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Personality Test-2014
Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Raymond Cattell used factor analysis to reduce a huge list of personality traits compiled by Gordon Allport to
__________ basic dimensions of personality.
a. five
b. ten
c. sixteen
d. twenty-seven
2. Luke believes it is impossible for him to do well in his calculus class, consequently he seldom spends very
much time studying for that course. His lack of preparation for the exams has resulted in poor grades in the
course. His low grades have strengthened his belief that he lacks the ability to succeed in the class. This
interaction between Luke's beliefs, his behavior, and his environment illustrates the concept that Albert
Bandura referred to as
a. reciprocal determinism
b. unconditioned reinforcement
c. reaction formation
d. overcompensation
3. Jalen is currently thinking about all the things she has to do before she goes to her first class. She is mentally
making lists of all these things so she will remember to do them on her way to school. According to Freud,
these thoughts are contained in Jalen's
a. subconscious mind
b. preconscious mind
c. conscious mind
d. unconscious mind
4. The term that Albert Bandura uses to refer to the assumption that internal mental events, external
environmental events, and overt behavior all influence each other is
a. psychic determinism
b. reciprocal determinism
c. mutual dependency
d. reciprocal relativism
5. Dr. Price-Ridley believes that personality is largely determined by an individual's genetic makeup. Dr. PriceRidley's views are similar to the view of personality put forward by
a. B. F. Skinner
b. Hans Eysenck
c. Carl Jung
d. Walter Mischel
6. Cari often has temper tantrums and pouts when she can't have her own way. She often behaves impulsively
and becomes extremely impatient if she can't have the things that she wants immediately. According to
Freud's view of the personality, Cari's personality appears to be dominated by
a. her id
b. reaction formation
c. her superego
d. her ego
7. Wanda is very quiet around people in authority, but she can be loud and boisterous among her peers. Which
of the following theorists would explain the difference in Wanda's behavior in terms of situational factors?
a. Sigmund Freud
b. Walter Mischel
c. Carl Rogers
d. Alfred Adler
8. A person who is occupied with his own thoughts and feelings, aloof, and contemplative exemplifies what
Jung described as the __________ type.
a. extraverted
b. introspective
c. introverted
d. reflective
9. According to Freud, a person may become fixated at a particular psychosexual stage because of
a. either excessive gratification or excessive frustration of needs
b. a genetic predisposition for fixation
c. abnormalities in brain chemistry that develop prenatally
d. permissiveness on the part of the person's parents
10. The idea that a male child desires his mother and fears his father illustrates the
a. Electra complex
b. genital complex
c. latency complex
d. Oedipal complex
11. Freud's concept of the unconscious is MOST like Jung's
a. archetypes
b. preconscious
c. collective unconscious
d. personal unconscious
12. Scott has just been reprimanded by his supervisor. Later on, Scott begins to "stomp around" and throws a
tantrum in front of his co-workers. Scott's behavior exemplifies which of the following?
a. rationalization
b. a fixation
c. projection
d. regression
13. When Braden was nine, he saw one of his classmates fall under the wheels of a school bus as it pulled away
from the curb. Today, at the age of 34, he has no memory of the accident. The evening news carried a
flashback of the accident that happened 25 years ago, and Braden still didn't remember being at the scene
when the accident happened. According to Freud, it seems that Braden's memory of the accident is contained
in his
a. subconscious mind
b. conscious mind
c. unconscious mind
d. preconscious mind
14. In explaining behavior, social learning theorist Walter Mischel is MOST interested in the influence of
a. instincts
b. the situation
c. unconscious forces
d. personality traits
____ 15. The occurrence of so-called copycat crimes where someone hijacks an airliner after seeing a movie about a
hijacking provides anecdotal evidence for
a. Freud's psychoanalytic theory
b. Adler's individual psychology
c. Bandura's social cognitive theory
d. Skinner's operant conditioning theory
____ 16. The impending possibility of a forbidden impulse getting out of control and being expressed in behavior
would be MOST apt to produce __________ in the person.
