Download Chapter 23: War and Revolution, 1914-1919

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
Unit 5 Resources
SUGGESTED PACING CHART
Unit
U - chart
5
head
(1
blue
day)
Chapter 23
(6 days)
Chapter 24
(6 days)
Chapter 25
(6 days)
Chapter 26
(6 days)
Unit 5
(1 day)
Day
U - chart
1
head red
Introduction
w/ p4
U - chart text
U - chart head red
U - chart text
Day 1
Chapter 23 Intro,
Section 1
Day 2
Section 2
Day 3
Section 3
Day 4
Section 4
Day 5
Chapter 23 Review
Day 6
Chapter 23
Assessment
Day 1
Chapter 24 Intro,
Section 1
Day 2
Section 2
Day 3
Section 3
Day 4
Section 4
Day 5
Chapter 24 Review
Day 6
Chapter 24
Assessment
Day 1
Chapter 25 Intro,
Section 1
Day 2
Section 2
Day 3
Section 3
Day 4
Section 4
Day 5
Chapter 25 Review
Day 6
Chapter 25
Assessment
Day 1
Chapter 26 Intro,
Section 1
Day 2
Section 2
Day 3
Section 3
Day 4
Section 4
Day 5
Chapter 26 Review
Day 6
Chapter 26
Assessment
Day 1
Wrap-Up/Projects/
Unit 5 Assessment
Use the following tools to easily assess student learning in a variety of ways:
• Performance Assessment Activities
and Rubrics
• Chapter Tests
• Section Quizzes
• Standardized Test Practice Workbook
• SAT I/II Test Practice
• www.wh.glencoe.com
• Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment
CD-ROM
• MindJogger Videoquiz
• ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM
TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES
Unit Time Line Transparency 5 L2
Cause-and-Effect Transparency 5 L2
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
UNIT TIME LINE TRANSPARENCY 5
CAUSE-AND-EFFECT TRANSPARENCY 5
Global Chronology, 1914–1945
Politics
World Wars: Causes and Effects
• Timed Readings Plus in Social Studies help students increase their reading rate and fluency while maintaining comprehension. The 400-word
passages are similar to those found on state and national assessments.
1917
1914
World War I
begins
1915
The Russian
Revolution
occurs; Russian
women win the
right to vote
1921
Science
and
Culture
1933
1945
Adolf Hitler
comes to
power in
Germany
1927
1939
World War II
begins
1933
1939
1925
1926
1928
1935
Diego Rivera
works on
famous murals
in Mexico City
Robert
Goddard
launches
the first
liquid
propellant
rocket
Alexander
Fleming
discovers
penicillin
Jews lose
rights of
citizenship
in Germany
1922
James Joyce
publishes
Ulysses; T. S.
Eliot publishes
The Wasteland
The United
States drops an
atomic bomb on
Hiroshima
End of old order
Economic
competition
Political
instability
Nationalism
Militarism
Disillusionment
Alliances
Resentment
1945
Enrico Fermi
produces the
first controlled
nuclear chain
reaction
1940
Charlie Chaplin
makes the
movie The
Great Dictator
World
War II
Economic
suffering
1942
Social chaos
Nationalism
World
War I
Rise of
dictatorships
Aggressive
expansion
Shift in balance
of power
Emergence of
superpowers
Creation of
new nations
• Reading in the Content Area: Social Studies concentrates on six
essential reading skills that help students better comprehend what they
read. The book includes 75 high-interest nonfiction passages written at
increasing levels of difficulty.
Founding of
United Nations
• Reading Fluency helps students read smoothly, and accurately.
KEY TO ABILITY LEVELS
Teaching strategies have been coded.
L1 BASIC activities for all students
L2 AVERAGE activities for average to above-average students
L3 CHALLENGING activities for above-average students
ELL ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNER activities
710A
• Jamestown’s Reading Improvement, by renowned reading expert
Edward Fry, focuses on helping build your students’ comprehension,
vocabulary, and skimming and scanning skills.
• Critical Reading Series provides high-interest books, each written at
three reading levels.
For more information, see the Jamestown
Education materials in the front of this book.
To order these products, call Glencoe at 1-800-334-7344.
Unit 5 Resources
ASSESSMENT
Unit 5 Tests
Forms A and B L2
INTERDISCIPLINARY ACTIVITIES
ExamView® Pro
Testmaker CD-ROM
World Literature
Reading 5 L2
Name
B. genocide
2. declared that Germany and Austria were responsible for
starting World War I
C. New Economic
Policy
3. political philosophy that emphasizes the need for a strong
central government led by a dictatorial ruler
D. “Mukden
incident”
4. the modified version of the old capitalist system that Lenin
used to avoid complete economic disaster
E. planned
economies
7. a small country dependent on large, wealthy nations
8. policy of maintaining peace and stability by satisfying the
reasonable demands of dissatisfied powers
About the Author Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941) is one of India’s most famous
writers, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. Born into a wealthy and famous
family, Tagore was educated in England and returned to India to manage his father’s
estate. He was a pacifist and deeply moved by the plight of the poor, themes that run
through his stories. Tagore also wrote poems, plays, and essays. In addition, he was a
skilled musician, painter, and actor.
A. appeasement
F.
GUIDED READING As you read “The Kabuliwallah,” think about the messages about having
compassion the story conveys.
banana republic
B
G. War Guilt Clause
H. Vichy France
I.
Chiang Kai-shek
J.
fascism
“The Kabuliwallah”
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence
or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of the
sentence. (4 points each)
11. The Western Front was characterized by
A. the slow but steady advance of the German army.
B. trench warfare that kept both sides in virtually the same positions for four years.
C. decisive victories by the French army, quickly driving back the German forces.
D. innovative strategy and tactics that fully utilized the new technologies available
to both armies.
12. World War I was a
, meaning that it involved a complete
mobilization of resources and people.
A. modern conflict
C. total war
B. trench war
D. mobile conflict
My five-year-old daughter Mini cannot
live without chattering. I really believe that
in all her life she has not wasted a minute
in silence. Her mother is often vexed at
this, and would stop her prattle, but I
would not. To see Mini quiet is unnatural,
and I cannot bear it long. And so my own
talk with her is always lively.
One morning, for instance, when I was
in the midst of the seventeenth chapter of
my new novel, my little Mini stole into the
room, and putting her hand into mine,
said: “Father! Ramdayal the door-keeper
calls a crow a crew! He doesn’t know anything, does he?”
Before I could explain to her the differences of language in this world, she was
embarked on the full tide of another subject.
“What do you think, Father? Bhola says there
is an elephant in the clouds, blowing water
out of his trunk, and that is why it rains!”
And then, darting off anew, while I sat
still making ready some reply to this last
saying, “Father! what relation is Mother to
you?”
“My dear little sister in the law!” I murmured involuntarily to myself, but with a
grave face contrived to answer: “Go and
play with Bhola, Mini! I am busy!”
The window of my room overlooks the
road. The child had seated herself at my
feet near my table, and was playing softly,
drumming on her knees. I was hard at
work on my seventeenth chapter, where
Pratap Singh, the hero, had just caught
Kanchanlata, the heroine, in his arms, and
was about to escape with her by the third
story window of the castle, when all of a
(
APPLICATION AND ENRICHMENT
Charting and Graphing
Activity 5 L2
Name
Date
i
Socialism and the Three Questions of
Economics Socialism emerged in the early
1800s as a response to the economic and social
injustices that resulted, in large part, from the
Industrial Revolution. Early socialists—most
of whom were French and English—hated the
vast extremes of wealth and power that
seemed to come about as a result of capitalism
and the free market economy.
In its broadest sense, socialism refers to an
economic and political system in which capital
is managed for the benefit of the larger society
rather than for individuals. How to institute
such a system has led to endless debate and
many historical experiments, all of which have
colored the meaning of socialism in one way or
another. For instance, socialism can be applied
to certain practices or institutions of the
Scandinavian nations, of Britain, Canada, and
the United States, yet is also identified with
murderous totalitarian regimes, such as Stalin’s
Russia, Hitler’s Germany, or Mao’s China.
Many economists view economic theory as a
continuum. This continuum starts at one end
with a theoretically pure market economy, in
which no governmental control is brought to
bear on the three questions of economics. No
such theoretically pure market economy exists,
however, because all governments act to restrain
activities considered harmful—for example, the
manufacture and sale of addictive drugs.
On the other end of the continuum is theoretically pure socialism, in which there is no
private property, all wealth is distributed equally, there are no disparities in rank or power, and
government becomes unnecessary because
everyone will be equally rich and good. This
form of socialism is sometimes labeled communism because the early Bolsheviks in Russia,
and later Communists in China, claimed that
theoretical extreme as their goal.
Neither the Russians nor the Chinese ever
realized their vision of a socialist society—or
even came close to it. Russian revolutionaries
did seize control of factories and industries,
and under Stalin the Soviet Union abolished
private property and guaranteed all its citizens
food, shelter, education, and medical care.
