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Alexandra Roman- Cruz
ANGD 1301
Professor Watkins
Computer Literacy Vocab List
Input device- a peripheral device, as a keyboard or stylus, used to enter data into a computer for
Output Device- electronic or elecrtomechanical equipment connected to a computer and used to
transfer Dad out of the computer in the form of text, images, sounds or other media to a display screen,
printer, loudspeaker or storage device.
Storage- Electronic memory device.
Motherboard- a rigid, slotted board upon which other boards that contain the basic circuity of a
computer component can be mounted.
Hard disk drive- the mechanism that controls the positioning, reading, and writing of the hard disk,
which furnishes the largest amount of data storage for the PC.
RAM (random access memory)- is the place in a computer where the operating system, applications
programs, and data in current use are kept so that they can be quickly reached by the computer’s
Peripheral- is any computer that is not part of the essential computer but is situated relatively close.
Bus- the data path on the computer’s motherboard that interconnects the microprocessor with
attachments to the motherboard in expansion slots (such as hard drives, CD- ROM drives, and graphic
Expansion cards- a card in a computer on which additional chips can be mounted to expand the
computer’s capabilities.
Power supply unit- an electronic module that converts high voltage alternating current mains electricity
into smoothed direct current at the various different voltages required by the motherboard; internal
peripheral devices, chiefly storage devices.
Optical disk drive- uses a laser light to read data from or write data to an optical disc.
Central Processing Unit- the part of a computer that performs logical and arithmetical operations on the
data as specified in the instructions
Software- the programs used to direct the operation of a computer, as well as documentation giving
instructions on how to use them.
Operating System- the collection of software that directs a computer’s operations, controlling and
scheduling the execution of other programs, and managing storage, input/ output, and communication.
Driver- a program that controls a device
Program- provide (a computer or other machine) with coded instructions for the automatic performance
of a particular task.
Bootstrapping- to load a program into a computer using a much smaller initial program to load in the
desired program (which is usually an operating system).
BIOS- a set of computer instructions in firmware that control input and output operations
Command line- the space to the right of the command prompt on an all- text display mode on a
computer monitor in which a user enters commands and data.
Algorithm- a process or set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problem- solving operations,
especially by a computer.
Analog- a computer that operates with numbers represented by directly measurable quantities (as
voltages or rotations) compare digital computer, hybrid computer.
App- a self- contained program or piece of software designed to fulfill a particular purpose; an
application, especially as downloaded by a user to a mobile device.
Application- a set of computer programs designed to permit the user to perform a group of coordinated
functions, tasks, or activities.
Array- an number of items arranged in some specified way
Backup- copying and archiving of computer data so it may be used to restore the original after a data
loss event.
Bandwidth- the range of frequencies within a given band, in particular that used for transmitting a
Binary- relating to, using, or expressed in a system of numerical notation that has 2 rather than 10 as a
Bit- the smallest unit of data in a computer
Bitmap- defines a display space and the color for each pixel or “bit” in the display space.
Byte- a group of binary digits or bits (usually eight) operated on as a unit
Blog- a regularly updated website or webpage, typically one run by an individual or small group, that is
written in an informal or conversational style
Blogger- to maintain or add new entries to a blog
Bookmark- a menu entry or icon on a computer that is usually created by the user and that serves as a
shortcut to a previously viewed location
Boot- to load an operating system into the computers main memory or random access memory (RAM).
Broadband- High-speed transmission. The term commonly refers to Internet access via a variety of highspeed networks, including cable, DSL, FiOS, Wi-Fi, WiMAX, 3G, 4G and satellite, all of which are faster
than analog dial-up by a huge magnitude.
Browser- a client software program that runs against a web server or other internet server and enables
a user to navigate the World Wide Web to access a display data
Buffer- a region of a physical memory used to temporarily store data while it is being moved from one
place to another
Bug- an error flaw, failure, or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an
incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways.
Cache- reserved areas of memory in every computer that are used to speed up instruction execution,
data retrieval and data updating.
Cap lock- a keyboard key that toggles upper case on and off
Captcha- a program or system intended to distinguish human from machine input, typically as a way of
thwarting spam and automated extraction of data from websites
Client- a piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service made available by a server
Clip art- a collection of pictures or images that can be imported into a document or another program
Clipboard- a reserved section of memory that is used as a temporary, behind-the- scenes staging area
for data that are copied or moved from one application to another using the copy and past (duplicate)
and cut and past (move) menu functions
Cloud computing- the practice of using a network of remote servers hosted on the internet to store,
manage, and process data, rather than local server or a personal computer
Command- an instruction given by a user telling a computer to do something, such a run a single
program or a group of link programs.
Compile- a computer program that transforms source code written in a programming language into
another computer language.
