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Aqueous Solutions and Types of Reactants
Parts of a solution:
○ Solution - homogeneous mixture
○ Solute - what gets dissolved
○ Solvent - what does the dissolving
○ Soluble - can be dissolved
○ Dissociation - breaking apart into ions
■ Ex. N aCl → N a + + Cl −
Aqueous Solutions
○ Dissolves in water
■ Water is a good solvent because the molecules are polar
■ The oxygen atoms have a partial negative charge
■ The hydrogen atoms have a partial positive charge
○ Hydration
■ Process of breaking bonds
■ H+ ions attracts negative ions
■ O- attracts positive ions
Solubility and Electrolytes
○ Solubility = how of much of a substance will dissolve in a given amount of water
■ Usually g/100 ml
■ Varies greatly, but if they do dissolve, the ions are separated and can
move around
■ Water can also dissolve non-ionic compounds if they have polar bonds
The ions in a solution that are dissolved can move about
■ Electricity is also a moving charge
■ Solutions of ionic compounds can conduct electricity
○ Strong electrolyte/solution = compound completely dissociates and conducts
electricity well
○ Weak electrolyte/solution = partially dissociates into ions and conducts electricity
○ Non-electrolyte = ions don’t dissociate and can’t conduct electricity
Measuring Concentration and Solutions
○ Concentration = how much of a compound is dissolved
Molarity (​M​) = Moles of solute / Liters of solution
■ 1 M = 1 mol solute/ liter solution
○ Dilution = adding more solvent to a known solution
■ The moles of solute stay the same
■ M1V1 = M2V2
○ Stock solution = a solution of known concentration that is used to make more
dilute solutions
○ Precipitation = when aqueous solutions of ionic compounds are poured together
and a solid forms (solid = precipitate)
○ We can predict the products
■ The anion and cation switch partners
■ Can only be absolutely certain by experimenting
○ Three different precipitation equations:
■ Molecular equation​ = written as the whole formula
■ Complete ionic equation​ = all solutes are dissociated if possible
■ Net ionic​ = balanced equation without spectator ions
● Spectator ions = ions that don’t react
Solubility rules
■ All nitrates and acetates are soluble
■ Alkali metal ions (first and second columns) and ammonium ions are
■ Chlorides, bromides, and iodides are soluble
● Except with lead, silver, and mercury ions
■ Sulfates are soluble
● Except with lead, silver, mercury, calcium, barium, and strontium
■ All other anions are insoluble (hydroxides, fluorides, sulfides, carbonates,
chromates, and phosphates)