naples and Sicily
• *Battle of Trafalgar October 21,1805
• British Admiral Horatio Nelson destroyed the French and its
Spanish allies fleet of the coast of Spain
• Nelson died
• no British ships lost
• French hope of invading Britain ended for the most part:
• Napoleon’s Victories in Central Europe
• 1805: defeated Austrian Army at Ulm and occupied Vienna
• *defeated Austrian and Russian forces at Austerlitz in December,
1805 (battle of the 3 Emperors—Nap., Francis II, & Alexander I)
• Treaty of Pressburg
• Austria withdrew from Italy
• Napoleon was recognized as king of Italy
• Austria dropped out of war against France for now
• Restructuring of Germany
• Napoleon created the Confederation of the Rhine
• western German princes join and withdraw from HRE
• HRE is dissolved by HRE Francis II who simply takes title of
Emperor Francis I of Austria—1806
• . Fourth Coalition-Saxony and Prussia join Britain,
Russia, and minor states of Sweden, and Sicily.
• Prussia now joined in the war against France
• Napoleon quickly crushes the Prussian army at Jena and
Auerstadt on October 14, 1806
• June 13, 1807, defeated the Russians at Friedland and occupied
east Prussia
• *Treaty of Tilsit July 1807 meet at the Neva River
• Tsar Alexander I, leader of Russia, wants peace.
• confirmed all of France’s gains
• Prussia lost half its territory (Prussia was powerless to negotiate
with Napoleon)—czar Alexander . . .saved Prussia
• Prussia became an unwilling ally of Napoleon
• Russia became a secret ally of Napoleon
• wanted to cut off all trade to Britain
• Napoleon put members of his family in charge of much of his
conquered territories.
• The Continental System
• Unable to conquer __Britain____ directly, Napoleon began
economic warfare
• Napoleon wanted to cut off all British trade with continent
• (Continental System)
• Britain instead traded with North and South America and smuggled
some goods into Europe
• Almost all countries resented the Continental System.
• backfired and badly hurt European economies
• really only benefited __France___ itself
Emperor Napoleon: most feared man in Europe for awhile
Russian Czar Alexander I
Josephine Bonaparte
Surrender to Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz,
Napoleon’s greatest victory
Part 8 European Response to the Empire
Reading Assignment pg. 633-640
• Prussia reorganized itself so it could later fight off Napoleon
• Had an army of 270,000 by 1814
• *Spain
• had been an ally of Napoleon since 1796
• French Army invaded Spain, to get at Portugal, who had an alliance
with __Britain_____
• army stayed in Spain
• Napoleon deposed the Spanish Bourbons and placed his brother Joseph on
the throne.
• Spanish peasants were very loyal to their deposed king and the RCC
which Napoleon was harassing.
• guerrilla warfare:
• Spanish peasants fought off France with hit and run attacks
• British landed an army under Sir Arthur Wellesley, later to become the
Duke of Wellington, to support the _Spanish_ insurgents.
• drained French strength and resources elsewhere
• Austria
• France’s trouble in Spain encouraged Austria to declare war on
__France___ in 1809.
• Fifth Coalition: Austria and Britain. Minor Members: Sicily,
Sardinia, and Black Brunswickers.
• *Battle of Wagram July 1809
• Napoleon marched into Austria and defeated their army
• Peace of Schonbrunn
• deprived Austria of much territory
• lost 3.5 million subjects
• Russia
• Russia withdrew from the continental system and began to prepare for war
• Napoleon invaded Russia with 600,000 troops
• Russia had 160,000 troops to defend their nation
• scorched-earth policy: burn off the land as the army retreats
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• Napoleons supply lines were too long
• *Battle of Boridino September, 1812
• cost Napoleon 30,000 casualties
• Russian lost twice as many men, but their army was not destroyed
• Russia won this battle
• Battle of Moscow 1812
• city burned by the Russians
• By October 1812 the French Army retreated
• *only about 100,000 of his original 600,000 troops survived the Russian
invasion
• Napoleon raised another 350,000 men back in Paris
• inexperienced
• poorly equipped
• *Sixth (Last) Coalition
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Russia
Prussia
Austria
Great Britain
Minor Members: Sweden, Spain, Portugal,
Sicily, Sardina and after Battle of Nations:
Saxony, Bavaria, & Wurttemberg.