Nevertheless, Soviet politicians proved unable
to manage the Soviet economy in a way that
facilitated its growth and prosperity.
Ultimately the Soviet economy collapsed.
Socialism can be further examined in terms
of the three questions of economics.
Question 1: What goods will be produced?
To determine the types of goods to produce,
some socialists wanted a pure command economy. This means that the government
“commands” businesses as to what they
should produce. The former Soviet Union had
a pure command economy. One example of
this was Stalin’s collectivization of farms in
which the government took over private farms
and land.
Other socialists wanted market, or liberal
socialism. This is a mixed economy, in which
certain industries or resources considered
vital to the nation are owned by the government in order to benefit and protect the
population as a whole. The definition of vital,
however, has differed from country to country. In the past, countries such as Great Britain
have owned their coal, steel, railroad, and
health industries and managed them — not for
profit but for the good of the nation and its
citizens. Today, nations as different as
Norway, Mexico, and Saudi Arabia own their
oil industries.
Many people, regardless of the form of
socialism to which they subscribe, believe that
certain industries, transportation for example,
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
9. authoritarian regime under German control that was set up
to govern occupied France
10. used as an excuse for Japanese seizure of Manchuria
Economic Theory As a Continuum
unrestricted market
economy
market economy with
some government control
socialism
communism
d)
GEOGRAPHIC LITERACY
NGS Focus on
Geography Literacy
Building Geography
Skills for Life
Class
Graphing Activity
Charting and
5
The Struggle for National Identity
Directions: Complete the chart below by filling in the missing information about the countries, the forces struggling for control in the country, and where known, the names of important leaders. For the various forces struggling for control, select from the following list.
Nationalistic groups
Police/military forces
Individual dictator
Foreign countries/businesses
Struggle for National Identity
Date
Country
Forces Struggling for Control
Names
1919
1921
1921
1922
1928
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Economics and History Activity 5
Economic Theory at Work
Column B
1. systems directed by government agencies in order to
mobilize resources for the war effort
6. leader of the Chinese Nationalist Party after Sun Yat-sen
Name ____________________________________ Date ________________ Class __________
“The Kabuliwallah” takes place in India around 1890. The family in the
story is Hindu, and the members belong to the Brahman caste. The Indian
castes did not socialize or intermarry, but the caste system would not have
applied to a Kabuliwallah, a Muslim from Kabul, Afghanistan.
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)
5. the deliberate mass murder of a particular racial, political,
or cultural group
Class
Score
Unit 5 Test, Form A
Column A
Date
World Literature Reading 5
Name 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Date 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Class 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭
✔
Economics and History
Activity 5 L2
1930
1930
1930
1934
1936
1937
Reading
List Generator
CD-ROM
The Glencoe BookLink CD-ROM is a
database that allows you to search more
than 15,000 titles to create a customized reading list for your students.
■
Reading lists can be organized by
students’ reading level, author,
genre, theme, or area of interest.
■
The database provides Degrees of
Reading Power™ (DRP) and Lexile™
readability scores for all selections.
■
A brief summary of each selection
is included.
Extending the
Content
Leveled reading suggestions for this
unit:
For students at a Grade 8 reading level:
■
An Album of World War II
Homefronts, by Don Lawson
Readings for the Teacher
■
A History in Fragments: Europe in
the Twentieth Century, by Richard
Vinen. Da Capo Press, 2001.
For students at a Grade 9 reading level:
Gandhi’s Truth on the Origins of
Militant Nonviolence, by Erik
Erikson
■
■
For students at a Grade 10 reading
level:
■
The Generation of 1914, by Robert
Wohl
Multimedia Resources
American Civil Liberties: A History.
(57 minutes) Films for the
Humanities & Sciences. P. O. Box
2053, Princeton, NJ 08543,
1–800–257–5126. VHS.
■
After the Cloud Lifted: Hiroshima’s
Stories of Recovery. (35 minutes)
RMS Communications, 1996. VHS.
710B
Introducing
UNIT 5
TwentiethCentury Crisis
The
Out of Time?
If time does not permit teaching each
chapter in this unit, you may use the
Reading Essentials and Study Guide
summaries.
1914–1945
Unit Objectives
After studying this unit, students should be able to:
1. describe the causes and
impact of World War I;
2. trace the growth of Fascist
and Communist dictatorships
in Italy, Germany, and the
Soviet Union;
3. explain the upsurge of
nationalism in Asia, Africa,
and Latin America;
4. trace the events that led to
World War II;
5. describe major events and
turning points of World
War II;
6. describe events that took
place during the Holocaust;
7. describe the impact of World
War II on civilian populations.
The
eriod in Perspective
The period between 1914 and 1945 was one of the most
destructive in the history of humankind. As many as 60
million people died as a result of World Wars I and II, the
global conflicts that began and ended this era. As World
War I was followed by revolutions, the Great Depression,
totalitarian regimes, and the horrors of World War II, it
appeared to many that European civilization had become
a nightmare. By 1945, the era of European domination
over world affairs had been severely shaken. With the
decline of Western power, a new era of world history was
about to begin.
Primary Sources Library
The Period in Perspective
To build student interest in this unit prior
to assigning the first reading, discuss the
general causes of war, particularly more
recent wars like the Vietnam War, the Persian Gulf War, and the war on terrorism.
Use these materials to enrich student
understanding of World War I and
World War II.
NGS PICTURE SHOW™
CD-ROMs
World War I Era
World War II Era
NGS PICTURE PACK
TRANSPARENCY SETS
World War I Era
World War II Era
710
See pages 998–999 for primary source readings to
accompany Unit 5.
䊱
Gate, Dachau Memorial
䊳
Former Russian prisoners of war honor
the American troops
who freed them.
Use The World History Primary Source
Document Library CD-ROM to find additional
primary sources about The Twentieth-Century Crisis.
710
TEAM TEACHING ACTIVITY
Art With the art teacher, coordinate a study of the major modern art movements of the 1920s and
1930s. Students should examine the philosophy and works of the Dada movement, surrealism,
cubism, and the functionalist movement of the Bauhaus school. After students are familiar with
each of these movements and its philosophy, discuss the possible influence that World War I had
on the art of this period. You may want to have students write reports analyzing an artist’s work
and the historical influences on that artist, or you may want students, with the help of the art
teacher, to create their own artistic creations that reflect the philosophies of one of the movements. L2
Introducing
UNIT 5
“Never in the field of
human conflict was so much
owed by so many to so few.”
CD-ROM
—Winston Churchill
World History
Primary Source
Document Library
CD-ROM
Use the World History Primary
Source Document Library CD-ROM
to access primary source documents
related to the twentieth-century
crisis.
More About the Photo
The inscription above the gate
at Dachau reads “Arbeit Macht
Frei” (“Work will make you
free.”) Dachau was Germany’s
first concentration camp,
opened in 1933. Almost
30,000 prisoners were living
there upon liberation in 1945.
In 1965 the camp was made
into a memorial.
History and the
Humanities
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
World Art and Architecture
Transparencies
45 I Want You for the U.S. Army
46 Three Musicians
48 Empire State Building
49 Zapatistas
50 The Persistence of Memory
51 Migrant Mother
52 Bird in Space
53 The Red Stairway
SERVICE-LEARNING PROJECT
Some of the best primary sources for information about World War II live in our own communities.
Have students work in pairs to interview a World War II survivor. Students may choose to contact
the local Veterans Affairs office or local senior centers to identify a veteran. Have students interview
the person and write a report about that person’s experiences. Also have students reflect on how
learning about the war from someone directly involved in it has expanded their understanding of
the war. L2
Refer to Building Bridges: Connecting Classroom and Community through Service in Social
Studies from the National Council for the Social Studies for information about service-learning.
711
TEACH
Introduction
This feature focuses on efforts by
the international community to
achieve collective security, first
through the League of Nations,
established after World War I,
and later through the United
Nations, set up in the aftermath
of World War II.
International
Peacekeeping
➊
➋
➌
Background Notes
Linking Past and Present
United Nations As students
will read in this unit, American
president Woodrow Wilson
strongly supported the concept
of collective security and was
one of the strongest proponents
of the League of Nations; the
failure of the United States
Senate to approve American participation was a blow to Wilson
and to the League. In contrast,
today, the United States is a
leading member of the United
Nations. Even with the strong
leadership role of the United
States in the United Nations,
however, there is often heated
debate in Congress about
American participation in UN
peacekeeping missions. The
United Nations has been far
more than an agent for collective security. Remind students
that the UN, in addition to
the Security Council has an
Economic and Social Council
and an International Court of
Justice.
Until the 1900s, with the exception of the Seven Years’ War, never
in history had there been a conflict that literally spanned the globe.
The twentieth century witnessed two world wars and numerous
regional conflicts. As the scope of war grew, so did international
commitment to collective security, where a group of nations join
together to promote peace and protect human life.
