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ARCH 1616 Between Sahara and Sea: North Africa from Human Origins to Islam Brett Kaufman [email protected] Office Hours: Tuesdays, 2:30-4:30 pm Rhode Island Hall 007 Egypt from the 4th to 1st millennia BCE (Old Kingdom to Third Intermediate Period) Egyptian Chronology – Political scheme • • • • • • • • • Predynastic Period (5300-3000 BCE) Early Dynastic Period (3000-2686 BCE) Old Kingdom (2686-2160 BCE) First Intermediate Period (2160-2055 BCE) Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 BCE) Second Intermediate Period (1650-1550 BCE) New Kingdom (1550-1069 BCE) Third Intermediate Period (1069-664 BCE) Late Period (664-332 BCE) Predynastic Period (5300-3000 BCE) • The Two Lands • Lower Egypt • Upper Egypt • Foreign Relations • The Rise of Social Stratification Predynastic Period (5300-3000 BCE) • Foreign Relations • • • • • raw materials pottery architecture cylinder seals artistic motifs Predynastic Period (5300-3000 BCE) • The Rise of Social Stratification • many small dirt pit tombs with no grave goods • some medium wooden rectangular tombs with several grave goods • few large mudbrick mastabas with numerous grave goods Tomb U-j at Abydos Protodynastic Period (3200-3000 BCE) • The Formation of the Egyptian State • Ideology of Kingship • Development of Writing Protodynastic Period (3200-3000 BCE) • The Formation of the Egyptian State • unification of the Two Lands Protodynastic Period (3200-3000 BCE) • Ideology of Kingship • king is divine • role of king to keep ma’at (truth, order, justice) • political: protection (Military Leader), laws (Judge) • religious: temples and rituals (High Priest) Protodynastic Period (3200-3000 BCE) • Development of Writing • tags: amounts, materials, names, etc. • events: cattle count (taxes), Nile height, coronation of king, etc. Royal Annals of Egypt • Palermo Stone (25th cent. BCE) • records kings of Dynasty 1 to Dynasty 5 • regnal years and important events • Turin Canon (13th cent. BCE) • records rulers of Predynastic to Dynasty 17 • regnal years Early Dynastic Period (3000-2686 BCE) • Dynasty 1 (3000-2890 BCE) • Dynasty 2 (2890-2686 BCE) Early Dynastic Period (3000-2686 BCE) • Dynasty 1 (3000-2890 BCE) • • • • • • • • Aha Djer Djet Den Merneith Anedjib Semerkhet Qa’a Den • Abydos Mastaba • • • • • 1st stone floor 1st stairway hundreds of subsidary burials 1st double crown Horus serekh Abydos Mastaba Early Dynastic Period (3000-2686 BCE) • Dynasty 2 (2890-2686 BCE) • • • • • • • Hetepsekhemwy Raneb Nynetjer Weneg Sened Peribsen Khasekhemwy Peribsen • Abydos Tomb • • • • entirely lined with limestone 1st name in cartouche 1st complete sentence Seth serekh Khasekhemwy • Abydos Tomb and Funerary Enclosure • • • • burial and worship 1st inscribed royal statue original name: Khasekhem Horus and Seth serekh The Old Kingdom (2686-2181 BCE) • • • • Dynasty 3 (2686-2613 BCE) Dynasty 4 (2613-2498 BCE) Dynasty 5 (2498-2345 BCE) Dynasty 6 (2345-2181 BCE) The Old Kingdom (2686-2181 BCE) • Dynasty 3 (2686-2613 BCE) • • • • • Nebka (2686-2667 BCE) Djoser (2667-2648 BCE) Sekhemkhet (2648-2640 BCE) Khaba (2640-2637 BCE) Huni (2637-2613 BCE) Djoser (2667-2648 BCE) • The Step Pyramid in Saqqara • 1st large stone building in the world • 140 m. long x 118 m. wide x 60 m. high • six building phases • from mastaba to 6-stepped pyramid • mortal to immortal • impermanent materials in stone • sed festival to regenerate king Building Phases of the Step Pyramid Step Pyramid Complex The Old Kingdom (2686-2181 BCE) • Dynasty 4 (2613-2494 BCE) • • • • • • Sneferu (2613-2589 BCE) Khufu (2589-2566 BCE) Djedefre (2566-2558 BCE) Khafre (2558-2532 BCE) Menkaure (2532-2503 BCE) Shepseskaf (2503-2498 BCE) Sneferu (2613-2494 BCE) • Meidum Pyramid • Rhomboidal (Bent) Pyramid • Red (North) Pyramid Sneferu (2613-2494 BCE) • Meidum Pyramid • transitional