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Transcript
th
9
American History
Mr. Sparks
1920s Crash - 1930s FDR
Europe: Rise of Dictators
WWII
1920’s Politics & Economy
A REPUBLICAN DECADE
1921-1923
1923-1929
1929-1933
Calvin Coolidge
Herbert Hoover
Warren Harding
Heart Attack
“Silent Cal”
DOMESTIC POLICY
“The Chief Business of the American
People is Business”
Supported Wave of Prosperity
CONSUMERISM
Top 200 Companies:
1919 - $43 Billion 1929
- $81 Billion
Per Capita Income:
1922 - $672
- $857
1929
1928 Presidential Election
Continued to Ride Wave of
Prosperity
Herbert
Hoover
Alfred Smith
Problems with Prosperity
Uneven Prosperity
1929: 0.1% pop. - $100,000 or More
34% of Savings
71% pop.- less than
$2,500
80% - NO SAVINGS
Living Paycheck to Paycheck
Installment plans = debt
Personal Debt
Supply and Demand
Ford has to cut back on production:
-labor cuts
-Impacts other industries as well.
Speculation in the Stock Market
BULL
Market
John
Raskob
Market Value of Stocks:
1925 - $27 Billion
1928 - $38 Billion
1929 - $87 Billion
“Everybody Ought to be RICH!”
Some people began to buy
stocks on margin, which is
similar to installment buying.
* Unquestioned faith in the bull
market helped lead to the Great
Depression!
Businesses need $ to survive = loans from banks.  People panic and withdraw their entire
savings.  Banks go bankrupt.  Business can’t get loans, leads to more layoffs.  Banks don’t
have your money anymore, and now you don’t have a job either.
1932 Election
Hoover runs for re-election.
However, he is blamed for the
crash and the poor economy
(scape-goat).
1933-1945
Franklin Delano Roosevelt wins the
election and creates a “New Deal”
to get the US out of the
depression. WWII ends the
depression, not the New Deal.
Mr. Sparks
th
9 American History
FDR  End of WWII
FDR Elected President 1932-1945
The New Deal
• A series of government created projects
designed to provide jobs as well as to create
and improve infrastructure while providing
stability in the economy.
• Often referred to as “Alphabet Soup”
– Student PPT Projects (FDIC, CCC, AAA)
What Was the New Deal?
Series of govt. legislation during FDR’s terms
that transformed the role of govt. in
the lives of Americans.
1st step: Get rid of Prohibition!
Deficit Spending: Practice of spending money
that doesn’t exist to stimulate the economy.
How does FDR battle the Depression?
FDR fights to end people panicking. Begins “Fireside
Chats” over the radio to do this.
The NRA: National Recovery Administration
Uses Blue Eagle as mascot. Allowed price fixing and
business mixes closer to government “advice.”
The goal of the NRA is to show America
that the govt. is doing something!
The CCC: Civilian Conservation Corps.
Puts people to work replanting trees, weeding farms
creating irrigation, building parks
TVA: Tennessee Valley Authority
Creates modernization program in poor rural areas
of Tennessee. Hydro electrical dams built.
Govt. creates jobs where private business used to.
Seen as socialism.
“Take a method and try it.
If it fails, try another.”
-- FDR
What were the drawbacks to the New Deal?
1. Govt. becomes bigger, therefore more expensive
2. No immediate results, no major drop in unemployment
3. AAA (Agricultural Agency) paid farmers not to farm
4. Creates an air of entitlement: people get something
for nothing which exists today
Did the New Deal Work?
Unemployment barely dipped below 10%
Dust Bowl made things worse
Biggest impact: Psychological. Gave back optimism
to the people.
What did FDR accomplish in his first term?
1932-1936
1. Calmed the public down & kept faith in govt.
2. Expanded the govt.
3. Allowed the democratic process to survive
instead of pushed aside as Hitler was
doing in Germany
How Did the Great Depression Bring Hitler to Power?
The Dawes Plan:
Charles C. Dawes, US economist comes up with plan
to help ease German war repayments after WW I.
Germany was forced to pay
$32 billion to US, England
& France after WW I.
-Germany owes $$ to France & Britain.
-France & Britain owe $$ to the US
So…
-The US loans $$ to Germany to pay
France & Britain. France & Britain then
pay back the US.