1914–1918
World War I
is fought
1919
League of Nations
created to prevent wars
1939–1945
World War II
is fought
➊ Europe
The League of Nations
At the end of World War I, the victorious nations set up a “general association of nations” called the League of Nations, which would settle international disputes and avoid war. By 1920, 42 nations had sent delegates to the
League’s headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, and
they were eventually joined by another 21.
The United States never joined. Opponents in the
U.S. Senate argued that membership in the League
went against George Washington’s advice to avoid
“entangling alliances.” When the League failed to
halt warlike acts in the 1930s, the same opponents
pointed to the failure of collective security.
The League of Nations was seen as a peacekeeper
without a sword—it possessed neither a standing
army nor members willing to stop nations that used
war as diplomacy.
The League of Nations and Uncle Sam
712
COOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITY
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
Model United Nations Have students compile a list of international conflicts that are currently
raging around the world. Then organize students into small groups. Assign each group a conflict
from the list. Have them role-play an attempt by the United Nations to resolve the situation. In
each group, have some students represent the two parties in the conflict and others represent
UN mediators. Have students discuss the sources of the conflict and then negotiate a peace treaty.
Each group can describe its dilemma to the class, and explain why they could or could not resolve
the conflict. L2 SS.A.3.4.10
For grading this activity, refer to the Performance Assessment Activities booklet.
712
Geography
➋ The United States
The United Nations
After World War II, the United States hosted a meeting to create a new peacekeeping organization. Delegates from 50 nations hammered out the Charter of
the United Nations. To eliminate the root causes of war, the UN created agencies
that promoted global education and the well-being of children. In 1948, United
States delegate Eleanor Roosevelt convinced the UN to adopt the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights, which committed the UN to eliminate oppression.
The headquarters for the UN are located in New York City.
UN membership flags
Movement Since 1989, troops
from around the world have participated in UN observer and
peacekeeping missions in Latin
America, Africa, and Europe.
Among the most important have
been the observer groups sent to
monitor elections in Nicaragua,
Haiti, and South Africa and the
peacekeeping missions in
Bosnia, the Republic of Georgia,
and Somalia. Ask students what
problems the growing numbers
of UN missions in recent years
may have created. (The UN has
been burdened with ballooning costs
and funding shortages.)
SS.A.3.4.10
1945
United Nations
is founded
1948
UN adopts the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights
1988
Nobel Peace Prize awarded
to UN peacekeeping forces
1950–1953
UN troops participate
in the Korean War
CULTURAL DIFFUSION
International Cooperation
and Popular Music Since the
➌ South Africa
1970s the spirit of international
cooperation has influenced the
world of rock music. In the early
1970s, a number of rock musicians,
including George Harrison and Bob
Dylan, held a concert to raise
money for famine victims in the
newly created nation of Bangladesh
(formerly part of Pakistan). In the
1980s, Bob Geldof of the
Boomtown Rats organized Band
Aid, featuring many recording
artists such as Sting and Phil Collins,
to raise money for famine relief in
Ethiopia.
The Power of World Opinion
By 1995, the UN had taken part in 35 peacekeeping
missions—some successful, some not. It also had
provided protection for over 30 million refugees.
The UN used world opinion to promote justice.
In 1977, it urged nations to enforce economic
sanctions and an arms embargo against South
Africa until apartheid was lifted. In 1994,
South Africa held its first all-race elections.
Many believed this was a major triumph for
collective international action.
Casting a vote in South Africa
Why It Matters
The UN hopes to use collective international actions to promote peace around
the world. Often this involves preventing injustice and improving living conditions. What are some recent UN actions that support these principles?
UNIT 5
The Twentieth-Century Crisis
713
Why It Matters
Student answers will vary depending on current
events. Students may identify the efforts in
Somalia, Sudan, and Sarajevo to provide food
and supplies; the campaign to create international policy for the elimination of land mines;
food drops into Afghanistan during the war on
terrorism; relief to refugees and victims of civil
and tribal warfare in Rwanda and other African
nations.
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
713
Chapter 23 Resources
Timesaving Tools
Use Glencoe’s
Presentation Plus!
multimedia teacher
tool to easily present
dynamic lessons that visually excite your students. Using Microsoft PowerPoint® you can
customize the presentations to create your own
personalized lessons.
™
Teacher Edition Access your Teacher Wraparound Edition and
• Interactive
your classroom resources with a few easy clicks.
Lesson Planner Planning has never been easier! Organize your
• Interactive
week, month, semester, or year with all the lesson helps you need to make
teaching creative, timely, and relevant.
TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES
Graphic Organizer Student
Activity 23 Transparency L2
Graphic Organizer 8: Table:
Pyramid
Chapter
Transparency 23 L2
Map Overlay
Transparency 23 L2
CHAPTER TRANSPARENCY 23
War and Revolution (1914–1919)
World War I
Map Overlay Transparency
23
15°W
0°
15°E
30°E
45°E
55°N
North
Sea
GREAT
BRITAIN
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
RUSSIA
GERMANY
BELGIUM
45°N
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
FRANCE
Black Sea
SERBIA BULGARIA
ITALY
OTTOMAN
EMPIRE
N
W
M edite
GREECE
E
S
rranean Sea
200
0
35°N
0
200
400 mi.
400 km
APPLICATION AND ENRICHMENT
Class
★
Name
Date
PRIMARY SOURCE R
Governments often use methods of propaganda or persuasion to get their citizens to
side with the government’s policies at a
given time, especially during times of war.
Governments use the media as an easy way
to distribute their message. Today these
methods include television ads, print ads,
Class
★
EADING
23
L
enin became a revolutionary after his brother was executed for plotting to kill the czar. As a student, Lenin had read Karl Marx and developed a strong belief in revolutionary socialism. This meant abolishing
private property and establishing a classless society to be set up after a revolution. Lenin fled to Geneva to escape czarist secret service. From Geneva he
wrote letters to accomplices advising them on how to organize the workers
and get them to join the Russian Social Democratic Labor party. The
Bolsheviks were the majority group within the party and advocated revolutionary actions. Their publication was Vpered, which means “forward.” The
Mensheviks were the minority group and were less radical than the
Bolsheviks. Lenin returned to Russia in 1917. After the revolution in that year,
the Bolsheviks were in power, and the Russian Social Democratic Labor party
had become the Communist Party.
n American wartime poster from 1917 shows a smiling, gray-haired woman standing in front of an American flag. Her arms are open and her hands are outstretched.
She is depicted as a homey and maternal woman, almost grandmotherly in appearance.
In the background, the artist has depicted various battle scenes in miniature. The poster
reads, “Women! Help America’s Sons Win the War. Buy U.S. Government Bonds.”
A
I M U L AT I O N
CTIVITY
To S. I. Gusev in Petersburg, member of
the Bureau of Bolshevik Committees
[Geneva, the beginning of March, 1905]
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. Why do you think the artist has drawn the battle scenes in the background rather than
the foreground? _________________________________________________________________
7. Design your own wartime poster. Pick a clearly stated goal, such as asking volunteers to
join the army or suggesting that people not waste food during the wartime shortages.
Find other examples of posters in library reference books to help you. In drawing the
poster, be sure that it will grab people’s attention and convey your message clearly and
persuasively. What is the content of your message? What persuasive techniques do you
want to use? To which emotions do you wish to appeal?
My dear Friend,
Very many thanks for your letters. You are
simply saving us from foreign impressions. Do
continue this. For God’s sake, get hold of letters
from the workers themselves. Why do they not
write?? It is a positive disgrace! Your detailed
account of the agitation in the Committee at the
election to the Shidlovsky Commission [a commission to try to solve workers’ problems] was
magnificent. We shall print it.
Another question: have you accepted the six
selected workers for the Committee? Answer
without fail. We strongly advise you to accept
workers on to the Committee, at any rate half.
Without this you will not strengthen yourselves
against the Mensheviks, who will send strong
reinforcements from here.
No one writes from the Bureau about the
Congress. This makes us anxious, for the
Nymph’s [a nickname of one of Gusev’s colleagues] optimism (and partly your own), that
the Central Committee consent to the Congress
is a plus, inspires us with gigantic fears. It is as
clear as daylight to us that the Central
Committee wanted to fool you. You must be a
Among the global catastrophes that
threatened peace during the 1990s was the
flow of refugees from areas of conflict
toward safety. This type of problem is not
new. In 1945 millions of German Holocaust
survivors were displaced after the collapse
of Hitler’s Third Reich. In 1979 hundreds of
thousands of Vietnamese fled their war-torn
YOU ARE THERE:
YOU ARE THERE:
YOU ARE THERE:
You’ve got so many lice, your
clothes are crawling with them. But
killing them gives you something
to do while being shelled.
• Lose 10,000 troops.
Poison gas your side has launched
blows back over your own troops.
Two friends didn’t get their masks
on in time.
• Lose 20,000 troops.
Rats eat last night’s rations you
were saving. Go hungry.
• Lose 10,000 troops.
✃
YOU ARE THERE:
YOU ARE THERE:
Nights are cold and wet. Two of
your toes get frostbitten. Go to the
hospital.
