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6 DENTAL TRIBUNE Pakistan Edition January 2015
Head and neck cancer:
Antacids could increase
survival rate
INTERNATIONAL NEWS
Society’s poorest have eight
fewer teeth
DT International Report
N
DT International Report
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NN ARBOR, Mich., USA: Antacids are usually
prescribed to manage acid reflux, a common side effect
of chemotherapy or radiation treatment in head and
neck cancer patients. However, this medication might also aid
in halting cancer progression, according to new research. A
study conducted at the University of Michigan has found that
patients who took antacids had better overall survival compared
with patients who did not receive such medicine.
The study included 596 patients with previously untreated
head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, of whom two-thirds
took antacid medication while the remainder served as controls.
"Patients taking antacid medications had significantly better
overall survival," the researchers said. Participants who took
proton pump inhibitors had a 45 percent decreased risk of death
compared with the controls, and patients who took histamine
receptor-2 blockers had a 33 percent decreased risk of death.
Although these findings indicate that routine use of antacid
medications may have a significant therapeutic benefit in patients
with head and neck cancer, the mechanisms underlying the effect
are not well understood yet. Therefore, additional studies are
planned to investigate whether antacids can be used to halt
cancer progression and to reduce the risk of developing head
and neck cancer.
Proton pump inhibitors, such as Prilosec, Nexium and Prevacid,
and histamine-2 blockers, such as Tagamet, Zantac or Pepcid,
are regarded as relatively safe and typically have few adverse
side effects.
The study, titled "Proton Pump Inhibitors and Histamine 2
Blockers Are Associated with Improved Overall Survival in
Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Carcinoma," was
published in the December issue of the Cancer Prevention
Research journal.
Dentists develop saliva
test for lung cancer
DT International Report
L
OS ANGELES, USA: Dental researchers have developed
a novel technology that can detect mutations characteristic
of lung cancer in saliva. In a series of tests, the researchers
were able to demonstrate that detecting such mutations in saliva
using the new method was as effective as testing with plasma.
Thus, they believe it could be a noninvasive, cost-effective and
rapid alternative to conventional test approaches.
The new technology, called electric field-induced release and
EWCASTLE, UK: The poorest
people in society have eight
fewer teeth by their seventies
than the richest, one of the largest studies
of its type ever undertaken has found.
The research, a collaboration between
Newcastle University, the Newcastle
upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University College London (UCL) and the
National Centre for Social Research, showed that oral health is substantially worse among
the poorest 20 per cent of society compared with the most wealthy. For those over 65
years old, the least well off averaged eight fewer teeth than the richest—a quarter of a full
set of teeth.
More than 6,000 people aged 21 and over from all income groups and regions of the
UK, excluding Scotland, were involved in the study, which was funded by the Economic
and Social Research Council and used data from the recent UK Adult Dental Health
Survey. Those with lower income, higher deprivation and lower educational attainment,
and in a lower occupational class generally had the worst clinical outcomes, including
increased tooth decay, periodontal disease, and diastemas, as well as fewer teeth overall.
Despite these social differences, oral health is improving and the oral health of young
British adults overall is much better than it used to be. However, previously published
research by the same team showed that, while the youth had much healthier mouths than
did their predecessors, when asked how good or bad their own oral health was and how
it affected them, the social divisions between rich and poor were evident, and even more
pronounced than in older people. The poorest young people were very aware of their poor
health and much more likely than the wealthiest to rate their oral health as poor or say
that it affected their day-to-day life.
Mix of reasons for poor oral health
Prof. Jimmy Steele, CBE, Head of the School of Dental Sciences at Newcastle University
and lead author, said: “It’s probably not a big surprise that poorer people have worse dental
health than the richest, but the surprise is just how big the differences can be and how it
affects people. Eight teeth less on average is a huge amount and will have had a big impact
for these people. From our data it is hard to say which specific factors are driving each
of the differences we are seeing here, but there is probably a real mix of reasons and it
Continued to page 11
Saliva test in dental setting could
help diagnose deadly diseases
DT International Report
L
OS ANGELES, USA:
Salivary fluid has
become an emerging
medium for the detection of
oral and systemic diseases, as
well as for health surveillance
in recent years. Now, a study
conducted at the University of
California, Los Angeles
(UCLA), has shown that a simple saliva test conducted in the dental practice could be
capable of diagnosing serious illnesses such as diabetes and cancer at an early stage.