• from Spain, Wellington marched his army into France
• Battle of Dresden Aug.1813
• Napoleon defeated allies in Central Germany
• Battle of Nations, Leipzig, Germany
• Napoleon defeated on October 14, 1813.
• March 1814, Allied armies march into Paris
• Napoleon abdicated (surrenders and steps down from power)
• sent into exile on the island of Elba
Part 9 The Congress of Vienna and European
Settlement Reading Assignment pg. 640-642
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. *Treaty of Chaumont March 1813
A. Bourbons were to be returned to the throne in France
1. Louis XVIII would be king
B. state of France returned to its pre-revolutionary boundaries
II. *Quadruple Alliance=armies would approve whatever settlement was agreed on
at the Congress of Vienna. Also, work to prevent future French aggression.
A. Britain
B. Austria
C. Russia
D. Prussia
III. Congress of Vienna (September 1814-November 1815)
A. Four great powers of the Quadruple Alliance conducted the important work.
B. Leaders at the Congress
1. Britain=Lord Castlereagh—British foreign secretary.
2. Austria=foreign minister Clemens von Metternich
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3. Russia=Czar Alexander I
4. Prussia=King Frederick William III
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. Decisions
1. no single state should dominate Europe
2. keep France calm and pacified
3. *Austria given full control of northern Italy
4. created German Confederation ( not a _united___
Germany) Aus. _dominated it__
5. legitimacy reestablished: put legitimate monarchs back
in power
6. Poland remain divided among _Prussia__, Austria, and
Russia
7. Prussia, Austria, and Russia formed the Holy Alliance
whereby the monarchs promised to act together in
accordance with Christian principles.
• a. Britain thought Holy Alliance was absurd
• 8. *Prussia given _land__ along the _Rhine__ River
• At the Congress of Vienna the Austrian Netherlands were
taken away from Austria & given to Belgium &
Luxemburg
• The Hundred Days: March 20, 1815-July 8, 1815 (111 days)
• Napoleon escaped from Elba while the Congress was in session and
returned to France
• Louis XVIII sent troops to arrest Napoleon; the troops joined him.
March 20, 1815, Napoleon arrives in Paris
• Napoleon promised the Allies peace
• Allies declared Napoleon an outlaw and sent their armies to crush
him.
• *Battle of Waterloo (June 18, 1815) End of Napoleon
• Wellington (British) and the Prussian army under Marshal von
Blucher defeated Napoleon in Belgium
• Napoleon abdicated—Louis XVIII returns July 8, 1815
• i. Napoleon exiled to Saint Helena and this time watched!
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E. Successes of the Congress of Vienna
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1. treaties made by states rather than monarchs
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i. monarch dies, treaty still in place
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2. all sides respected the treaty, even France
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3. prevented a European wide war for 100 years
Map: Europe after the
Congress of Vienna
Battle of Waterloo: Wellington waves
his hat encouraging U.K. troops to
attack
Part 10 Methodism Reading Assignment pg.
650
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Methodism
A. *Founded by John Wesley
1. he was trained to be an Anglican priest
2. discovered he could not preach his version of Christianity in the Anglican Church.
a. began to preach his version of Christianity near the towns of western
England
b. had hundreds of followers
B. Late 1700’s Methodists had become a __separate___ church.
1. Methodist ordained their own clergy
2. sent missionaries to America
a. achieved great success in _America____
C. Methodist stressed:
1. inward, heartfelt religion/stressed one-on-one relationship w/ Christ,
born-again experience
2. possibility of Christian perfection in this life
3. repentance
D. Methodist created Sunday school
E. Taught people to read
John Wesley Memorial taken on
Cockspur Island, Georgia, near the
mouth of the Savannah River by Mr.
Frazier in June of 2010