a. anxiety
b. depression
c. impulse gratification
d. secondary gain
____ 17. Psychoanalytic theory stresses all of the following except
a. handling of sexual impulses
b. childhood experiences
c. conscious thought patterns
d. internal conflicts
____ 18. Failure to resolve conflict at a particular stage of psychosexual development may lead to failure to move
forward psychologically, a phenomenon that Freud called
a. displacement
b. fixation
c. reciprocal determinism
d. compensation
____ 19. In Jung's theory, emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning are called
a. central memories
b. prototypes
c. mandalas
d. archetypes
____ 20. Howard sets extremely high standards for both himself and others. He tends to be rigid and inflexible and
rarely allows himself to enjoy life. Freud would probably conclude that Howard is dominated by
a. his id
b. his ego
c. penis envy
d. his superego
____ 21. Vanessa bites her nails so badly that they bleed, but she can't seem to stop herself from doing this. According
to Freud, Vanessa's nail biting may be evidence of fixation at the
a. anal stage of development
b. oral stage of development
c. latency stage of development
d. phallic stage of development
____ 22. Sigmund Freud's method for treating disorders is called
a. client-centered therapy
b. psychoanalysis
c. primal-scream therapy
d. systematic desensitization
____ 23. According to Carl Rogers, if your self-concept is reasonably accurate, it is said to be
a. self-actualized
b. valid
c. congruent with reality
d. extraverted
____ 24. The variety of modern psychodynamic theories of personality all derive from the work of which of the
following individuals?
a. Wilhelm Wundt
b. Karen Horney
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Albert Bandura
____ 25. Id is to pleasure principle as
a. superego is to repetition principle
b. superego is to desire
c. ego is to executive principle
d. ego is to reality principle
____ 26. Gordon hadn't thought about the band "Spider Wings" for several months. However, as soon as Donovon
mentioned it, Gordon instantly thought about the great time he had at their last concert. According to Freud,
before Donovon mentioned the "Spider Wings," Gordon's memory of the concert was contained in his
a. unconscious mind
b. conscious mind
c. preconscious mind
d. subconscious mind
____ 27. The approach that stresses the individual's freedom, uniqueness, and growth potential is
a. behaviorism
b. social cognitive theory
c. Gestalt theory
d. humanism
____ 28. The collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior is referred to as one's
__________, according to Rogers.
a. self-concept
b. level of self-actualization
c. phenomenology
d. state of incongruence
____ 29. Freud used the term "sexual" in his psychosexual stages of development to mean
a. any pleasure-giving urge
b. genital sexual impulses
c. general sexual feelings
d. none of these things
____ 30. The theorist who advanced the concept that the unconscious has two layers, the personal unconscious and the
collective unconscious, was
a. Carl Jung
b. Erik Erikson
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Alfred Adler
____ 31. According to the five-factor model of personality, people who score high in __________ are characterized as
outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, and assertive.
a. openness to experience
b. extraversion
c. conscientiousness
d. neuroticism
____ 32. Finding ways to meet instinctual needs and still take into account the conditions of the external, social world
defines the __________, the basic operating theme of the __________.
a. reality principle; id
b. pleasure principle; id
c. pleasure principle; ego
d. reality principle; ego
____ 33. Both Carl Jung and Alfred Adler were especially critical of Freud's emphasis on
a. the influence of childhood experiences
b. defense mechanisms
c. sexuality
d. the unconscious
____ 34. In explaining why Cole is deceitful and has a tendency to lie, a psychologist who held a strong behavioral
view toward personality development would consider Cole's
a. self-concept and his interactions with others
b. unconsciously repressed feelings of anger and hostility
c. role models
d. previous learning experiences and his history of reinforcement
____ 35. The portion of the personality that mediates between instinctual demands and the world of reality is the
a. id
b. ego
c. ego ideal
d. superego
____ 36. __________ is a statistical procedure used by researchers to identify closely related clusters of variables.
a. Analysis of variance
b. Deviation analysis
c. Factor analysis
d. Chi-square
____ 37. What is the name Carl Jung used to identify the level of the unconscious that stores latent memory traces
inherited from our ancestral past?
a. primeval unconscious
b. personal unconscious
c. collective unconscious
d. preconscious
____ 38. Defense mechanisms combat feelings of anxiety and guilt
a. by making unconscious urges conscious
b. through self-deception
c. by enhancing self-insight
d. through rational problem solving
____ 39. Five-year-old Samuel often tells his older sister: "I can't wait to grow up, so I can marry mommy." Samuel is
MOST likely in the stage of personality development that Freud referred to as the
a. phallic stage
b. latency stage
c. oral stage
d. anal stage
____ 40. The process of pushing distressing thoughts into the unconscious and keeping them there is known as
a. avoidance
b. suppression
c. repression
d. neurogenic amnesia