The UCLA School of Dentistry has been researching biomarkers in saliva for over a
decade. In the present study, the researchers analyzed 165 million genetic sequences and
discovered that saliva contains various RNAs that are biomarkers for diseases and can
thus be used to detect and monitor diseases.
According to the researchers, the study is the most comprehensive analysis ever conducted
on RNA molecules in saliva. It found that saliva contains many of the same diseaserevealing molecules that are contained in blood. Overall, they were able to identify more
than 400 circular RNAs in human saliva, including 327 forms that were previously
unknown. By comparing microRNA levels in saliva to those in blood and other body
fluids, they also found that these levels were very similar, indicating that a saliva sample
could serve as a good measure of microRNA in the body.
Dr. David Wong, a senior author of the study and associate dean of research at the
school, suggested that dentists might be able to take saliva samples to analyze for a variety
of diseases, including Type 2 diabetes and gastric cancer, in the future. The findings could
also lead to a new category of self-diagnostic devices, he said.
The study will be published in the January 2015 special print issue of the ClinicalChemistry
journal, titled Molecular Diagnostics: A Revolution in Progress.
Cont
10 DENTAL TRIBUNE Pakistan Edition January 2015
lecture on different of stresses experienced
by individuals of all ages, and their effects
on dental health. He also linked the 9/11
chain of events to the stress and anxiety
prevalent in our population, and how it
gradually damages our oral musculature.
Dr Kashif Ikram enlightened guests on
the benefits of regularly using the
'Miswak', and linked deterioration of oral
health with the development of various
diseases. Dr Noor ul Wahab presented
inspirational patient cases before and after
orthognathic surgery, highlighting the role
played by maxilla-facial surgeons in
correcting facial aesthetics. Dr Irfan
Qamaruddin comprehensively discussed
orthodontic forces, encouraging all
dentists to consider the three-dimensional
effects of every force applied, because it
has an equal and opposite reaction which
may or may not be favorable, if not
carefully evaluated during treatment
planning. Dr Najeeb Saad spoke about
the importance of case selection and the
correct choice of ceramics for restoration.
Dr Feroz Ali Kalhoro presented an
interesting lecture on the common
dilemma of broken endodontic files
experience by all dentists - students or
experts. Dr Nadeem Hafeez Khokhar
shared his vast knowledge on the subject
Continued to page 11
New study: Pure fruit juice
Nature of our job could
increase risk of developing does not promote caries in
infant teeth
mouth cancer
DT International Report
R
UGBY, UK: Exposure to smoke, regular consumption of processed
foods, time in the sun and the consumption of alcohol as part of one’s
job could increase the risk of developing mouth cancer, according
to the British Dental Health Foundation.
A new survey conducted by the charity found that one in four people
regularly ate processed foods at work, while one in five said sun exposure
and second-hand smoke were regular occurrences. A further three in ten said
they regularly drank alcohol as part of their job.
The problem appears to be compounded by habits after work, with alcohol,
smoking and sexual practices all forming part of a relaxing routine. Only one
in four regularly exercised, which has been linked to lowering the risk of
cancer.
Tobacco use, drinking alcohol to excess, the human papillomavirus, often
transmitted via oral sex, and poor diet are all risk factors for mouth cancer.
Chief Executive of the British Dental Health Foundation Dr Nigel Carter,
OBE, hopes for a change in attitude to help reduce growing rates.
Carter said, “Working can be quite stressful at times, and it’s entirely
understandable that people want to come home and relax. The problem with
Continued to page 11
DT International Report
B
ALTIMORE, USA: It is widely believed that unrestricted consumption
of acidic beverages, such as juices and soft drinks, can cause dental
caries, one of the most common chronic diseases in children. However,
a new study conducted by dental researchers at the University of Maryland,
Baltimore, has suggested that consumption of 100 percent fruit juice is not
associated with early childhood caries in preschool-age children.
