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Transcript
Investigating
a Private Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud
Suntisak Thammavongsa
28-11-2011
Bachelor of IT (Honours)
Supervised by Dr Raymond Choo
University of South Australia
Outline
Background
Research Topic
Research Method
Research Findings
Background
Cloud Computing
“A whole broad range of IT services as long
as those IT services are delivered on
demand and they’re delivered elastically in
terms of being able scale out and scale in”
defined by Dasmalchi (2010)
Background
Traditional Physical Hosting
Internet
Web 1
File
Web 2
E-Mail
Directory
Database
Background
Private Cloud
CRM APP DHCP
Email DNS
Internet
Web 1 Web 2
Web 3 Directory 1
Directory 2
Cloud Controller
Centralized
Data Storage
Database
Background
Private Cloud
Email 1 Email 2
DNS DHCP
CRM 1 CRM 2
APP 1 APP 2
Internet
Web 1 Web 2
Web 3 Directory 1
Directory 2
Cloud Controller
Centralized
Data Storage
Database
Background
Digital Forensics
“The process of identifying, preserving,
analysing and presenting digital evidence in
a manner that is legally acceptable” defined
by McKemmish (1999)
Background
Digital Forensics
Primary questions
• What happened?
• When did it happen?
• How did it happen?
• Who was involved?
Research Topic
Investigate a private Ubuntu Enterprise
Cloud v10.10 powered by Eucalyptus open
source edition v2.0
SRQ1: What are the artefacts of interest?
SRQ2: How to recover deleted artefacts?
SRQ3: What are other sources of evidence?
Research Method
Desk-based
• A more comprehensive literature review
• To gain a deeper understanding of how
the technology works
Laboratory-based
• Build a dual-node private cloud
• Generate text files for a data recovery
experiment
Research Findings
Eucalyptus Architecture
Cloud
Controller (CLC)
Cluster
Controller (CC)
Block Storage
Controller (EBS)
Node
Controller (NC)
Storage Server
Walrus Storage
Controller (WS3)
iSCSI
Cluster
Controller (CC)
Node
Controller (NC)
Node
Controller (NC)
Node
Controller (NC)
Node
Controller (NC)
Node
Controller (NC)
Block Storage
Controller (EBS)
Research Findings
SRQ1: What are the artefacts of interest?
Linux system artefacts on Eucalyptus
controllers
• SWAP space under /proc
• Linux logs under /var
• Temporary files under /tmp
Research Findings
SRQ1: What are the artefacts of interest?
Eucalyptus logs
Cluster Controller (CC)
cc.log, httpd-cc_error.log,
registration.log
Node Controller (NC)
nc.log, httpd-nc_error.log,
euca_test_nc.log
Cloud Controller (CLC)
cloud-debug.log, cloud-error.log,
cloud-output.log, axis2c.log
Elastic Block Storage
Controller (EBS)
sc-state.log, registration.log
Walrus Storage Controller
(WS3)
walrus-state.log, registration.log
Research Findings
SRQ1: What are the artefacts of interest?
Eucalyptus essential files
Cloud Controller (CLC)
$EUCALYPTUS/etc/eucalyptus.conf
Cloud Controller (CLC)
$EUCALYPTUS/var/lib/eucalyptus/db
Cloud Controller (CLC)
$EUCALYPTUS/var/lib/eucalyptus/keys
Elastic Block Storage
Controller (EBS)
$EUCALYPTUS/var/lib/eucalyptus/bukkits
Walrus Storage Controller
(WS3)
$EUCALYPTUS/var/lib/eucalyptus/volumes
Research Findings
SRQ1: What are the artefacts of interest?
Virtual machine files
• VM images & associated XML files on
WS3
• Virtual hard disk files on NC
User data files
• User persistent data volumes on EBS
• Snapshots of volumes on WS3
Research Findings
SRQ2: How to recover deleted artefacts?
• The process would be the same as the
process in the traditional physical hosting
• Each Eucalyptus controller is essentially a
standard Linux server with Eucalyptus
software
• Data files are stored with EXT4
Research Findings
SRQ2: How to recover deleted artefacts?
If a forensic copy of the local storage of each
Eucalyptus controller can be acquired, current
forensic tools like EnCase can access and recover the
following deleted files:
• Linux system artefacts on Eucalyptus controllers
• Eucalyptus logs
• Eucalyptus essential files
• VM images & associated XML files on WS3
• Virtual hard disk files on NC
• Snapshots of volumes on WS3
Research Findings
SRQ2: How to recover deleted artefacts?
User data files on EBS volumes
• Data files may be stored in different
filesystems
• The underlying hardware storage
technology could be NAS, SAN, etc.
Research Findings
SRQ2: How to recover deleted artefacts?
Artefacts inside virtual machines
• Use VM ID to track down the NC
• Recover virtual hard disk files
• Recover deleted files on the virtual hard
disk files
Research Findings
Summary of additional challenges
Virtualization
Dynamic nature of resource usage
Increased number of nodes involved
Centralised data storage
Research Findings
SRQ3: What are some other sources of evidence?
Client side investigation
• VNC, RDP, SSH, FireFox, etc.
Live investigation
• EnCase Enterprise
• Virtual Introspection
Network level monitoring
• IDS, Firewall, WAF, etc.
Thank you