pyramid • 3 building phases • 7-stepped pyramid • 8-stepped pyramid • steps filled in Sneferu (2613-2494 BCE) • Rhomboidal/Bent Pyramid in Dashur • angle of sides altered 2/3 way up • white limestone casing Sneferu (2613-2494 BCE) • Red/North Pyramid in Dashur • red granite core • burial place of king Khufu (2589-2566 BCE) • Great Pyramid in Giza • power of king • 231 m. long x 231 m. wide x 146 m high • hierarchy of burials • canonical pyramid complex • • • • • • pyramid mortuary temple (east) satellite pyramid causeway valley temple enclosure wall Great Pyramid Great Pyramid Khafre (2558-2532 BCE) • The Great Sphinx and Pyramid in Giza • king as protector • human-headed lion • immortality of king • special regalia • statues • mortuary temple • Sphinx Temple • rise of solar theology Great Sphinx and Pyramid Menkaure (2532-2503 BCE) • Pyramid in Giza • last pyramid in Giza • artistic power • • • • numerous physique height striding Papyrus Westcar (20th cent. BCE) • Contains 5 stories about marvels performed by priests and magicians. • King Khufu is told by a priest that his heirs will not rule the next generation. • Instead, three kings will be born by the wife of the High Priest of Re. • The three babies are named and blessed by gods and goddesses. • The names of the kings are the first three rulers of Dynasty 5. The Old Kingdom (2686-2181 BCE) • Dynasty 5 (2494-2345 BCE) • • • • • • • • • Userkaf (2494-2487 BCE) Sahure (2487-2475 BCE) Neferirkare (2475-2455 BCE) Shepseskare (2455-2448 BCE) Reneferef (2448-2445 BCE) Nyuserre (2445-2421 BCE) Menkauhor (2421-2414 BCE) Djedkare (2414-2375 BCE) Unas (2375-2345 BCE) Userkaf (2494-2487 BCE) • Saqqara Pyramid • small: 74 m. long x 74 m. wide x 49 m. high • low quality construction • improvised plan • Abusir Sun Temple • Re as 1st national god • 3 parts • sun temple with obelisk • causeway • valley temple Sun Temple Neferirkare (2475-2455 BCE) • Abusir Pyramid • administrative texts • management of Egypt, pyramids, Sun Temples • foreign relations • Sinai • Lebanon • Mesopotamia • Palermo Stone • king-list • regnal years • important events Unas (2375-2345 BCE) • Saqqara Pyramid • smaller than some private tombs • 56 m. long x 56 m. wide x 43 m. tall • Pyramid Texts • shift from immortality in monuments and statues to immortality in scenes and texts • rebirth of king in afterlife • deceased king = Osiris The Old Kingdom (2686-2181 BCE) • Dynasty 6 (2345-2181 BCE) • • • • • • Teti (2345-2323 BCE) Userkare (2323-2321 BCE) Pepy I (2321-2287 BCE) Merenre (2287-2278 BCE) Pepy II (2278-2184 BCE) Nitiqret (2184-2181 BCE) Pepy II (2278-2184 BCE) • Saqqara Pyramid • reigned 94 years • powerful provincial rulers • loss in power (divinity?) of king • provincial art • gain control in the First Intermediate Period • last large pyramid for 300 years MB IIC (III) 1650–1530 BC • XV and XVI Dynasties, Hyksos “rulers of foreign lands” • Textual sources: • Hebron tablet • Josephus preserving Manetho’s acct. of “Hyksos” rule in Egypt at Avaris • Egyptian sources for expulsion of “Hyksos” • Amorite rule of lower Egypt at Avaris • Introduction of chariot and composite bow • Appearance of Hurrians in Levant • Terminates with expulsion of Hyksos from Egypt by Ahmose Chocolate-on-White MB IIC (16th cent. BC) Megiddo “Hyksos” Scarabs Jaffa Tell el-Dab‘a Avaris • Amorite center in eastern Delta • Capital of Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt (ca. 1600–1530 BC) • Settled from MB IIA, grows through MB IIC Amorite Avaris Asiatic statue (Area F/I), MB IIA “Theran” Minoan Frescos (Avaris) Tell el-‘Ajjul (Sharuhen?) Settled: from MB IIB Size: 10 ha. Cultural Context: Names Yakub-hur (Hyksos) Seal • Abram/Abraham • Hyksos seal (foreign rulers of Egypt, 16th cent. BC) • AmoriteYakub cp. Heb. Jacob • Hyksos period marked by a gradual infiltration of Semites into eastern Delta in the 17th cent. BC; they came to power ca. 1640 BC] • Ahmose, founder of the 18th Dynasty, expelled Hyksos from Egypt Pre-1530 BC Carnarvan Tablet: The War Against the Hyksos “(One) prince is in Avaris, another is in Ethiopia, …No man can settle down, being despoiled by the imposts of the Asiatics…My wish is to save Egypt and to smite the Asiatics.”