Compress- the re- encoding of data into a from that uses fewer bits of information that the original data
Computer- an electronic device for storing and processing data, typically in binary form, according to
instructions given to it in a variable program
Computer program- a sequence of instructions, written to perform a specified task on a computer.
Configure- to put together by supplying, arranging, or connecting a specific set of internal or external
Cookie- a small text file created by a Web site that is stored in the user’s computer either temporarily
for that session only or permanently on the hard disk.
Copy- a file that has the same data as another file
Data- facts or figures, or information that’s stored in or used by a computer
Database- a collection of informed that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and
Data mining- a process used by companies to turn raw data into useful information. By using software to
look for patterns in large batches of data, business can learn more about their customers and develop
more effective marketing strategies as well as increase sales and decrease costs.
Debug- a methodical process of finding and reducing the number of bugs, or defects, in a computer
program or a piece of electronic hardware, thus making it behave as expected
Decompress- to convert (as a compressed file or signal) to an expanded or original size
Delete- to remove from a document or record
Desktop- the primary display screen of a graphical user interface, on which various icons represent files,
groups of files, programs, etc., which can be moved, accessed, added to, put away, or thrown away in
ways analogous to the handling of file folders, documents, notes, etc., on a real desk.
Development- the computer programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved in creating
and maintaining applications and frameworks involved in a software release life cycle and resulting in a
software product.
Digital- (of signals or data) expressed as series of the digits 0 and 1, typically represented by values of a
physical quantity such as voltage or magnetic polarization
Disk- any of several types of media consisting of this, round, plates of plastic or metal, used for external
DNS (domain name system)- the way the internet domain names are located and translated into
protocol addressed. A domain name is a meaningful and easy- to- remember “handle” for an internet
Document- Originally, the term referred to only a file created in a word processor. When Apple
introduced the Macintosh in the mid-1980s, it called every data file a document no matter which
software application was used to create it
Domain- a group of computers that can be accessed and administered with a common set of rules.
Domain Name- used to identify one or more IP address
Download- to receive data to a local system from a remote system, or to initiate such a data transfer
Drag- highlighting a folder on a computer desktop and moving it into another folder on the desktop
Email- a system for sending messages from one individual to another via telecommunications links
between computers or terminals using dedicated software
Emoticon- a digital icon or a sequence of keyboard symbols that serves to represent a facial expression
Encrypt- convert (information or data) into a cipher or code, especially to prevent unauthorized access
Encryption- the most effective way to achieve data security
Enter- keyboard that is pressed to signal the computer to input the line of data or the command that
had just been typed
Exabyte- a large unite of computer data storage, two to the sixtieth power bytes
File- is a resource for storing information, which is available to a computer programs and is usually
based on some kind of durable storage
Finder- is the desktop interface of Macintosh computers. It allows users to move, copy, delete, and
open files, navigate through folders, and move windows around the desktop.
Firewall- a system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network
Firmware- software stored in read- only memory (ROM) or programmable ROM (PROM)
Flaming- the act of posting or sending offensive messages over the internet
Flash- an electronic non- volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and
Flash drive- a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated Universal Serial Bus
(USB) interface.
Floppy disk- a flexible removable magnetic disk, typically encased in hard plastic, used for storing data
Flowchart- a graphical representation of a computer program in relation to its sequence of functions
Folder- a named collection of related files that can be retrieved, moved, and otherwise manipulated as
one entity
Font- a specific typeface of a certain size and style
Format- a pre-established layout for data
Gigabyte- a unit of information equal to one billion (10^9) or, strictly, 2^30 bytes
Hack- use a computer to gain unauthorized access to data in a system
Hacker- One who uses programming skills to gain illegal access to a computer network or file.