What are the pros/cons of the Dawes Plan?
Meet the Dictators
Soviet Union
Italy
Germany
Totalitarian Government
• Totalitarian rule:
– exerting total control over a nation
– dominates every aspect of life in that country
– power derived from the destruction of individuals
– those who disagree are silenced, beaten, killed
Fascism
• Fascism
– system of government marked by stringent social
and economic control, a strong, centralized
government usually headed by a dictator, and often
a policy of belligerent nationalism
– emphasizes the importance of a nation, or ethnic
group, and the supreme authority of a leader
• Fascist Dictators
– Adolf Hitler (Germany)
– Benito Mussolini (Italy)
Germany
Year
1932 Fascist
Leader
Adolf Hitler – “Mein Kampf”
Supporters
Nazi Party – “brownshirts”
Postwar Problems
Hit
Reasons for Public
Support
Inflation,
by Depression
People living in poverty
unemployment
Economic depression
Unhappiness with Treaty of Versailles –
appealed to citizens’ feelings of humiliation
Italy
Year
1922 Fascist
Leader
Benito Mussolini
Supporters
Fascist Party – “blackshirts”
Postwar Problems
Strikes,
Reasons for Public
Support
High
riots
Economic problems
unemployment
Dissatisfaction with terms of Treaty of
Versailles
Mussolini – WWI Veteran
Spain
Year
1939
Leader
Francisco Franco
Supporters
Fascist Party (Nationalists)
Postwar Problems
Civil
Reasons for Public
Support
Liberal
war – (ends in 1939)
Nationalists backed by Germans;
Republicans backed by Soviets
Labor strikes
reforms in 1931 constitution
Intimidation
German supports Spain. Italy and Germany support each other. As a result of this new
government, and the previous Civil War in Spain, Spain will not play a large factor in WWII.
Japan
Emperor
Hirohito
Year
Hideki
Tojo
1926 Emperor Hirohito Semi-divine
1941-1944 Hideki Tojo Prime Minister
Leader
Military Leaders
Supporters
Militarists
Postwar Problems
Needed
Reasons for Public
Support
Worsening
natural resources to
modernize
economic problems
Communism
• Communism
– A system of government based on the idea that all goods
and land are owned by the society as a whole. The good
of the community is placed above the good of the
individual.
• Although they share some similarities, communist and
fascist leaders have historically been enemies
-A Revolution is often needed. (Too much power held by too
few)
-Old ideas must be removed.
-All must move forward, or none move forward (equality)
-For true communism to work, it must spread throughout the
world (Domino Effect). (Cold War, Korean War, Vietnam)
Soviet Union
Year
1924
Leader
Stalin
Supporters
Communists
Postwar Problems
Economic
Reasons for Public
Support
Reign
failure
People starving
of Terror
Great Purge
Soviet Union
Union of Soviet Socialist Republic
USSR
• Joseph Stalin
– Took over after Lenin died
(Lenin more moderate)
– 1924 “One great leap forward”
– a vicious brand of communism, reworked
economy
– Like fascism, communism relies on a strong
dictator, and does not represent or preserve
individual rights or freedoms (Big Brother, 1984)
Red= Blood of the revolution (Workers/Farmers)
Hammer= tools of the workers (Urban/Industry).
Sickle = tools of the peasant (Agriculture).
Star = Represents the Communist Party
China, Cuba, Laos, North Korea, Vietnam
Stalin’s Reign of Terror
• Political Domination via purges
– “Purified” the Communist Party by removing
opponents and anyone else he believed to be a
threat to his power or ideas
• Great Purge of 1939
– Stalin’s agents arrested >7 million people
– >1 million executed, millions of others in camps
– Purges successfully eliminated any resistance
Fascism in Italy
• Benito Mussolini
– “Il Duce,” the leader
– Fought and injured in WWI
– Believed the Versailles treaty deprived Italy
– Charismatic speaker, found supporters
– Formed the revolutionary Fascist party, 1919
Fascism in Italy
• Organized gangs of fascists
developed around Italy
– Vowed to end Italy’s economic problems
– Blackshirts – thugs who control the opposition
• By 1922, Mussolini had built so much power,
he threatened to march on Rome
– The king of Italy panicked and appointed him
prime minister
Fascism in Italy
• Goal 1: to improve economic conditions
– suspended elections, outlawed other political
parties
– Established a dictatorship
– Firm control improved Italy’s economy
• Other European nations commend him!