• Lose 10,000 troops.
Supplies didn’t make it through the
lines. You are being shelled but
must wait for more ammo and go
hungry until supplies arrive.
• Lose 30,000 troops.
YOU ARE THERE:
YOU ARE THERE:
Barbed wire cuts your hand. It’s so
infected you can’t operate a gun.
Go to the hospital until you’re
recalled to duty.
• Lose 10,000 troops.
Dug in, you sit under heavy fire.
The roar of impact has made your
ears bleed.
In a rare lull, you and a comrade
take advantage of the quiet and
share whispered memories of
home.
THE BIG PICTURE:
THE BIG PICTURE:
THE BIG PICTURE:
Tannenberg Allied cost: 30,000
dead/92,000 prisoners; Central
cost: 13,000 dead.
• You have no gun to fight with.
Pick one up from your comrades
who fell before you.
Ypres Allied cost: 60,000 dead;
Central cost: 130,000 dead.
• Poison gas is introduced here.
Everyone panics trying to escape.
You see thousands die, gasping for
air.
Verdun Allied cost: 375,000
dead; Central cost: 375,000 dead.
• For nearly two years both sides
make countless attacks and
retreats. The front moves fewer
than 10 miles.
THE BIG PICTURE:
THE BIG PICTURE:
At Sea Allied cost: 50,000 dead;
Central cost: 20,000 dead.
• Blockades by both sides make
supplies at the front and at home
scarce. Your rations are cut in half.
THE BIG PICTURE:
THE BIG PICTURE:
The Marne Allied cost: 110,000
dead; Central cost: 140,000 dead.
• This is the war’s first Allied victory. But all that really means is
that you won’t be home by
Christmas after all.
THE BIG PICTURE:
• Lose 10,000 troops.
✃
✃
Belgian Campaign Allied cost:
100,000 dead; Central cost: 50,000
dead.
• You see men from your own
unit beating civilians and looting.
One of them is shot by a sniper.
✃
THE BIG PICTURE:
Outside Paris Allied cost: 70,000
dead; Central cost: 120,000 dead.
• To protect Paris, taxicabs are
requisitioned to transport troops
into position. Escaping Parisians
clog the roads.
✃
Class
!
Passchendaele Allied cost:
210,000 dead; Central cost:
270,000 dead.
• Neither side understands why
the enemy (a valiant but inferior
fighting force) hasn’t crumbled.
s many as 2 million Bosnians lost their homes in the civil war there
and are now scattered and adrift across Europe. Many in that refugee
diaspora [dispersion] will soon attempt to put down new roots in their old
land. The international powers, which have invested so much in fostering
military and political stability in the former Yugoslavia, owe it to the Bosnians
and to the cause of peace to help in the resettlement. For if the refugee
effort fails on a broad scale or is mired in widespread turmoil, all of the
international community’s other efforts will be hardpressed to succeed. . . .
But the number of returnees to date pales beside the 830,000 more
dislocated persons UNHCR [United Nations High Commissioner for
Refugees] anticipates will try to resettle in Bosnia by year-end, beginning in
the spring. The first step in staving off a potential fiasco is filling the $353
million Balkan funding request the UNHCR issued to donor nations earlier
this month. Washington legislators must not allow campaign politicking to
prevent the United States from contributing its share.
The second step is encouraging other inter-national development agencies
to follow the lead of the World Bank, which last week announced a $450
million loan package for Bosnian redevelopment. Especially important to
the reconstruction agenda will be support for de-mining. About 3 million
land mines have been sown in Bosnia, many in residential areas, and the
painstaking, unglamorous job of removal will in many cases determine the
success of the resettlement efforts.
DIRECTIONS: Complete the activities described below. Write your editorial on a separate
sheet of paper.
1. Discuss the passage with a small group of classmates. What is the writer’s point of view?
Do you agree or disagree?
2. Working individually, write an editorial supporting or rebutting the argument made in
the passage.
3. Meet again with your group to share and discuss completed editorials.
R
R
The following videotape programs are available
from Glencoe as supplements to Chapter 23:
• Woodrow Wilson: Reluctant Warrior
(ISBN 0–7670–0101–X)
• Nicholas and Alexandra (ISBN 1–56501–514–2)
• Rasputin: The Mad Monk
(ISBN 0–7670–0189–3)
714A
Name
★
Date
Cooperative Learning Activity
Class
23 ★
World War I Political Cartoons
country in makeshift boats, hoping to find a
haven in foreign lands. More recently, wars
in Afghanistan and the Balkans have created enormous refugee populations. Read
the following passage from a March 1996
newspaper editorial about refugees from
the Bosnian civil war.
BACKGROUND
The onset of World War I was marked by intense nationalism and military rivalry
among the nations of Europe. During that era, and in other times of great political
upheaval, political cartoons published in newspapers and magazines have managed to convey important and complex ideas and opinions, and they did so in ways
that speeches, writings, and other forms of communication could not. Political cartoons remain a unique and sophisticated form of art and political rhetoric even
today. By creating political cartoons, you will better understand how they work and
why they can be so effective. You will also use political (or editorial) cartooning to
examine causes of World War I.
A
YOU ARE THERE:
You’re lying facedown in mud trying to get back to your trench.
Bullets whiz over your head. You
notice a shell crater and roll in.
• Lose a turn.
YOU ARE THERE:
✃
The Somme Allied cost: 200,000
dead; Central cost: 175,000 dead.
• Tanks are introduced here, but
they cannot cross the trenches. You
see one hit directly. Everyone
inside is burned.
Cooperative Learning
Activity 23 L1/ELL
The Plight of Refugees
HANDOUT MATERIAL
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. To what emotions do you think the artist is trying to appeal? _________________________
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. What is the persuasive point of the poster? _________________________________________
pessimist so far as the Central Committee is concerned. For God’s sake do not trust it! Take
advantage of the moment to force Menshevik
Committees and especially weak Committees to
appear. It is extremely important to exert pressure on Kiev, Rostov, and Kharkov. We know that
in these three centers there are “Vpered” supporters, both among the workers and the intelligentsia. Whatever happens, they must send delegates to the Congress with a consultative vote.
Write to the Nymph and the Demon [another
member of the Bureau] about all this. The same
applies to the Moscow printers. It is a great pity
that the Bureau did not publish our decision to
invite Workers’ Organisations to the Congress:
that was a terrible mistake. Put it right at once
and without fail.
I would strongly advise an agitation among
the three hundred organised [Bolshevik] workers
in St. Petersburg that they should send at their
own expense one or two delegates to the Congress
with a consultative vote. That will probably flatter the workers and they will take up the matter
enthusiastically. Do not forget that the
Mensheviks will do their utmost to discredit the
Congress to the workers by saying that there
were no workers. This must be taken into
account and we must not fail to pay serious
attention to the workers being represented. The
St. Petersburg workers will surely be able to col-
Date
Historical Significance Activity 23
23
In the Trenches—Game Cards
Guided Reading In this selection, read to learn what problems Lenin faced in organizing workers and persuading them to attend the meeting of the Third Communist Party Congress as delegates.
DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below in the space provided.
1. To whom do you think this poster is addressed? ____________________________________
4. Why do you think the woman’s hands are outstretched? _____________________________
Name
Class
ISTORY
The Letters of Lenin
or radio spots. In the era before television
was invented, governments used posters
to carry their propagandistic messages.
During World War I, governments from
both the Allies and the Central Powers used
illustrated posters to rally their citizens
behind their war cause.
3. Why do you think the artist drew the woman as a smiling, gray-haired, grandmotherly
type? __________________________________________________________________________
Date
HS
A
Historical Significance
Activity 23 L2
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Enrichment Activity 23
Getting the Message Across
✃
Date
Name
★
History Simulation
Activity 23 L1
✃
Name
Primary Source
Reading 23 L2
To order, call Glencoe at 1–800–334–7344. To find
classroom resources to accompany many of these
videos, check the following home pages:
A&E Television: www.aande.com
The History Channel: www.historychannel.com
GROUP DIRECTIONS
1. Use Chapter 23 and library or Internet resources to research the causes of World
War I with your group.
2. Collect examples of historical political and editorial cartoons as well as current
examples from recent daily newspapers and magazines. You might also research
some symbols of World War I that were used in cartoons and posters such as the
German helmet, Lady Liberty, the British lion, the Russian bear, and so on.
3. Decide on a country and create a World War I political cartoon, with or without
a caption, that might have appeared on the editorial page of a newspaper or in
a magazine of the day, and that expresses one country’s rationale for entering
the war. Pick from one of the following countries:
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Enrichment Activity 23 L3
Great Britain
Germany
Austria-Hungary
Italy
Russia
United States of America
France
Canada
4. Your group’s cartoon should be placed on poster board and shared with the
class. Try not to explain the cartoon. Let it stand on its own merits without
explanation until the viewing audience members have had a chance to “get” it.
ORGANIZING THE GROUP
1. Decision Making Decide on a country and assign group members to different
tasks such as research, design, and drawing the cartoon. Assign the elements to
individual group members according to their talents and interests.
