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Bell Ringer
What do we call the
The Crusades…
fighting for
series of
between Muslims and
Christians that took place
in the Middle Ages?
Explain 2
accomplishments of
the Muslim Golden
Muslim Empires
Mughals, Ottomans and Safavids
As the Muslim influence continued to spread, areas of India came under
the control of strong Muslim Empires. The Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal
empires promoted Muslim culture, trading and learning
Looking at this map, what do you think could be a
Mughal Empire
Established by Babur, but reached great success under
Akbar the Great, his grandson. They controlled most of
present day India
Akbar the Great
Akbar was a Muslim but was tolerant of other
people’s religions. He even ended the tax charged
on non-Muslims
Improved the government by hiring officials
instead of relying on hereditary appointments
Encouraged international trade and land reform
Akbar and learning
Akbar the Great promoted learning, and held
long discussions with experts to learn.
He was illiterate and never learned to read or
write, but had trusted advisors to do both for
By removing restrictions on other religions, he
ushered in a time of learning and cultural
Akbar’s popularity
Akbar the Great was well liked by his people because
he allowed the people to practice any religion of
their choice.
By allowing the people to practice the religion of
their choice he promoted cultural diversity, a unique
environment that remains through much of India
Taj Mahal (Muhal)
Akbar’s grandson, Shat Jahan, built the most famous Indian Palace, the Taj Mahal, for
his dead wife. The Building became her tomb and a symbol of Mughal Architecture
Mughal Decline
Akbar’s successors eventually began persecuting Hindus and other religions again.
Persecution ranged from heavy taxes to death.
Ottoman Empire 1450-1650
Ottoman Empire
Conquered the Byzantine Empire in 1453. Renamed the capital city
Istanbul and converted the Hagia Sophia into a Muslim Mosque
Ottoman expansion
In less than 200 years the Ottoman empire took control of North Africa, Eastern
Europe and Asia Minor.
Ottoman Golden Age
The Ottomans experienced a Golden Age under
Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566)
Suleiman conquered more lands than other
emperors because he modernized the army.
Suleiman had sole power over the entire
government, but hired qualified Viziers to run some
If Suleiman was the sole
ruler with absolute power,
was this a Centralized
Government or noncentralized?
Golden Age Society
Society in the Ottoman empire had 4 tiers:
1) Men of the Pen- scientists, lawyers, judges
2) Men of the Sword- Guards and military
3) Men of Negotiations- Merchants and artisans
4) Men of Husbandry- farmers and animal caretakers
Husbandry- taking
care of crops and
The Ottoman empire forced non-Muslims to pay heavy taxes. Non-Muslim families
were also required to give their young sons to the government to train in the
These men converted to Islam and were then put into military service
The most elite became Janissaries, an elite military group
Ottoman Decline
As the Europeans emerged from their Dark Middle ages and began trading
and learning, the Ottoman empire was overtaken by the Europeans. While
the Ottomans had focused on agriculture, the Europeans were focused on
gaining power and money (trade routes)
Soon the Ottoman empire will
become a fighting ground for many
ethnic groups and religions
Safavid Empire
Sandwiched between Mughal India and the Ottoman Empire, the Safavids dealt
with near constant invasions (in the Tigris and Euphrates river valley)
The Safavids are Shiite Muslims, while the Ottomans were Sunni Muslims
Caliph should
be chosen by
the community
Majority of
Muslims: 90%
Five Pillars
Caliph should
be a
descendant of
Martyrs for
their cause
Safavid Golden Age
Shah Abbas the Great (1588-1629)
-Centralized Government and created a
powerful military
-reduced taxes on farmers and herders
-promoted the silk trade by supporting
-Wandered the streets in disguise to find
problems and punish the corrupt
Golden Age
The Safavids produced fine silk by befriending Christian traders who had stolen Silk
worms from China. By promoting and protecting the Christians the Safavid empire
grew rich.
Safavid Legacy
Today, Iran is located in the old Safavid
Empire, and remains Shiite. Many
warring groups remain in old areas of
the Safavid, causing conflict between
the two sects of Islam