Download Magnesium Nanotechnology: A Promising Sustainable

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Biomedical engineering wikipedia , lookup

Nanomedicine wikipedia , lookup

M Gupta , SF Nano Res Let, 2017, 1:1
SciFed Nanotech Research Letters
Open Access
Magnesium Nanotechnology: A Promising Sustainable Technology for
Greener Future
*M Gupta
*Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS) 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117 576
Magnesium is one of the most abundant metallic
element in universe, planet earth (including earth crust and
water bodies) and human body. Even plants need it for better
growth. It is non-toxic (an average human needs 250-400 mg
per day) and lightest metallic element that can be used safely
in multiple weight critical engineering (such as automobile,
aerospace, sports, electronic) and biomedical (as screws, pins
and plates) applications. Moreover, it exhibits lower melting
temperature than aluminum, superior damping, electromagnetic
shielding and specific mechanical properties. It may be noted
that currently aluminum based alloys are most favored light
based materials but unfortunately aluminum is neurotoxic and
requires care in disposal so that it should not enter the food
cycle. The limitations of aluminum based materials to further
benefit the environment make magnesium and magnesium based
materials (including alloys and composites) worthy candidates
to replace aluminum based materials and steels. The use of
magnesium based materials ensures ~ 33% and ~75% reduction
in weight when compared to aluminum based materials and
steels, respectively. Replacing comparatively heavier metals
and their alloys is particularly important for transportation
sector as it contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emission
leading to ever increasing climate changes. Similarly, the use of
magnesium based materials as orthopedic implants, for example,
eliminates the need of revision surgery, doctor’s time, patient
trauma and cost.
Magnesium based materials were actively used during
World War 2 time in defense, automobile and aerospace sectors.
Interest in them was revived again for almost last 20 years
when their abundance in earth crust was realized. The biggest
challenge now is to develop new magnesium based materials that
are capable to exhibit superior mechanical properties, machining
and corrosion resistance. Unlike aluminum based materials,
magnesium based materials are limited in number with a rather
narrow spectrum of engineering properties. In that respect
nanotechnology holds a promise to widen the spectrum of key
engineering properties of magnesium based materials. There
are two ways in which nanotechnology can used to enhance the
properties. First way is to reduce the microstructural features,
particularly grain size, to nano-length scale through severe plastic
deformation processes such as equiangular channel processing
or through the use of reinforcement at nano-length scale. Severe
SF Nano Res Let
ISSN:xxxx-xxxx SFNRL , an open access journal
plastic deformation processing is still in the initial stage of
development and will need more time to mature to industrial
level. Addition of nanoparticles in lower amounts (typically <
3%) is another method that ensures almost no weight penalty
(density of nanoparticles is normally higher than magnesium)
when compared to micron size reinforcement which are used
in larger amounts (15-25%). Magnesium based nanocomposites
can be synthesized using traditional liquid and solid phase
techniques requiring no additional infrastructural cost except
for optimization of processing parameters. Depending on
the type of matrix selected, magnesium based composites
can be used in both as-cast and wrought forms. Magnesium
based nanocomposites can easily be plastically deformed, for
example, using hot extrusion to realize simple or complex
shapes as required by end applications. Various research studies
have shown that nanoparticles based on oxide, carbide, nitride
and boride families and carbon based reinforcement such as
carbon nanotubes (both single and multiwall), graphene and
nanoplatelets can be successfully used to strengthen pure
magnesium and its alloys. Properties such as ambient and high
temperature strengths, ductility, fatigue, creep, oxidation and
wet corrosion resistance can be significantly enhanced. It may
however be noted that different types of reinforcement have
different capabilities even if they fall within same family (such
as oxide family). This necessitates the experimental validation
for each matrix and reinforcement combination. For example,
nano-reinforcement if added to pure magnesium can adversely
*Corresponding author: M Gupta, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National University of Singapore (NUS) 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore
117 576. E-mail: [email protected]
Received February 20, 2017; Accepted February 20, 2017; Published March
3, 2017
Citation: M Gupta (2017) Magnesium Nanotechnology: A Promising
Sustainable Technology for Greener Future. SF Nano Res Let 1:1.
Copyright: © 2017 M Gupta. This is an open-access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original author and source are credited.
Volume 1 · Issue 1 · 1000001
page 1 of 2
Citation: M Gupta (2017) Magnesium Nanotechnology: A Promising Sustainable Technology for Greener Future. SF Nano Res Let 1:1.
affect the wet corrosion resistance by serving as cathodic site
while it can enhance wet corrosion resistance of an alloy by
adversely affecting the precipitation of cathodic precipitates.
Initial studies conducted on machining of nanocomposites
revealed encouraging results in terms of cutting force, machining
speed and tool wear. Experimental research conducted so far
indicates the need for more fundamental understanding of the
scientific concepts that govern the behavior of magnesium based
While recycling of magnesium based materials is not
an issue as magnesium is non-toxic, challenges remain to ensure
that new magnesium based materials are developed with alloying
elements and reinforcements that do not pose any harm to
nature. Another challenge faced by magnesium nanotechnology
is to upscale the processing methods to industrial level so that
these fascinating and promising materials can be used more and
more in multiple engineering and biomedical applications for
the wellbeing of planet earth and living organisms.
Citation: M Gupta (2017) Magnesium Nanotechnology: A Promising
Sustainable Technology for Greener Future. SF Nano Res Let 1:1.
SF Nano Res Let
ISSN:xxxx-xxxx SFNRL , an open access journal
Volume 1 · Issue 1 · 1000001
page 2 of 2