★
Chapter 23 Resources
REVIEW AND REINFORCEMENT
Linking Past and Present
Activity 23 L2
Time Line Activity 23 L2
Name
Name ____________________________________
Date ________________
Class __________
Date
Reteaching Activity 23 L1
Name
Class
‘
Time Line Activity 23
Date
Critical Thinking Skills
Activity 23 L2
Vocabulary Activity 23 L1
Class
Name
f
Reteaching Activity 23
Date
Name
Class
Date
Class
Critical Thinking Skills Activity 23
Vocabulary Activity 23
Determining Cause and Effect
Linking Past and Present Activity 23
War and Revolution
War and Revolution
next to the theme it represents, caused, or resulted from. In the right-hand column, explain
how each event is related to the theme. Try to place events in more than one category.
Examples have been started for you.
definitions.
Across
1. agreement to end fighting
5. ideology based on Marx and Lenin
6. a set of final conditions that must be met
10. series of defense agreements made
between nations (two words)
11. councils composed of representatives
from the workers and soldiers
13. complete mobilization of resources and
people (two words)
15. government that is only temporary
16. territory administered by another
country
17. situation where each side tries to wear
down the other by constant attacks
(three words)
DIRECTIONS: Use the chart below to review the causes, progress, and outcomes of World War
I. Complete each item by filling in the blank spaces in the columns.
1882 Italy joins Germany and Austria-Hungary
in Triple Alliance.
1904 Entente Cordiale between France and
Great Britain
1894 France and Russia sign military
alliance.
1912–1913 Balkan Wars
World War I: Causes, Progress, and Events
Date
Causes
1850
1900
1950
July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary declares war
on Serbia.
1918 Civil war in Russia; Wilson presents
Fourteen Points
January 1916 Allied defeat at Gallipoli
June 28, 1919 Signing of Treaty of Versailles
April 2, 1917 President Wilson asks Congress
to declare war to help Allies.
Cooperation
Event
Explanation
Italy joins Germany and
Austria-Hungary in
Triple Alliance.
Alliance brings countries
together to support one
another against aggressors.
Progress on
Eastern
Front
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
response.
the library or on the Internet to learn more
about the history of air warfare. Choose one
person or event that you think is significant
to air warfare. Write a brief explanation of
why that person or event should be included in a new video about air warfare.
1921 Russia’s White armies admit defeat.
Events Relating to Themes
Theme
Triple Alliance
August–
September 1914
September 6-10,
1914
November 11, 1917 Germans sign armistice.
September 5, 1914 France and Germany
fight the Battle of the Marne.
3. Synthesizing information: Do research in
Progress on
Western
Front
November 1917 Coup d´état topples provisional
government in Russia.
August 3, 1914 Germans invade Belgium.
1882
Event
Description
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy agree to
mutual protection.
1907
June 1914
June 28, 1914 Assassination of Archduke
Francis Ferdinand
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Critical Thinking
Directions: Answer the following questions
on a separate sheet of paper.
1. Making comparisons: Contrast the importance of combat aircraft today with its
importance in World War I.
2. Drawing conclusions: Reflect on the statement “The country that controls the air will
always win the war.” Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Explain your
War and Revolution: 1914–1919
DIRECTIONS: On the puzzle, fill in the terms across and down that match the numbered
The Great War caused human suffering and loss of life on a scale that had never before
been experienced. When the war ended, the peace settlement included the payment of heavy
reparations. This caused resentment and anger that eventually led to further conflict among
European neighbors.
DIRECTIONS: Look at the events listed on the time line. Write each event in the chart below
Now Today, some wars are fought almost
entirely from the air. In 1999 NATO forces used
bombers rather than ground troops to end the
Serbian effort of genocide against ethnic
Albanians. When the United States and its
allies pursued Osama bin Laden in 2001, air
strikes destroyed the Taliban air force before
commandos had even set foot on Afghanistan
soil.
Today, military aircraft are capable of intercepting and destroying enemy missiles,
aircraft, and ships. Some of these aircraft carry
enormous “smart bombs” which can be laserguided to hit a specific target.
Military cargo planes are strong enough to
carry heavy equipment such as tanks or
artillery deep into a battle zone. Armored helicopters are capable of tracking enemy
movements and engaging in air-to-ground
attacks. They also evacuate wounded personnel, conduct search-and-rescue missions, and
move troops in or out of battle areas.
The first victory attributed mainly to air
power was the United States defeat of Iraq in
the 1991 Gulf War. Stealth F-117A fighters and
B-2 bombers used their virtual invisibility to
radar to strike deep into enemy territory, taking out communications centers, air defenses,
and chemical warfare factories without being
fired upon by Iraqi forces.
Today, because planes have become so complex and expensive, and because skilled pilots
cannot easily be trained, military planners are
experimenting with unmanned aircraft or
drones for combat purposes. For example, the
X-plane Pegasus, an unmanned plane capable
of identifying and destroying enemy targets,
fires a Pain Cannon that is capable of disabling
an enemy without causing lasting harm.
Conflict
Revolution
later in 1916
April 1917
March–
September 1918
November 11,
1918
end of August
1914
Allied forces in retreat
Down
2. glorification of war
3. government agency directs efforts to
mobilize nation for war (two words)
4. friendly understanding between two
nations, but not a full-fledged alliance
7. payments for damages
8. calling-up of citizens for compulsory
military service
9. ditch
12. rumors
14. preparing military troops and equipment for war
1
March 1918
and-effect relationships between the events described.
earing an attack by Germany, which had signed an alliance with AustriaHungary, France sought its own security arrangement with Russia. This
agreement required the parties to support each other against German or
Austro-Hungarian aggression. Counting on French support, Russia mobilized
against Germany and Austria-Hungary in defense of the Slavs in Serbia.
Germany then gave France an ultimatum to remain neutral, but when its
conditions were not met, it declared war on France.
F
Event 1
2
Event 6
3
5
6
8
7
Allied offensives
9
Therefore
Therefore
11
10
Event 2
Germany decisively defeats Russian army.
12
14
13
15
Outcome
DIRECTIONS: Read the following passage. Then fill in the diagram to illustrate the cause-
4
stalemate
Verdun
Somme
Allied attempt to open a Balkan front fails
mid-1915
events that are related by cause and effect:
One event causes the next, which causes the
next, and so on. This kind of series is called
a chain of events.
Russian
casualties at 2.5
million
Russia gives up eastern Poland, Ukraine,
Finland, and the Baltic provinces
16
January 1919
June 28, 1919
17
Event 5
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Then “Aviation is good sport,” proclaimed
French General Foch in 1914, “but for warfare
it is useless!” One reason for the general’s
opinion was that early aircraft carried no
weapons. However, less than one year later,
the French had figured out how to fire a
machine gun without damaging the plane’s
propeller. On April 1, 1915, Lieutenant Roland
Garros shot down a German plane using such
a device. Within a few weeks, Germans
learned the secret of his weapon when Garros
was forced to make an emergency landing
behind enemy lines.
The German Anthony Fokker improved
French technology, timing bullets to fire
between the blades of a turning propeller. In
August 1915, the Germans began shooting
back. The resulting air war became a battle of
aces, with skilled pilots shooting down enemy
planes in dogfights. Because planes were flimsy, casualties were high. A pilot’s average life
expectancy after arriving at the front was three
to six weeks.
When World War I began in 1914, the
United States didn’t even have an air force.
Volunteer American pilots flew with France’s
Lafayette Escadrille. During the battles of St.
Mihiel and Mense-Argonne, General Billy
Mitchell organized hundreds of aircraft to support advancing allied troops. After the war
ended General Mitchell began advocating for
an independent U.S. Air Force. Mitchell was
one of the few military personnel who realized
that planes could support ground attacks and
even sink ships.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Air Warfare
When historians attempt to record and
make sense of the events of a particular era,
they look at causes and results of those
events. Often they discover a series of
Therefore
Therefore
Event 3
Event 4
Therefore
Internationalism
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
Chapter 23 Test
Form A L2
Chapter 23 Test
Form B L2
ExamView® Pro
Testmaker CD-ROM
Performance Assessment
Activity 23 L1/ELL
Standardized Test Practice
Workbook Activity 23 L2
Name 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Date 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Class 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭
Name 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Date 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Class 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭
✔
★ Performance Assessment Activity 23
Name 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Date 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Class 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭
✔
Score
Chapter 23 Test, Form A
Name __________________________________ Date ____________________ Class ____________
Standardized Test Practice
Score
Chapter 23 Test, Form B
Use with Chapter 23.