Using data from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination
Survey for 2,290 children aged 2–5, the researchers found no link between
intake of 100 percent fruit juice and early childhood caries. They thus
recommended that limiting consumption to 4–6 oz per day among children
aged 1–5 should be taught as part of general health education.
"Our findings are consistent with those of other studies. Dental practitioners
should educate their patients and communities about the low risk of developing
caries associated with consumption of 100 percent fruit juice," the researchers
concluded.
The study, titled "Early Childhood Caries and Intake of 100 Percent Fruit
Juice: Data from NHANES, 1999–2004," was published in the December
issue of the Journal of the American Dental Association.
January 2015 Pakistan Edition DENTAL TRIBUNE 11
PDA Symposium ....
DTMA to host the largest Dental Show...
Continued from page 10
Continued from page 2
largest dental show ever held in Pakistan.
The exhibition is organized in Hall no 4 &
5 launching innovative products for the
benefit of the entire dental community, the
DTMA members are committed to offer huge
discounts, introduce new technology and
provide all solutions are made available under
one roof.
Talking to Dental News Mr Ghauri said that
DTMA is promoting the event for the past
several months and is confident that the
largest dental show will attract the highest
number of dental and allied professionals.
Since DTMA decided the dates for the show
well in time, it has provided enough time to
all traders and manufacturers to plan things
well in advance, hence all exhibitors will
have plenty of stock to match the needs of
customers visiting the expo.
The highlight of the conference will be
of dental adhesives, and Dr Murtuza Kazmi presented
his lecture on the prosthodontic rehabilitation of
edentulous patients.
Sumptuous lunch was served, after which the scientific
lecture session resumed. Dr Saifullah Khan gave a
comprehensive guide on the correct management of
oncology patients for dental rehabilitation, the use of
bisphosphonates and their effect on oral tissues. Dr Abu
Bakr Sheikh used excellent radiographs to explain the
correct path to fail-proof root canal procedures. Dr
Farhan Raza presented his lecture on the outcome of
dental implant surgery and prosthetics at a university
based hospital, while Dr Hina Ahmed elucidated the
difference between manual and rotary instrumentation
techniques in root canal preparation. Dr Faisal Qayyum's
presentation on the implant-aesthetic zone was highly
informative; and Dr Zahid Iqbal gave a descriptive lecture
on the importance and application of endodontic MTA
monoblocks.
Towards the end of the lecture session, Prof Dr Saqib
Rashid presented his vote of thanks and declared the
ceremony officially closed. Guest speakers were awarded
shields and participants received certificates with 5 credit
hours each, courtesy IADSR. A pre-symposium workshop
on Rotary Endodontics facilitated by Dr Saqib Rashid
and Dr Arshad Hasan was held on the 29th of November,
whereas a post-symposium workshop on Dental Implants
facilitated by Dr Munis Mukhtar and Dr Irfan Qureshi
was held on the 1st of December offering students a
chance to practically apply their knowledge and skills
on the subject.
Students, trainees, academic experts and private
practitioners flocked to Pakistan Dental Association's
Symposium, and commended the efforts of the team in
organizing an outstanding event. The PDA has promised
similar events on a larger scale to equip young minds
with the latest in dental research and technology in the
future.
Dr. Sonny Prince Akpabio....
Continued from front page
Sonny Akpabio graduated from University College London,
University of London in 1956. He was awarded the Gibbs
Traveling Scholarship, in 1964, to undertake a three-month
epidemiological study in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Nigeria
and Ghana.