Fascism in Italy
• Goal 2: to build an empire
– Dreams of a new Roman empire (Wants to control the
Mediterranean Sea )
– Fascist slogan: “A country is nothing without conquest”
• 1935, Italy invades Ethiopia
– Overpowered Ethiopian resistance
– Ethiopian emperor fled
• Other European nations horrified!
Ethiopia backfires:
Europe turns its back on Mussolini &
Italy. Mussolini sees Hitler as his only
ally and begins dealing with him.
Europe, Africa, Asia, Middle East
Hitler’s Rise to Power
• Served in WWI (wounded)
• Furious with Germany’s part in the
Versailles treaty
– Stripped Germany of land and colonies
– Huge burden of debt for war damage in Fr, Bel,
GB
– War-guilt clause which blamed Germany for
starting WWI
The Nazi Party
• 1919, Hitler joins the National
Socialist German Workers’ Party, or Nazi Party
– Fascism with German Nationalism and Racial
Superiority
• Hitler becomes leader of Nazi Party
– Powerful, fanatical public speaker
– Focus on German’s national humiliation drew support
• Failed attempt to overthrow German Gov’t
– Hitler imprisoned, authors “Mein Kampf”
“Mein Kampf”
• “My Struggle,” composed in prison
• Outlined Nazi philosophy
– His views on Germany’s problems
• Blamed minorities for weakening Germany
– Notably, Jewish
• Called for purification of the Aryan Race
– Removal of undesirable races = mass extermination / genocide
Germany turns to Hitler
• Great Depression hits Germany, 1930’s
• Nazi Party promises
– National respect
– economic stabilization
– restored empire
• 1932 elections, Hitler loses to Paul von Hindenburg
– Hindenburg makes Hitler chancellor, head of German
gov’t
• Hitler as chancellor
– Ends freedom of speech,
– Violently silences critics using brownshirts, Nazi thugs
Hitler is made Chancellor of Germany Jan. 30, 1933
Goal: Get Hitler
as much control of
the govt. until
Hindenburg dies.
What happened?
Feb. 1933: Reichstag burns.
The Nazis did it but it is a way
to blame & get rid of communists
The Reichstag
burns to the ground
after “communists”
apparently torch it…
Hitler declares state of emergency and and gets
new laws passed giving him unlimited power and
ability to get rid of any opposition.
1934: The SA has become too big
and too uncontrollable. Rohm is
becoming rebellious.
Hitler needs the army, but
Army hates Rohm & SA.
Either Hitler gets rid of
SA or army will get rid of Hitler.
Hindenburg dies Aug. 2nd 1934.
Hitler combines offices of Chancellor
and President. Army allows this in
exchange for rearming it.
Hitler makes all soldiers take oath of loyalty to
HIM not the army or govt.! He is called Fuhrer.
The Third Reich has officially begun…
1935: Announces he is
making a new air force just to
see what happens.
Nothing does.
So…then he announces he
is beefing up army from 100,000
men to 500,000.
Nothing happens.
THEN says he is rebuilding Navy
with subs! Britain says OK with
some restrictions.
• 1936
• Nuremburg Party Rally
– Adolf Hitler leads 180,000 in an
“Oath to Germany”
1938 Man of the Year
– Banners, flags, spotlights, stages
– Grand spectacles essential to building power.
– Increased size of the military
– Rebuilds Navy including U-BOATS
– Builds tanks and develops new weapons (V-2
Rocket)
* Most importantly, he re-establishes PRIDE in
Germany in the form of Nationalism.
Why Did He Hate the Jews?
Myth: Blamed Jewish doctor for Klara’s painful death from
breast cancer. (Adolf’s mother)
Fact:
- Possibly 1/4
Jewish himself
- Racial influences
in Vienna
(Austria)
- Rejection from
Vienna Academy
- Racial purity
What about the Swastika?
Ancient symbol: Hinduism/Buddhism
Hitler equates with racial
superiority and sign of
upcoming race war
Begins Hitler’s racial
policies against Jews.