A
CTIVITY 23
Making Decisions
War and Revolution
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)
Column A
Column A
★ BACKGROUND
1. a military draft
A. propaganda
1. his assassination started World War I
A. war of attrition
2. assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife
Sophia
B. mandate
C. conscription
2. the process of assembling troops and supplies and making
them ready for war
C. Central Powers
3. the spread of ideas to influence public opinion for or
against a cause
D. Erich von
Ludendorff
3. kept the Western Front in virtually the same positions for
four years
D. David Lloyd
George
4. Great Britain, France, Italy, and Russia
E. planned
economies
4. wearing the other side down with constant attacks and
heavy losses
E. trench warfare
“I am young, I am twenty years old; yet I know nothing of life but despair, death,
fear, and fatuous superficiality cast over an abyss of sorrow. I see how peoples are set
against one another, and in silence, unknowingly, foolishly, obediently, innocently
slay one another. I see that the keenest brains in the world invent weapons and
words to make it yet more refined and enduring. And all men of my age, here and
over there, throughout the whole world see these things; all my generation is experiencing these things with me.”
This quote is from Erich Maria Remarque’s All Quiet on the Western Front, written
in 1928. It is an account written by a German soldier of what it was like to survive in
the trenches of World War I.
5. Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman
Empire
F.
F.
★ TASK
Column B
6. urged princes in the Middle East to revolt against their
Ottoman overlords
Communists
Archduke Francis
Ferdinand
H. self-determination
You will present a journal account of an episode from World War I, written in the
first person. You will focus on the thoughts and feelings of your narrator, but you
should also provide some factual details to give your account a realistic context.
I.
Allied Powers
7. head of the Petrograd soviet and, later, commissar of war
I.
League of Nations
★ AUDIENCE
J.
Lawrence of
Arabia
8. world organization created at the Paris Peace Conference
to prevent future wars
J.
Leon Trotsky
G. Gavrilo Princip
G. Grigori Rasputin
6. uneducated Siberian peasant who claimed to be a holy
man to influence Alexandra
H. War Guilt Clause
7. new name for the Bolsheviks after they seized power
8. general who guided German military operations
9. declared that Germany and Austria were responsible for
starting World War I
B. mobilization
10. a nation officially governed by another nation on behalf of
the League of Nations
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
13. The Western Front was characterized by
A. the slow but steady advance of the German army.
B. trench warfare that kept both sides in virtually the same positions for four years.
C. decisive victories by the French army, quickly driving back the German forces.
D. innovative strategy and tactics that fully utilized the new technologies available
to both armies.
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence
or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of the
sentence. (4 points each)
11.
•Find out what issue requires a decision.
•List the alternative decisions available to you.
•Identify the positive and negative
consequences of each choice.
• Evaluate each choice and its consequences in
light of your goals and values.
• Make a decision and put it into effect.
★ Practicing the Skill
—the aggressive preparation for war—was growing along with
nations’ armies.
A. Conscription
C. Warmongering
B. Militarism
D. Mobilization
12. The Schlieffen Plan was
A. Austria-Hungary’s attempt to negotiate a peaceful settlement with Serbia.
B. Germany’s proposal for dividing up Serbia between Russia and Austria-Hungary.
C. the Black Hand’s plan to assassinate the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
D. Germany’s plan for a two-front war with Russia and France, who had formed
a military alliance.
Your purpose is to explore the emotional and philosophical impact of a World
War I event.
After winning independence from Great Britain, the United States officially declared its desire to avoid any
permanent “entangling” alliances with European nations. In the early part of the twentieth century, as the
United States became a key player on the global stage, the rush of the world’s nations toward war challenged
this policy. Study the following statements of American foreign policy, including the excerpt from Wilson’s
Appeal for Neutrality. Then complete the activity that follows.
★ PROCEDURES
1. Select an event from World War I that you would like to explore. It can be a battle, victory, defeat, or any other occurrence related to the war.
Statements of American Foreign Policy
2. Identify the narrator of your journal account. It can be a soldier, a military or
political leader, a nurse or doctor, a civilian in one of the warring countries, or
anyone else who would have been affected by war.
Washington’s Farewell Address, September 17, 1796
“Why, by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity in
the toils of European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor, or caprice? It is our true policy to steer clear of
permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world…”
3. Read excerpts from All Quiet on the Western Front and other World War I narratives to get ideas for your journal account. Pay particular attention to passages in
which characters describe their thoughts and feelings.
The Monroe Doctrine, 1823
“Our policy in regard to Europe, which was adopted at an early age of the wars which so long agitated the
globe, nevertheless remains the same, which is, not to interfere in internal affairs of any of its powers…”
4. Conduct research on the event you have chosen to write about. Take notes on
details that you can use to add realism to your account.
5. Keeping in mind the event and narrator you have chosen and what you have
learned from your research, decide on the specific experiences you will describe.
Also decide on the time frame for your journal. It may be a day, several days, or
longer.
Wilson’s Appeal for Neutrality, August 19, 1914
“The effect of the war upon the United States will depend upon what American citizens say and do. Every man
who really loves America will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is the spirit of impartiality and
fairness and friendliness to all concerned…. The people of the United States are drawn from many nations, and
chiefly from the nations now at war…. Some will wish one nation, others another, to succeed in the momentous
struggle…. Such divisions amongst us would be fatal to our peace of mind and might seriously stand in the way of
the proper performance of our duty as the one great nation at peace, the one people holding itself ready to play a
part of impartial mediation and speak the counsels of peace and accommodation, not as a partisan, but as a friend.
6. Write your journal. Be sure to include sensory details to bring forth the experience. Make it as real as possible, so that others can feel what you have felt while
writing about the event
13. The German advance toward Paris was halted at
A. the Battle of Tannenburg.
C. the Battle of Marne.
B. the French-Belgian border.
D. the German-Belgian border.
INTERDISCIPLINARY ACTIVITIES
Mapping History
Activity 23 L2
Date
World Art and Music
Activity 23 L2
History and Geography
Activity 23 L2
Class
Name
Mapping History Activity 23
World Art and
Date
Name
Class
Music Activi
ty 23
★
World War I in the Balkans
When fighting broke out in Europe in 1914, the Allies and the Central Powers
fought for control of the Balkan Peninsula and the Ottoman Empire.
Songwriter, actor, producer, and playwright, George M. Cohan had a long and
successful theatrical career, beginning as a child in his parents’ vaudeville act
and continuing for 60 years. Many of his songs are still instantly recognizable.
Balkan Peninsula and Surrounding Regions, 1914
ROMANIA
Bucharest
IAT
IC
Prizven
A
ALBANIA
Tirana
Constanz
BLACK SEA
BULGARIA
Sofia
Skopje
Constantinople
Salonika
Gallipoli
ITALY
The Central Powers led an
OTTOMAN
offensive against Serbia in
Valona
AEGEAN
GREECE
EMPIRE
1915. Attacks were launched
SEA
IONIAN
from Austria-Hungary just
N
SEA
north of Belgrade and from
Athens
Sofia. The armies came
W
E
together west of Skopje near
S
0
100
200 miles
the Albanian border. Another
MEDITERRANEAN SEA
0
150
300 kilometers
attack came from Sarajevo
and pushed south into
Albania. In 1916 the German forces that had succeeded in moving the Eastern Front into Russia turned
south to conquer Romania. Falkenhayn led an offensive from several points in southeastern AustriaHungary toward the capital city of Bucharest and the Black Sea port of Constanz. Mackensen led forces
from northeastern Bulgaria to these same cities. All of the territory north of the line running from Valona to
Salonika fell into Central Powers’ hands.
The Allies finally were able to counterattack. In 1918 they moved in from Greek territory. The French and
British troops arrived at the port of Salonika. From there, they drove north through Serbia to Belgrade and
from there to Budapest. The Central Powers were unable to halt the advances of the Allied troops. Other
regiments battled on to Sofia and to Constantinople in order to end the Central Powers’ dominance over
the peninsula.
a. Using red markers, draw arrows to show the movements of the Central
Powers’ troops.
b. Shade in the territory conquered by the Central Powers.
c. Using blue markers, draw in the counteroffensive staged by the Allies in
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
A DR
SE
eorge Michael Cohan was born on July 3, 1878,
but always celebrated his birthday on July 4,
Independence Day. Cohan was the child of two successful vaudeville performers and both he and his
sister joined the act, which became known as The
Four Cohans.
Vaudeville was the
most popular form of
entertainment in the
United States during the
late 1800s. Vaudeville
took the form of a variety
show and often included
between 8 and 20 short
performances, or acts, in
an evening. Most of these
were comedy sketches or
musical numbers. Child
performers like the
younger Cohans were
common in vaudeville—
they were great audience
favorites. Trained animal
acts or circus performers
might also be on the bill.
For example, W. C. Fields
appeared as a juggler on
the vaudeville stage
before he became
George M. Cohan, 1878–1942
famous for his comedy
films. Judy Garland, Jack Benny, George Burns and
Gracie Allen, Buster Keaton, and Charlie Chaplin are
among the many performers who, like Cohan, began
their careers in vaudeville and went on to great success in Hollywood.