In 1970 he gained an MDS (London) degree. In 1982 he was
appointed WHO Consultant and Member of the WHO Expert
Panel on Oral Health. In 1991, Sonny Akpabio, with others,
formed the Commonwealth Dental Association and was elected
its Founder President. In 1996 he was awarded the OBE by
Her Majesty - The Queen for services to medicine and dentistry
internationally. In 1999, he was awarded the Roll of Distinction
of the British Dental Association for outstanding services to
UK Dentistry. Also in the same year, he was appointed as
Honorary Senior Research Fellow in Oral Health at the
University of London. Previously, he had served as the
Executive Secretary of CDA (1994-2003) following his term
as Founder President (1991-1994).
surprise gifts and daily lucky draws managed
by DTMA's media partner Dental News. The
entry to the trade stalls at the expo will be
absolutely free with new facilities to learn
more in less.
The chairman of the organizing committee
also said that buyers will be offered lunch
coupons. Product presentations will be held
throughout the day with certificate of
attendance to all those who attend. The
highlight of this year's event will be the
holding of hands on workshops by DTMA
members at highly subsidized rates enabling
the community to learn more for less, he
added.
On behalf of DTMA members he extended
warm welcome to the entire dental and allied
industry to attend this expo and play their
role in making it a success as DTMA has left
no stone unturned in making this event a
mega success, he concluded.
Dentists develop saliva....
Continued from page 6
measurement (EFIRM), was developed at
the University of California, Los Angeles.
According to the researchers, it allows for
rapid testing of a patient's saliva for epidermal
growth factor receptor gene mutation, an
indicator of lung cancer.
In contrast to conventional methods of
detection that are mainly based on tissue
biopsy, which is invasive, expensive, and
time consuming, EFIRM relies on a
multiplexible electrochemical sensor that
can detect these gene mutations directly in
bodily fluids. The total detection time is less
than 10 minutes and only requires a small
saliva sample, the researchers said.
In clinical application, for example,
EFIRM detected epidermal growth factor
receptor gene mutations in the saliva and
plasma of 22 patients with non-small cell
lung carcinoma. In blinded tests on saliva
samples from 40 patients with non-small cell
lung carcinoma, the researchers achieved
nearly identical results as with bronchoscopybased detection.
The findings may have important
implications for further development of
effective and noninvasive methods for early
detection of lung cancer. Early detection
significantly improves survival rates in this
patient group. The new method could be
combined with tissue DNA testing or used
as a complement to biopsy in cases in which
the size of the tumor is insufficient for DNA
extraction.
The study, titled "Noninvasive SalivaBased EGFR Gene Mutation Detection in
Patients with Lung Cancer," was published
in the November issue of the American
Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care
Medicine.
Society’s poorest....
Inequalities in oral health require urgent
action
Dr John Wildman, Professor of Health
Economics at Newcastle University Business
School, the principal investigator on the
Economic and Social Research Council study,
said: “Inequalities in oral health have not
received the attention that they deserve. Our
study is an attempt to redress this balance.
Oral health contributes hugely to everyday
wellbeing and addressing these inequalities
may result in considerable improvements in
quality of life for large numbers of
individuals.”
Prof. Richard Watt, Head of the Research
Department of Epidemiology and Public
Health at UCL, commented on the important
policy implications of this research:
“Inequalities in oral health require urgent
action by organisations such as Public Health
England—in particular more needs to be
done to tackle the underlying causes of oral
diseases such as sugary diets.”
Continued from page 6
is not just about, for example, the availability
of treatment.”
“Although the younger generation have
much better oral health than their parents
ever did, the differences between rich and
poor are very considerable and young people
are particularly aware when they do not have
a healthy mouth. The risk is that as health
gets better overall the differences just get
greater and poorer people lose out.”
Dr Georgios Tsakos, senior lecturer at the
Research Department of Epidemiology and
Public Health at UCL, added: “In terms of
the younger adults, we showed that it is not
only being poor that affects their perceptions
about their oral health and quality of life, but
educational attainment can also make a major
difference. This has profound implications
for policy, as intervening in earlier life could
have a significant long-term effect on oral health.”
Nature of our job could increase risk....
Continued from page 10
this is that many of the ways to relax actually increase the chances of developing mouth
cancer.
“The problem is made worse by people not taking regular exercise and foregoing a
healthy, balanced lifestyle. The idea of a takeaway after a long day at work may sound
great, but fast food is one that can cause all sorts of problems, including mouth cancer.”