Germany retaliates for German
ambassador assassinated by
Jewish gunman. Jewish shops
boycotted, synagogues burned,
people humiliated.
START OF WWII: EUROPE
- Sept. 1, 1939: Nazis invade Poland
- June, 1940: France Falls
- July, 1940: Battle of Britain
- June, 1941: Barbarossa
- Nov., 1941: FDR & Churchill meet
- Dec. 1941: Pearl Harbor
Hitler’s Quest for New Territory
The same routine is followed:
- Create tension
- Make unrealistic demands
- Start an “incident”
- Send in troops to “stop incident”
- Occupy territory
Germany invades Poland Sept. 1, 1939
England declares war to Hitler’s surprise.
WW II has begun…
What was going on in the US?
- FDR declares US as neutral but watching carefully.
- States allied nations may buy materiel in cash &
transport on their own ships
- FDR downplays US entering the war. “Europe’s fight”
- Poland invaded. England & France mobilize
- Nazis use BLITZKRIEG to invade Poland.
Blitzkrieg:
Lightning war. Strategy is to hit hard & fast before
enemy can hit back.
Poland falls in less than 4 weeks.
Hitler tries to backpedal with
Britain saying he will invade
no more.
England
doesn’t buy it.
USSR secretly
carves up Poland
with Nazis
SS forms special squads called
Einsatzgruppen. Kill all
threats
to German
occupation:
intelligentsia,
Jews, resistors.
Death camps
begin
construction
in Poland
Holocaust
“Sacrifice by Fire”
Hitler knows he must fight the West.
Will revamp old Schliefen Plan into
the Manstein Plan
while England readies.
Manstein Plan:
Hit France first
over Ardennes
Mts. while
planning fake
attack in Belgium.
The Maginot Line:
Defensive fence built by
France to keep Germany
from invading again.
1940: USSR invades Finland.
Hitler sends troops to Norway
and Denmark to
protect allied
foothold.
Britain beats
Germany in
Norway but
Germany
takes Denmark.
By Feb. of 1940
Chamberlain resigns after
loss of Denmark
and Norway.
Bad for Hitler because
this paves the way for…
WINSTON CHURCHILL
Winston Spencer Churchill
Former Admiral of Navy
Veteran of Boer War
Heavy Drinker
Cigar Smoker
Prone to depression
Strong, arrogant & Hitler’s
worst nightmare
Becomes British Prime Minister
1940 after Chamberlain resigns
Dunkirk
British &
French
British &
French Forces
are pushed to
the sea by
Nazi advance to
beaches of
Dunkirk!
Hitler orders his tanks & army to halt!
Churchill takes the chance and orders
giant evacuation of all troops! Sends
every boat possible from England
to rescue 400,000 men!
The Miracle of Dunkirk:
May, 1940. Allied forces trapped by Nazis in Belgium.
Hitler’s first mistake of the war: He let the
British & French escape from Dunkirk!
Hitler smashes into France. French forces are
crumbling. Within 9 weeks Germany is Paris
and France sues for peace…WW I haunts them.
French resistance force led by
Gen. Charles DeGaulle escapes to North Africa.
France is divided and humiliated
by Hitler.
Northern half is occupied France.
Southern
half is Vichy France. Wants to
show England he is
generous…
Hitler’s 2nd Mistake: Bombed
useless cities
instead of strategic airfields and
factories!
Operation Sea Lion:
Invade England.
Goering wants Luftwaffe to
soften up Britain before
invading. Must knock out the
Royal Air Force
(RAF)
The Blitz: All out air attack of
England in fall of 1940. holds off
the Nazis!
What was the Lend-Lease Act?
US will “lend” old battleships and weapons
to England in exchange for bases in Iceland and
payment later.
England is close to bankruptcy. They NEED this!
FDR is a master of making complex things seem simple.
Lend-Lease gets through to Congress.
What did the US “lend” to Britain?”
Old tanks, airplanes, weapons, ships.
FDR calls up the draft “just in case”.
“If England falls, the United States will be
staring down the barrel of a loaded gun.”
