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BIOL 252 – Winter 2017
Study Guide and Potential Essay Questions for Chapter 18 – Endocrine System
Use the Tables in Chapter 18 to find information about each hormone’s:
• hormone name
• source (gland/cell/zone, etc.)
• target
• hormonal effect on target (principal actions)
• regulatory control (stimulus/inhibition of secretion).
Some terms:
adenohypophysis, amplification, arachadonic acid, autocrine, bound fraction (of hormone),
calmodulin, catecholamine, cholesterol, circulating hormone (endocrine), thyroid follicles and
colloid, downregulation, eicosanoid, endocrine, exocrine, free fraction (of hormone),
glucocorticoids, gonadocorticoid, G protein, heterocrine, hypophyseal portal system, leptin,
mineralcorticoids, neurohypophysis, paracrine, portal system, receptor cascade, regulatory
(releasing) hormone, renin-angiotensin pathway, second messenger, somatomedins, steroid,
target cell, suprarenal gland, tropic hormone, upregulation, zones of adrenal cortex
Potential Short-answer Questions and Study Suggestions
1. Be very familiar with the handouts on endocrine function that was published on the Web
site. The best-prepared student will know: Hormone name, Hormone Source, Target(s),
Principle Action(s) (i.e. effect on target), and Regulatory Control (Stimulus/inhibition for/of
Secretion) for each hormone on the list.
2. Be very familiar with the mechanism of thyroid hormone production (Figure 18-11 and
lecture notes).
3. Which hormones are peptides/proteins? Lipids? Amino acid derivatives? Catecholamines?
4. How is the mechanism of transport in blood different for water- vs. lipid-soluble hormones?
5. How do the sites of receptor binding and mechanism(s) of action differ for water- vs. lipidsoluble hormones?
6. Define the following types of hormonal effects: antagonistic, synergistic, permissive and
7. Compare the Nervous and Endocrine systems with respect to: Control Messenger, Control
Mechanism, Cells Affected, Results of Stimulus, Time to Effect, and Duration of Effect.
(Notes, Part 1)
8. Give a step-by-step, real-life example (i.e. for a specific hormone) showing how a receptor,
a G-protein and a second messenger are involved in a hormone’s effect on a target cell’s
metabolic activity. The best answers will include a diagram (as in Spotlight 18-3) and an
explanation of the diagram in complete sentences.
9. What three major types of stimuli lead to endocrine reflexes? Give one example of each
type of reflex. (See notes.)
10. The anterior pituitary stains darkly; the posterior pituitary stains lighter. What explains this
difference in staining?
BIOL 252 – Winter 2017
11. What two general mechanisms cause the release of the hormones stored in the pituitary
12. Describe the renin-angiotensin pathway (see Figure 18-19b on p. 625 and Notes.). What
stimuli initiate this pathway? What are the target organs and effects on the target organs?
What are the overall negative feedback effects of this pathway?
Checkpoint questions from Martini
Page 619
4. How could you distinguish between a neural response and an endocrine response o the
basis of response time and duration?
6. What primary factor determines each cell’s hormonal sensitivity?
Page 625
10. What effect would elevated circulating (blood) levels of cortisol, a steroid hormone from the
adrenal (suprarenal) cortex have on the pituitary secretion of ACTH?
Page 639
23. Identify the types of cells found in the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) and identify
the hormones secreted by each.
Page 643
28. Describe the action of renin in the blood stream.