Hardware- the collection of physical parts of a computer system. This includes the computer case,
monitor, keyboard, and mouse
Html- the set of markup symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on a world wide web
browser page
Hyperlink- a link from a hypertext file or document to another location or file, typically activated by
clicking on a highlighted word or image on the screen
Hypertext- a software system that links topics on the screen to related information and graphics, which
are typically accessed by a point- and click method
Integer- a datum of integral data type, a data type which represents some finite subset of the
mathematical integers
IP address- a unique string of numbers separated by periods that identifies each computer using the
internet protocol to communicate over a network
Iteration- a new version of a piece of computer hardware or software
Java- a general- purpose computer programming language that is concurrent, class- based, objectoriented and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible
Kernel- a computer program that manages input/ output requests from software, and translates them
into data processing instructions for the central processing unit and other electronic components of a
Logic- an aspect of computer design concerning the fundamental operations and structures upon which
all computer systems are built
Lurking- the practice of reading an online or e-mail discussion without taking part in the discussion
Mainframe- are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications, bulk dada
processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning and
transaction processing
Macro- a rule or pattern that specifies how certain input sequence (often q sequence of characters)
should be mapped to a replacement output sequence according to a defined procedure
Malware- refers to software programs designed to damage or do other unwanted actions on a computer
Mirror- a web or FTP server that has the same files on it as another server
Modem- a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over, for example, telephone or
cable lines
Monitor- a display screen used to provide visual output from a computer, cable box, video camera, VCR
or other video generated device
Motherboard- the physical arrangement in a computer that contains the computer’s basic circuitry and
Mouse- a hand- held input device that is moved about on a flat surface to direct the cursor on a
computer screen
Multimedia- a combination of media, as film, tape recordings, slides, and special lighting effects, used
for entertainment or education
Open Source- computer software with its source code made available with a license in which the
copyright holder provides the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any
Path- the complete location or name of where a computer file, webpage, or other object is located
Phishing- the activity of defrauding an online account holder of financial information by posing as a
legitimate company
Piracy- unauthorized copying of some purchased software
Platform- an underlying computer system on which application programs can run
Plug- in- a software component that adds a specific feature to an existing software application
Podcast- a form of digital media that consists of an episodic series of audio or digital radio, subscribes to
and downloaded through web syndication or streamed online to a computer or mobile device
Pop- up- often in forms of online advertising on the world wide web intended to attract or capture email
Portal- a website that acts as a starting point for browsing the web
Process- a program that is running on your computer. This can be anything from a small background
task, such as a spell- checker or system events handler to a full- blown application like internet explorer
or Microsoft Word
Protocol- when computers communicate with each other, there needs to be common set of rules and
instructions that each computer follows
Queue- a list of jobs that are awaiting to be processed
QWERTY- the term to describe the Latin alphabet- based keyboard
RAM (random access memory)- made up of small memory chips that form a memory module. These
modules are installed in the RAM slots on the motherboard of your computer.
Reboot- an act or instance of restarting a computer
Resolution- how many pixels a monitor can display or how fine a printer can print
Restore- return a computer to its previous state. This may be a previous system backup or the original
factory settings
ROM (read only memory)- memory containing hardwired instructions that the computer uses when it
boots up, before the system software loads
Root- the top- level directory of a file system
Router- a hardware device that routes data from a local area network (LAN) to another network
Runtime- the period of time when a program Is running
Script- a list of commands that are executed by a certain program or scripting engine
Search engine- by creating indexes, or large databases of web sites (based on titles, keywords, and the
text in the pages), search engines can locate relevant web sites when users search terms or phrases
Security- the protection of data, networks and computing power
Shareware- software that you can use on a trial basis before paying for it
Shell- software program that interprets commands from the user so that the OS can understand them
and perform the appropriate functions
Spam- refers to junk e-mail or irrelevant postings to a newsgroup or bulletin board
Spammer- the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited messages, especially advertising,
as well as sending messages repeatedly on the same site
Spreadsheet- a document that stores data in a grid of horizontal rows and vertical columns
Status bar- a small area at the bottom of a window. It is used by some applications to display helpful
information for the user
Storage- any type of hardware that stores data
Spyware- software that “spies” on your computer. Can capture information like web browsing habits, email messages, usernames and passwords, and credit card information
Supercomputer- a high performance computing machine designed to have extremely fast processing
Surf- examining online material, such as databases, news clips and forums to find some item of interest
Syntax- the grammar, structure, or order of the elements in a language statement
Terabyte- a unit of information equal to one million million (10^12) or strictly, 2^20 bytes
Terminal- consists of just a keyboard and monitor, with a connection to another computer
Text editor- any word processing program that you can use to type and edit text
Thread- allow the program to execute sequential actions or many actions at once
Trojan horse- software programs that masquerade as regular programs, such as games, disk utilities, and
even antivirus programs
Typeface- a set of characters of the same design. These characters include letters, numbers, punctuation
marks, and symbols.
Unix- the first created operating system for high- level computing
Upload- sending a file from your computer to another system
User interface- the means in which a person controls a software application or hardware device
Username- a name that uniquely identifies someone on a computer system
URL- (Uniform Resource Locator) the address of a specific web site or file on the internet
Utility- software programs that add functionality to your computer or help your computer perform
Virtual memory- hardware that your computer uses to load the OS and run programs
Virus- small programs or scripts that can negatively affect the health of your computer
Wiki- a web site that allows users to add and update content on the site using their own web browser
Word processor- processes words, paragraphs, pages, and entire papers.
Workstation- a computer that has been configured to perform a certain set of tasks, such as photo
editing, audio recording, or video production
Worm- either a computer virus or an optical storage technology
WWW- (world wide web) a subset of the internet, consists of pages that can be accessed using a web
XML- (Extensible Markup Language) used to define documents with a standard format that can be read
by any XML- compatible application
Zip- a “zipped” or compressed file