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» Please Answer in complete sentences
» What was the significance of the White Ship
» What were the Christian military orders and
what was their purpose?
Gothic Architecture, The Second Crusade,
Gypsies and Redbeard!
Investiture Controversy
Gothic Cathedrals
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Anna Comnena
Frederick I Barbarossa
» The First crusade ended with the capture of
Jerusalem and the creation of the Crusader
» The Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaler
were created to protect Christians in the Middle
» Don’t get on an overcrowded ship if you don’t
know how to swim.
» The Concordat of
Worms resolves the
Controversy, thus
bringing to an end the
first phase of the
power struggle
between the Papacy
and the Holy Roman
» Battle of São
Mamede: Count
Afonso I of Portugal
defeats his mother,
Teresa of León, and
gains control of the
county, which thus
becomes de facto
» The Saint-Denis
basilica, near Paris, is
damaged by a fire.
This will give the
opportunity to the
abbot Suger to
rebuild it in a new
style, which will open
the Gothic period of
» Alfonso VII of León and
Castile is crowned in the
Cathedral of Leon as
Imperator totius Hispaniae,
"Emperor of All the Spains".
» Stephen succeeds his uncle
Henry I as king of England.
Matilda, daughter of Henry
I and widow of Holy Roman
Emperor Henry V, opposes
Stephen and claims the
throne as her own.
» Louis VII is crowned
King of France. He
subsequently marries
Eleanor of Aquitaine,
daughter of William
» Battle of Ourique: The
independence of Portugal
from the Kingdom of León
declared after the
Almoravids are defeated by
Prince Afonso Henriques.
He then becomes Afonso I,
King of Portugal.
» Second Council of the
Lateran: The Anacletus
schism is settled, and
priestly celibacy is made
mandatory in the Catholic
» The County of Edessa
falls to Zengi of
Mosul. Manuel I
Comnenus brings
Raymond, Prince of
Antioch, under
Byzantine influence.
» Pope Eugene III issues
the bull Quantum
calling for the Second
» George of Antioch
conquers Tripoli,
Libya for the king of
» A rainy year causes
the harvest to fail in
Europe, one of the
worse famines of the
century ensues.
» The Almohad Caliph Abd alMu'min destroys the
Almoravid Empire after
capturing Marrakech and
killing the last emir.
» With the support of English
and Flemish Crusaders, Afonso
I of Portugal besieges and
conquers Lisbon.
» Roger II of Sicily takes Corfu
from the Byzantine Empire,
and pillages Corinth, Athens
and Thebes.
» Siege of Damascus by
the Second Crusade:
˃ June – The Second Crusade
reaches Jerusalem. They meet
at the Council of Acre and
decide to attack Damascus.
˃ July – The Siege of Damascus
ends in failure.
» Anna Comnena writes
the Alexiad, which is a
biography of her father,
Emperor Alexius I.
» The earliest textual
reference is made to
Gypsies working as
musicians in
» The Treaty of Walingford,
under the direction of
Theobald of Bec, reconciles
Stephen of England and
Matilda, ending "The
Anarchy" which had
occurred during their fight
for the throne of England.
The treaty grants the throne
to Stephen for the duration
of his life, but makes
Matilda's son, Henry of
Anjou, the heir apparent.
» Frederick I Barbarossa
is crowned Holy
Roman Emperor.