-- FDR in his Fireside
Chat to the People
FDR slowly
conditions
Americans to get
ready
for war he knows
is coming…
1937: US bans all sale of scrap iron and oil
to Japan after US gunboat is accidentally
bombed by Japanese in China.
By 1941 after Japan invades Indochina,
this includes gasoline.
Japan is upset.
A new military leader,
Hideki Tojo has
taken over the
Japanese govt.
Hitler fears Russia will
try to grab too much land.
Doesn’t trust Russia. Feels
time is right to attack
Russia!
Hitler turns attention from Britain to
Russia. Feels if Russia falls
England will cave in with fear.
- Sept. 1, 1939: Nazis invade Poland
- June, 1940: France Falls
- July, 1940: Battle of Britain
- June, 1941: Barbarossa
- Nov., 1941: FDR & Churchill meet
- Dec. 1941: Pearl Harbor
The Nazi invasion of Russia. June 22, 1941.
Why did Hitler invade Russia?
Thought it would scare Britain into surrender.
Stalin believes the invasion is a mistake.
Hitler believes it will be over by October.
Stalin turns to Allies. FDR extends Lend-Lease to Soviet Union.
2 Things Screw Up Barbarossa:
1. Hitler has to bail Mussolini out of Greece
2. Yugoslavia turns its back on Hitler & he sends
troops to crush it.
Both of these delayed the invasion by months!
Nov., 1941: Snow halts Nazi’s 30 miles from Moscow.
55 degrees below zero.
December 7th, 1941
Japan wants oil fields of
Indochina. Attacks Vietnam and
other East Asian countries.
US froze all assets
& banned all oil,
gas & scrap iron
sales to Japan.
Dec. 7th, 1941: Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
Surprise dawn raid with air and mini subs.
Majority of US fleet are old battleships and are
destroyed.
2000 killed. 710 wounded.
Results of Pearl Harbor:
US abandons isolationism
Germany declares war on US next day!
US enters into a 2 front war….
What was the Atlantic Wall?
Series of fortifications on beaches of France
to keep out invasion attempts.
France
Russia: 1942-1943
Germans are pushed back. Lose Stalingrad.
Stalin uses surprise 5 million men from Siberia
and mounts new offensive.
Nazis are surrounded at Stalingrad. Hitler enraged.
World sees Nazis are not invincible.
Churchill and FDR meet in
Africa and Cairo to talk
about a 2nd Front in
Europe. Stalin wants one.
What were the Nazi “Miracle Weapons?”
- Atomic Weapons?
- Jet Engines
- V (Vengeance) Rockets
Albert Einstein Sends his famous letter to FDR.
So Where Did the Allies Land First?
Italy! 3 successful invasions start with taking of Sicily.
Hitler sends in German troops to resist.
Italians losing heart
for the war.
Mussolini has
puppet govt. in
N. Italy but
it is weak.
“The Italians never lose a
war no matter what side
they are on because they are
always on the winning
side in the end…”
-- Hitler’s remarks on
Italian resolve.
Italy declares war on Germany
Sept. 9, 1943
New Italian President
Badaglio
Operation Overlord
June 6, 1944
Hitler realizes there will be a major invasion of Europe now. Calls
Rommel home from Africa and Italy to stop it.
Allies will invade
from England across
English Channel
into Britain.
England
English Channel
Holland
Belgium
Where will D-Day
happen? Hitler
believes at Calais,
shortest distance
between England
France
and France…
D-Day will focus on invading Hitler’s Atlantic Wall.
D-Day means “zero hour”. It does NOT mean
Doomsday. It is simply a term for time of attack.
D = day, H = Hour
Rommel believes
it will happen at
Normandy.
England
English Channel
Holland
Belgium
Hitler refuses to
believe this.
Operation Overlord:
Largest amphibious assault to this time.
4000 invasion ships, 600 warships
10,000 planes, 175,000 men
France
Normandy divided into 5 beaches:
Gold& Swordfish:
British
Juno: Canada
Omaha & Utah: US
June 6th, 1944:
Begins after midnight.
Fake attack at Calais but
major thrust is Normandy
The July, 1944 Plot: Operation Valkyrie
Goal: Kill Hitler
Who’s Involved? Top Nazi Brass including Rommel!
Does it work? No.