…“I broke down his walls, I killed his people, and I made his wife come down to the riverbank…Their horses were fled inside.” ANET, pp. 232-233 Autobiography of Ahmose son of Abana (ca. 1530 BC) Now when I had established a household, I was taken to the ship “Northern,” because I was brave. I followed the sovereign on foot when he rode about on his chariot. When the town of Avaris was besieged, I fought bravely on foot in his majesty’s presence. Thereupon I was appointed to the ship “Rising in Memphis.” Then there was fighting on the water in “Pdjeku” of Avaris. I made a seizure and carried off a hand. When it was reported to the royal herald the gold of valor was given to me. Then they fought again in this place; I again made a seizure there and carried off a hand. Then I was given the gold of valor once again. Then there was fighting in Egypt to the south of this town, and I carried off a man as a living captive. I went down into the water—for he was captured on the city side—and crossed the water carrying him. When it was reported to the royal herald I was rewarded with gold once more. Then Avaris was despoiled, and I brought spoil from there: one man, three women: total, four persons. His majesty gave them to me as slaves. Then Sharuhen was besieged for three years. His majesty despoiled it and I brought spoil from it: two women and a hand. Then the gold of valor was given me, and my captives were given to me as slaves. AEL 2:12 ff. New Kingdom Setting • After “Hyksos” expulsion from Egypt ca. 1530 BC… • Egyptian campaigns from ca. 1530 to 1200 BC • Southern half of Levant under Egyptian administration • Pharaohs pursue expansionist policy… • Canaanite towns besieged, rulers made vassals • Opposition required massive alliances; never successful • Military and administrative networks established • Egyptians garrisoned in Canaan • Forts built along the main route (Ex 13:17–18) The Near East ca. 1500 BC: Levant Divided Hittites Mitanni Egypt Late Bronze Age (1530–1200 BC) • LB I (1530–1400 BC) Egyptian expansion • LB IIA (1400–1300 BC) “The Amarna Age” • Amarna Letters tell of Levant politically fragmented • Akhenaton and Tutankhamun: henotheism v. Israelite monotheism? • Exodus fits within 19th and 20th Dynasties (ca. 1300–1200) • Ramesses ~ Moses • P(r)-Ramesses (“House of Ramesses”) 20th Dyn. settlement • P(r)-‘Itum (“House of Atum”) • Late Bronze Age ends with the Migrations of the Sea Peoples (including Philistines) ca. 1200 BC LB I (1530–1400 BC): Canaan under Empire LB Periodization LB IA 1530–1460 BC Dyn. 18 to Thutmose III conquest Unplanned imperial expansion LB IB 1460–1400 BC Thutmose III to Amarna Period Systematic conquest and consolidation LB IIA 1400–1300 BC Amarna Period and aftermath LB IIB 1300–1200 BC Dyn. 19 LB I Textual Sources • Egyptian tomb biographies and literature Ethnicity and Archaeology • LB is an international and imperial period • Evidence of movement of people • • • • Royal emissaries (Amarna letters) Armies and mercenaries (Egyptian, Hurrian, and Hittite empires) Long distance merchants (maritime contact) Migrations and invasions (Sea Peoples) • Groups identified in the Levant include: • • • • • Amorites and Canaanites Hurrians Hittites Greeks and “Sea Peoples” Egyptians So what constitutes a Canaanite? What’s in a name? • Confusion of terms: • • • • • • Asiatic Amorite Canaanite Phoenician Syro-Phoenician Syro-Canaanite • Implications • Location • Cultural customs • Material culture LB IA 1530–1460 BC • Begins with expulsion of Hyksos; numerous