G
Belgrade
SERBIA
MONTE- Nish
NEGRO
Cohan began writing material for The Four Cohans
when he was 11. He wrote his first song at 13. In 1904
he entered a partnership with Sam H. Harris to produce and manage Broadway shows. Many of the plays
they produced were Cohan’s own work, including
Broadway Jones, Forty-five
Minutes from Broadway,
and Little Johnny Jones. At
the turn of the century,
most musicals appearing
on Broadway were
European operettas featuring princesses and noblemen in mythical Balkan
countries. The plots were
romantic and the music
consisted of lush waltzes
and love duets, with the
orchestrations relying
heavily on violins and
woodwinds. Cohan’s musicals, by contrast, featured
brisk, brassy marching
rhythms and American
subjects and characters.
Some of his best-loved
tunes, including “Give My
Regards to Broadway” and
“Yankee Doodle Dandy,”
were written for these
shows. Their popularity paved the way for many future
American playwrights, composers, and lyricists to write
what became known as “Broadway musicals”:
Showboat, Oklahoma!, Carousel, and West Side Story,
for example.
(continued)
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
DIRECTIONS: Read the passage below about this American popular songwriter. Then answer the questions in the space provided.
Budapest
AUSTRIA- HUNGARY
Allies
Central Powers
Sarajevo
Date
Class
Where there had once been green forests
and groves, there was now only the occasional leafless, branchless tree. Autumn had
come to the Somme valley of France in
1916. But it was an artificial autumn,
brought on by bombs, bullets, and hand
grenades. How did advances in military
technology change the nature of warfare
with the outbreak of World War I?
Before World War I, vacationing
Parisians used to flock north to the
Somme River. The waterway flowed
lazily through a gentle countryside
dotted with rich farms, quaint villages,
and thickly wooded hills. Happy to
escape the stresses of city life, the
Parisians swam in the Somme, strolled
through the woods, and nibbled on
bread and cheese from the local
bakeries and farms.
The tourists barely
dented the local food
supply. For hundreds of
years, the rolling plains
around the Somme had
been one of France’s leading agricultural regions.
Wheat, barley, oats, sugar
beets, and all manner of
fruits and vegetables
grew in the area’s fertile
Date
Class
ld History: Activity
People in Wor
23
P r o f i le 1
Archduke Francis Ferdinand (1863–1914)
soil. Farmers raised cattle by the thousands
and produced cheese and butter by the ton.
When the opposing armies arrived at
the Somme in 1916, they dug trenches
A Desolate Landscape
I reached a [crossroads] where four lanes broadened into a confused patch of destruction.
Fallen trees, shell holes, a hurriedly dug trench
beginning and ending in an uncertain manner,
abandoned rifles, broken branches with their
sagging leaves, an unopened box of ammunition, sandbags half-filled with bombs, a
derelict machine-gun propping up the head of
an immobile figure in uniform, with a belt of
ammunition drooping from the breech into a
pile of red-stained earth—this is the livery of
War. Shells were falling, over and short, near
and wide, to show that somewhere over the hill
a gunner was playing the part of blind fate for
all who walked past this well-marked spot.
Here, in the struggle between bursting iron and
growing timber, iron had triumphed. . . .
—From Up To Mametz,
by L. W. Griffith (1923)
“Over the top!” resounded
along Allied lines as soldiers poured from their
trenches into No Man’s
Land. The scarred remains
of a forest show the devastating effects of trench warfare on the countryside
near the Somme River.
MULTIMEDIA
Vocabulary PuzzleMaker CD-ROM
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment
CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM
Audio Program
World History Primary Source
Document Library CD-ROM
Name
HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY ACTIVITY 23
The Battle of the Somme
George M. Cohan
DIRECTIONS: The map below shows these areas. Use the map to complete the
activities that follow. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper.
1. Which countries in the
Balkan Peninsula sided
with the Allies?
2. Why was it important
for the Allies to attempt
the Gallipoli invasion?
3. Why did it make sense
for both AustriaHungary and Bulgaria
to attempt an attack on
Romania?
4. Read the following passage, then follow the
instructions below.
People in World History
Activity 23 L2
MindJogger Videoquiz
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
TeacherWorks CD-ROM
Interactive Student Edition CD-ROM
The World History Video Program
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Name
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
12. In 1914
was considered an act of war.
A. assassination of a member of royalty C. mobilization of a nation’s army
B. ending diplomatic relations
D. breaking a military alliance
Use the following guidelines to help you make a decision.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
11. What was the name of the group that conspired to assassinate Archduke
Francis Ferdinand?
A. the Serbian People’s Front
C. the Bosnian Militia
B. the Red Band
D. the Black Hand
In problem solving, a choice made among two or more alternative courses of action is known
as a decision. Your final decision should not conflict with your goals or values, so you must weigh
each choice carefully.
★ Learning to Make a Decision
Your audience includes the teacher and other students.
10. the right of each people to have its own nation
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence
or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of the
sentence. (4 points each)
Reading Objective 4: The student will perceive relationships and recognize outcomes in a variety of written
texts.
Writing Objective 1: The student will respond appropriately in a written composition to the
purpose/audience specified in a given topic.
★ PURPOSE
9. prime minister of Great Britain, who wanted to make the
Germans pay for the war
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. systems directed by government agencies in order to
mobilize resources for the war effort
Column B
Describing the death of a soldier in
Shakespeare’s Macbeth, the king’s son says,
“Nothing in his life became him like the
leaving it.” Archduke Francis Ferdinand,
too, is remembered for the way he died, for
his death was the spark that ignited World
War I.
Francis Ferdinand was born in Graz,
Austria, the eldest son of Archduke Charles
Louis and the nephew of Emperor Francis
Joseph. When he was 12 years old, Francis
Ferdinand inherited the title archduke of
Austria-Este. He became heir to the AustroHungarian Empire in 1899, after the deaths
of his father and his cousin, Crown Prince
Rudolph. However, since Francis
Ferdinand’s health was poor, most people
assumed that the throne would go to his
younger brother Otto. This made Francis
Ferdinand very bitter. There were other
conflicts as well.
Francis Ferdinand was deeply in love
with Countess Sophie Chotek, duchess of
Hohenberg. The countess was of a much
lower social rank than Francis Ferdinand.
As the heir apparent to the AustroHungarian Empire, he was expected to
marry someone of equal rank, such as the
queen or
princess of a
great empire.
After much
strife, Francis
Ferdinand
was allowed
to marry
Sophie —but
only after he relinquished all claim to the
throne for his children. The morganatic
marriage disallowing Sophie and their
children any of the rights guaranteed
by Francis Ferdinand’s status took place
in 1900.
Francis Ferdinand tried to influence foreign affairs, but he had little success because
of limitations placed on his power by Francis
Joseph, who remained emperor. From 1906
on, however, he did exert greater influence
on military issues. In 1913 he became the
inspector general of the army, but his time in
this office was tragically cut short.
In June 1914, he and his wife were assassinated at Sarajevo by the Serb nationalist
Gavrilo Princip. World War I began a
month later, when Austria declared war
against Serbia.
REVIEWING THE PROFILE
Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.
1. Why is Archduke Francis Ferdinand significant in history?
2. What made Archduke Francis Ferdinand bitter?
3. What were the expectations about the kind of person the Archduke would marry?
4. Critical Thinking Determining Cause and Effect. What were the consequences of
Archduke Francis Ferdinand’s marriage?
5. Critical Thinking Predicting Consequences. What influence do you think Archduke
Francis Ferdinand might have had on history had he lived? Explain your answer.
SPANISH RESOURCES
The following Spanish language materials
are available:
• Spanish Guided Reading Activities
• Spanish Reteaching Activities
• Spanish Quizzes and Tests
• Spanish Vocabulary Activities
• Spanish Summaries
• Spanish Reading Essentials and Study Guide
714B
Chapter 23 Resources
SECTION RESOU RCES
Daily Objectives
SECTION 1
The Road to World War I
1. Discuss how militarism, nationalism,
and a crisis in the Balkans led to
World War I.
2. Explain why Serbia’s determination
to become a large, independent
state angered Austria-Hungary and
initiated hostilities.
SECTION 2
The War
1. Report how the stalemate at the
Western Front led to new alliances,
a widening of the war, and new
weapons.
2. Summarize how governments
expanded their powers, increased
opportunities for women, and made
use of propaganda.
SECTION 3
The Russian Revolution
1. Explain how poor leadership led
to the fall of the czarist regime in
Russia.
2. Relate how the Bolsheviks came
to power under Lenin.
3. Describe how Communist forces
triumphed over anti-Communist
forces.
SECTION 4
End of the War
1. Report how combined Allied forces
stopped the German offensive.
2. Explain how peace settlements
brought political and territorial
changes to Europe and created bitterness and resentment in several
nations.