Gen. Klaus von
Stauffenburg on
day of plot…
Survival of assassinations convinces
Hitler he is destined to win. Brings
Mussolini to see the damage…
Mussolini caught with mistress trying to
flee Italy.
It ain’t pretty… shot, publicly hung
upside-down, spit on, humiliated.
The Big 3 at Yalta
Near Crimea (Russia)
April 12, 1945:
FDR dies of cerebral hemorrhage at Warm Springs, GA
with Lucy Mercer with him.
Hitler and Goebbels rejoice.
The nation grieves for a president it had for 12 years…
Harry Truman,
FDR’s VP from
MO is sworn in
as President…
April 12, 1945.
FDR hoped to
raise a Dime
from every
American for
Polio Research
US and Russian troops meet at the Elbe River. Germany split
in half. Ike allows Russians to take Berlin for revenge. COLD
WAR Foreshadowing
Hitler orders all factories & utilities destroyed. Scorched earth. Speer
disobeys orders and prevents total destruction…
Hitler marries Eva Braun (mistress) and 24 hours
later, 4/30/45 kill themselves.
By May, 1945 it is over in Europe. Hitler is dead. Russian,
British & US troops occupy all of Germany.
Head of Army Alfred Jodl signs the German surrender
May 7, 1945 Victory in Europe (VE) Day
By May, 1945 Germany has
surrendered and Japan is teetering
on defeat. The US is closing in and
bombing Japan on a regular basis,
including massive firebombing.
WWII: Pacific Theatre
&
The Atomic Bomb
The US leapfrogs small islands
toward the mainland of Japan
By 1944 Japan’s Tojo govt. has fallen. Japan is being firebombed
regularly. Harry Truman (US), Josef Stalin (USSR),
Winston Churchill (England) meet in Potsdam, Germany.
Truman issues the
Potsdam Declaration:
Calls for complete
Japanese surrender
or face total
destruction.
President Harry Truman announces that
the US has a super weapon. As US gets closer to
Japanese main island, Japanese fight harder.
What will they do to defend their home?
Iwo Jima
Feb-March, 1945
More casualties here than during the
Battle of Normandy (D-Day invasion).
Mount Suribachi,
Iwo Jima 22,000 Japanese:
.9% surrender
The Atomic Bomb project
was known as the
Manhattan Project.
Originated with Albert
Einstein and supervised
by Dr. Robert
Oppenheimer
Dr. Robert Oppenheimer
Oppenheimer and team
test it July, 1944 at 4:45AM.
A success…
Dr. Albert Einstein
Remember Einstein’s letter...
2 Bombs created: Fat Man and Little Boy.
To be delivered to Pacific by June, 1945 and dropped
on Japan.
Hiroshima Vs Nagasaki
•
•
•
•
•
Little Boy
Uranium
Gun Method
15 kilotons (kt)
August 6, 1945
•
•
•
•
•
Fat Man
Plutonium
Implosion Method
21 kiloton (kt)
August 9, 1945
1st Atomic Bomb delivered over
Hiroshima, Japan by US Plane
Enola Gay. August 6, 1945
After Hiroshima, Japanese are told to surrender.
They refuse, not believing such a
weapon exists.
Nagasaki is bombed 3 days later.
Hundreds of thousands dead from the blast and
subsequent radiation poisoning from fallout…
Japanese sign surrender on USS Missouri
- China & USSR suffer perhaps the most
- Germany divided into 2 parts: Free and Communistic
- Japan loses everything. Army for defense only
& occupied by US even today
- 12 million exterminated in Europe by Final Solution
America becomes
1st world superpower
President Truman
REVIEW QUIZ II
Operation Sea Lion
Operation Barbarossa
Operation Overlord
Operation Valkyrie
Manhattan Project
Trinity
Little Boy & Fat Man
[Hiroshima & Nagasaki]
VE Day, VJ Day
Winston Churchill
Dr. Oppenheimer
Albert Einstein
Harry S. Truman
Gen. Alfred von Stauffenburg
RAF
The Blitz
Blitzkrieg
The Holocaust
Maginot Line
Manstein Plan
The Atlantic Wall
Start of WWII -Sept 1, 1939
Pearl Harbor Attack -Dec 7, 1941
D-Day Invasion-June 6, 1944