destructions • More than 30 sites identified as destroyed • Ends with campaigns of Thutmose III • General population decline • Textual sources • Alalakh archive (ca. 1500–1450 BC) Egyptian, Hurrian, and Hittite Empires (ca. 1500 BC) Hatti (Hittites) Mitanni (Hurrians) Egypt LB II (1400–1200 BC): Maintaining Egypt’s Empire LB Periodization LB IA 1530–1470 BC conquest LB IB 1470–1400 BC LB IIA 1400–1300 BC LB IIB 1300–1200 BC Dyn. 18 to Thutmose III Thutmose III-Amenhotep II Amarna Period Dyn. 19 LB II Textual Sources • LB tablets (Alalakh, Qatna, Hazor, Kumidi, Megiddo, BethShean, Aphek, Ta‘anach, etc.) • Egyptian New Kingdom temple and tomb reliefs and inscriptions LB IIA: Amarna Letters ca. 1350 BC Amenhotep III & Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) Amarna Letters • Amarna Letters • Cuneiform tablet letters from ca. 1350 BC • From the court of Amenhotep III & IV at Amarna • Over 300 letters written from rulers of Levantine towns to Egyptian Pharaoh: • 5 from Abdi-Kheba, ruler of Jerusalem (cf. Urusalimu) • Hazor • Lachish • Ashkelon • Akko, etc. Fragment of “Epic of Gilgamesh” Other texts from… • Ashkelon (13th cent.) • Aphek (in Ugaritic) • Gezer • Hazor • Tell el-Hesi (EA 333) • Jericho • Shechem • Taanach These include… • Letters • Lexical lists • Receipts Megiddo International Exchange Networks • Trade and Pax Aegyptiaca • Ceramics in tomb contexts (from late MB) • Mycenaean ceramics • Cypriot ceramics • Amarna Letters (ca. 1350 BC): royal envoys • Shipwrecks • Ulu Burun (ca. 1305 BC) • Cape Gelidonya (ca. 1200 BC) Merneptah (Israel) Stele (1207 BC) “The princes are prostrate saying: Shalom!” Not one of the Nine Bows lifts his head: Tjehenu is vanquished, Khatti at peace, Canaan is captive with all woe. Ashkelon is conquered, Gezer seized, Yanoam made nonexistent; Israel is wasted, bare of seed, Khor has become a widow for Egypt. All who roamed have been subdued By the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Baneremeramun, Son of Re, Merneptah, Content with Maat, Given life like Re every day.” Third Intermediate Period 1069-664 BCE Libyan Dynasties: XXII, XXIII, and XXIV Libyan groups enjoyed some autonomy in Egypt before Dynasty XXII – the ‘great chief’ was able to set up an Egyptian funerary cult; call on the Amun oracle in Thebes Attacks and raids on Egypt by Libyan chiefs seem to have reached a level that the rulers of Dynasty XX were prompted to take them in as soldiers, give them land grants, and create marriage alliances. Others were settled on reservations and became soldiers or mercenaries for the state. Third Intermediate Period Third Intermediate Period A powerful office likely developed in this period, ‘god’s wife of Amun.’ This was usually held by a daughter of the pharaoh and served as a check to the power of the Theban state. Third Intermediate Period Sheshonq I “Sheshonq, great chief of Meshwesh” Third Intermediate Period Sheshonq I, 945-924 BCE I Kings 9:16 “For Pharaoh king of Egypt had gone up and taken Gezer, and burnt it with fire, and slain the Canaanites who dwelled there, and give it for a present to his daughter, Solomon’s wife.” I Kings 11:40 “Jeroboam arose, and fled to Egypt, to Shishaq king of Egypt…” I Kings 14:25 “…Shishaq king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem: and he took away the treasures of the house of the Lord, and the treasures of the king’s house, he took it all away, and he took away all the shields of gold that Solomon had made.” 2 Chronicles 12:2 “…Shishaq king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, because they had transgressed the Lord, with 1200 chariots, and 60,000 cavalry, and the people were without number who came with him out of Egypt: the Libyans, the Sukites, and Nubians.” Third Intermediate Period Libyan control continued until about 715 BCE, when Egypt was conquered by Nubian dynasties.