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Transcript
Topic: Chemistry
Aim: Describe the different states of
matter that exist.
Do Now: Take out your phase changes
reading notes.
HW: Periodic Table Activity due Friday
Properties Reading due Monday
The horizontal rows of the periodic
table are called
1. groups
2. periods
3. noble Gases
4. families
The columns of the periodic table
are called
1. groups
2. periods
3. noble gases
4. metalloids
Which statement regarding
elements in the same family is
true?
1. They have identical properties.
2. They have very different properties.
3. They have the same atomic number.
4. They have similar properties.
Elements at the left of the periodic
table are known as
1. Nonmetals
2. Metals
3. Noble Gases
4. Metalloids
Elements at the right of the periodic
table are known as
1. Nonmetals
2. Metals
3. Noble Gases
4. Metalloids
Elements farthest to the right of the
periodic table in group 18 are
known as
1. Nonmetals
2. Metals
3. Noble Gases
4. Metalloids
Physical change
No new substances were produced. Salt is
dissolving in the water.
Physical change
No new substances were produced. It is still
glass even though it is broken.
Chemical change
New substances were produced because of the
baking.
Chemical change
Iron oxide (rust) is produced.
Chemical change
CO2 and ash produced.
1. Describe the shape and volume of a
solid.
• Definite shape and volume
2. How are the particles in a solid held
together?
• Bonds
The atoms in diamond, a pure form of carbon, are held
together by covalent bonds.
Solid NaCl is held together by ionic bonds.
3. Identify the motion of parties in a
solid.
• Vibrating in place
4. Explain the shape of a liquid.
• DO NOT HAVE a definite shape.
• Takes the shape of the container it is in.
5. Do liquids have a definite volume?
Explain.
• Liquids HAVE a definite volume.
(GRADUATED CYLINDER)
6. Describe the motion of particles
in a liquid.
• The particles can move over, around, and
past one another.
• Particles are COHESIVE
7. Describe the shape of a gas.
• DO NOT HAVE a definite shape.
• Can take the shape of a closed container.
8. Describe the volume of a gas.
• DO NOT HAVE a definite volume.
9. Describe the motion of gas
particles.
• Particles are not bonded to other particles.
• Each particle moves freely through space.
Plasma
• Plasmas are a lot like
gases, but the atoms
are different, because
they are made up of
free electrons and ions
of an element
Plasma is
different from a
gas, because it
is made up of
groups of
positively and
negatively
charged
particles.
Natural plasmas aren't found
around you that often. Manmade plasmas are
everywhere. Fluorescent
light bulbs are not like
regular light bulbs. Inside the
long tube is a gas. Electricity
flows through the tube when
the light is turned on. The
electricity acts as an energy
source and charges up the
gas. This charging and
exciting of the atoms
creates glowing plasma
inside the bulb. The electricity
helps to strip the gas
molecules of their electrons.
You also see
plasma when you
look at stars and
the sun. Stars are
big balls of gases
at really high
temperatures. The
high temperatures
charge up the
atoms and create
plasma.
When the sun boils and
bubbles, particles escape
from the star hurtling
particles of plasma,
known as solar wind, into
space. It takes these
winds around 40 hours to
reach Earth. When they
do, they can cause the
dramatic displays known
as the aurora borealis.
The Northern Lights is
are only visible in the
North sky from the
Northern Hemisphere.
SOLID
LIQUID
GAS
Let’s summarize… Identify the phase
being described (solid, liquid or gas):
1. No definite shape or volume.
2. Takes the shape of the container it is
in and has a definite volume.
3. Made up of high energy atoms.
4. Atoms are tightly packed together.
5. Molecules are cohesive.
6. Has a definite shape and volume.
7. Takes the shape of a closed
container.
Draw the solid, liquid and gas phases in the
boxes at the end of your notes.
SOLID
LIQUID
GAS
GAS
SOLID
LIQUID
The elements oxygen, sulfur, selenium and tellurium are
all found in the same group (16) on the table. What do
we know about the elements in that family?
They have the same (BUT NOT IDENTICAL)
properties.
1. In what family is neon found? Family 18
2. What do we call those elements in that group?
Noble gases
Which element is a metalloid?
1. S (Sulfur)
2. Si (Silicon)
3. Ba (Barium) 4. Br (Bromine)
Explain what occurs to the atomic number
when moving from left to right on the
periodic table.
Atomic number increases.
A substance that cannot be
changed into simpler
substances by a chemical
change is called a (an)
1. element.
2. liquid.
3. solid.
4. mixture.
click here to see animations
of a solid, liquid and gas
animations
• Molecular level phases
Review: Identify the solid, liquid and gas! Support
your answer.
The particles of a substance are
closest together in
a. a solid
b. a liquid
c. a gas
d. plasma
The particles of a substance
move most readily in
a. a solid
b. a liquid
c. a gas
The particles of a substance that
does not have a definite
volume or shape is
a. a solid
b. a liquid
c. a gas
d. plasma
Attractive forces are very strong
between particles in
a. a solid
b. a liquid
c. a gas
d. plasma
Which of the following
substances cannot be broken
down by chemical change?
1.sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
2.ammonia (NH3)
3.water (H2O)
4.potassium (K)
Which diagram represents a mixture?
Which three elements have the most similar
chemical properties?
1. Ar, Kr, Br
3. B, C, N
2. K, Rb, Cs
4. O, N, Si
Which element is in Group 2 and Period 7 of
the Periodic Table?
1. magnesium (Mg)
3. radium (Ra)
2. manganese (Mn)
4. radon (Rn)