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The Origen of Species
Ch 24
Macroevolution
• Evolution above the species level that
produces novelties like vertebrae or feathers
and contributes to speciation
– Speciation- the process by which new species
arise
Reproductive Isolation
• Prevents different species from making fertile
offspring.
• May be “prezygotic” or “postzygotic”
Prezygotic barriers
•
•
•
•
•
1. Habitat isolation
2. Behavioral Isolation
3. Temporal(time) isolation
4. Mechanical isolation
5. Gametic isolation
Postzygotic barriers
• 1. Reduced hybrid viability- zygote doesn’t
develop
• 2. Reduced hybrid fertility- offspring is sterile
• 3. Hybrid breakdown- fertile hybrids mate but
their offspring are weak/sterile
Allopatric Speciation
• “Different country” speciation due to
geographic separation
– Mountains forming, rivers separating, continental
drift,etc
Sympatric Speciation
• “Same country” speciationSome barrier prevents mating
(Temporal, behavioral…)
– Common in plants that easily
become polyploid instead of
Diploid
--Habitat differentiation and
Sexual selection can cause
Adaptive radiation
(divergent evolution)
• -many species arise from a common ancestor which
moved into a new area or niche
Rates of Speciation
• Gradualism- gradual accumulation of
adaptations
• Punctuated equilibrium- stable periods with
occasional bursts of rapid changes in the fossil
record
Evolution of Genes that Control
Development
• Heterochrony- changes in the rate of
development
• Allometric growth- proportioning of a body to
give it its form
Homeotic Genes
• Genes which control the placement and
spatial organization of body parts
– Hox genes determines positional information in
animal embryos that prompt cells to develop
structures in a particular place
– Changes can create morphological novelties