Reproducible Resources
Multimedia Resources
Reproducible Lesson Plan 23–1
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 23–1
Guided Reading Activity 23–1*
Section Quiz 23–1*
Reading Essentials and Study Guide 23–1*
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 23–1
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment
CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
Reproducible Lesson Plan 23–2
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 23–2
Guided Reading Activity 23–2*
Section Quiz 23–2*
Reading Essentials and Study Guide 23–2*
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 23–2
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment
CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
Reproducible Lesson Plan 23–3
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 23–3
Guided Reading Activity 23–3*
Section Quiz 23–3*
Reading Essentials and Study Guide 23–3*
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 23–3
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment
CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
Reproducible Lesson Plan 23–4
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 23–4
Guided Reading Activity 23–4*
Section Quiz 23–4*
Reteaching Activity 23*
Reading Essentials and Study Guide 23–4*
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 23–4
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment
CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
Assign the Chapter 23 Reading Essentials and Study Guide.
*Also Available in Spanish
714C
Blackline Master
Transparency
CD-ROM
DVD
Poster
Music Program
Audio Program
Videocassette
Chapter 23 Resources
Teacher’s
Corner
INDEX TO
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE
The following articles relate to this chapter:
• “Riddle of the Lusitania,” by Robert D. Ballard, April 1994.
• “The Bolshevik Revolution: Experiment That Failed,” by
Dusko Doder, October 1992.
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY
PRODUCTS
To order the following, call National Geographic at 1-800-368-2728:
• 1914–1918: World War I (Video)
• 1917: Revolution in Russia (Video)
• The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union (Video)
Access National Geographic’s new dynamic MapMachine
Web site and other geography resources at:
www.nationalgeographic.com
www.nationalgeographic.com/maps
MEETING SPECIAL NEEDS
In addition to the Differentiated Instruction strategies found in
each section, the following resources are also suitable for
your special needs students:
•
•
•
•
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM allows teachers to
tailor tests by reducing answer choices.
The Audio Program includes the entire narrative of the
student edition so that less-proficient readers can listen to
the words as they read them.
The Reading Essentials and Study Guide provides the
same content as the student edition but is written two
grade levels below the textbook.
Guided Reading Activities give less-proficient readers
point-by-point instructions to increase comprehension as
they read each textbook section.
KEY TO ABILITY LEVELS
WORLD HISTORY
Use our Web site for additional resources. All essential content is
covered in the Student Edition.
You and your students can visit www.wh.glencoe.com , the
Web site companion to Glencoe World History. This innovative
integration of electronic and print media offers your students a
wealth of opportunities. The student text directs students to the
Web site for the following options:
• Chapter Overviews
• Self-Check Quizzes
• Student Web Activities
• Textbook Updates
Answers to the Student Web Activities are provided for you in the
Web Activity Lesson Plans. Additional Web resources and
Interactive Tutor Puzzles are also available.
From the Classroom of…
Daniel W. Blackmon
Coral Gables Senior High School
Miami, Florida
Terrorism Then and Now
Direct students to the “World War I Primary
Document Archive” site maintained by Brigham
Young University Library: www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/.
Have them do a word search for the Serbian nationalist society, Narodna Odbrana. It was within this
society that another secret band was formed called
The Black Hand, whose members were responsible
for the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand,
an act that ultimately resulted in the start of World
War I.
Of the 30 or so documents found, ask students to
read “World War I, the Narodna Odbrana,” “The Black
Hand,” “World War I, the Assassination of Archduke
Ferdinand” plus three documents of their choosing.
At a later date, when the students have completed
the assigned reading, lead a class discussion comparing and contrasting the Narodna Odbrana with
known terrorist groups of today.
Teaching strategies have been coded.
L1
L2
L3
ELL
BASIC activities for all students
AVERAGE activities for average to above-average
students
CHALLENGING activities for above-average students
ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNER activities
Activities that are suited to use within the block
scheduling framework are identified by:
714D
Introducing
CHAPTER 23
War and
Revolution
Performance
Assessment
Refer to Activity 23 in the
Performance Assessment
Activities and Rubrics
booklet.
1914–1919
Key Events
As you read this chapter, look for the key events of World War I, the Russian Revolution,
and the Paris Peace Conference.
• Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist.
• Militarism, nationalism, and alliances drew nations into war.
• The United States’s entry into the war helped the Allies.
• The impact of the war at home led to an increase in the federal government’s powers
and changed the status of women.
• The Russian Revolution ended with the Communists in power.
• Peace settlements caused lingering resentment.
• The League of Nations was formed.
The Impact Today
Explain to students that World War I was
larger in scope and scale than any prior
war and that it left lasting resentments,
some of which still exist today. Ask students to find evidence of World War I’s
repercussions in current world events
or in their own family history.
SS.A.3.4.9
The Impact Today
The events that occurred during this period still impact our lives today.
• World War I led to the disintegration of empires and the creation of new states.
• Communism became a factor in global conflict as other nations turned to its ideology.
• The Balkans continue to be an area of political unrest.
The World History
Video Program
World History Video The Chapter 23 video, “Modern Warfare,”
chronicles innovations in warfare during the twentieth century.
To learn more about World War I,
students can view the Chapter 23
video, “Modern Warfare,” from The
World History Video Program.
1914
Assassination of
Archduke Ferdinand
sparks World War I
MindJogger Videoquiz
Use the MindJogger Videoquiz to
preview Chapter 23 content.
1914
Available in VHS.
1915
1916
1915
German
submarine
sinks the
Lusitania
German U-boat
714
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
714
PURPOSE FOR READING
Capsule Vocabulary This strategy helps students use vocabulary they encounter in their reading
and deepens their understanding of complex words and ideas. Write the words trench warfare,
poison gas, tank, machine guns, rockets, submarine, and Red Baron on the board or overhead.
Have students pair up and start a conversation using as many of these words as possible. Then ask
them to write down some of their exchanges. They can track the words as they read the chapter,
correcting and expanding on their usage. L1
Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activities
in the TCR.
Introducing
CHAPTER 23
Chapter Objectives
After studying this chapter,
students should be able to:
1. define the Triple Alliance and
the Triple Entente;
2. summarize the causes of
World War I;
3. describe the stalemate on the
Western Front and events on
the Eastern Front;
4. explain innovations in warfare;
5. explain what is meant by
“total war” and its effects;
6. trace the fall of czarist Russia
and the rise of the Communists;
7. explain the Allies’ victory;
8. list the major provisions of
the Treaty of Versailles.
HISTORY
Battle of the Somme by Richard Woodville The Battle of the Somme was one of the bloodiest battles of World War I.
Chapter Overview
Introduce students to chapter
content and key terms by having
them access Chapter Overview
23 at wh.glencoe.com .
Bolsheviks in Russia
1917
Russian
Revolution
begins
1917
1917
United States
enters the war
HISTORY
1919
Allies sign
Treaty of
Versailles
1918
1918
Germany
agrees to
truce
Chapter Overview
Visit the Glencoe World
History Web site at
wh.glencoe.com
wh.glencoe.com
click
andand
click
on Chapter 23–Chapter
5–Chapter
Overview to preview
chapter information.
information.
1919
People celebrating
the end of the war
Time Line Activity
Have students explain the significance
of the dates 1914 through 1918. How
many years after the start of World
War I did the United States become
involved in the war? (3 years) How
long after the United States’s involvement did Germany agree to a truce?
(1 year) L1 FCAT MA.A.3.4.3
715
MORE ABOUT THE ART
Battle of the Somme The Battle of the Somme began on July 1, 1916, along a 25-mile (40.2 km)
front near the Somme River in France. It was a devastating campaign for both Allied and German
forces. As students will read in A Story That Matters on the next page, on the first day of fighting
the British lost about 21,000 men. Four months later, the Allied forces had advanced just five miles
(8 km). Allied and German casualties totaled approximately one million. The battle was one of the
costliest in history. In Britain, the enormous costs of this battle contributed to the first signs of war
weariness. An interesting exercise for students would be to compare the depiction of the battle on
this page with firsthand accounts.
Dinah Zike’s Foldables are threedimensional, interactive graphic
organizers that help students
practice basic writing skills, review
key vocabulary terms, and identify
main ideas. Have students complete
the foldable activity in the Dinah
Zike’s Reading and Study Skills
Foldables booklet.
715
Introducing
A Story That Matters
Depending upon the ability levels of your students, select from
the following questions to reinforce the reading of A Story That
Matters.
1. When and where did this battle begin? (July 1, 1916) Who
were the opposing forces?
(British and French against the
Germans)
2. What was “No-Man’s-Land”?
(unoccupied area between opposing armies)
3. What details in the story suggest that this was, in fact, a
Great War? (the great number
of lives lost, the large amount of
equipment, the violence and
destruction described) L1 L2
Advancing troops
in the Battle
of the Somme
British artillery firing on the Germans at the Battle of the Somme
The Battle of the Somme
O
n July 1, 1916, British and French infantry forces
attacked German defensive lines along a front about
25 miles (40 km) long near the Somme River in France.
Each soldier carried almost 70 (32 kg) pounds of equipment,
including a rifle, ammunition, grenades, a shovel, a mess kit,
and a full water bottle. This burden made it “impossible to
move much quicker than a slow walk.”
German machine guns soon opened fire. “We were able
to see our comrades move forward in an attempt to cross
No-Man’s-Land, only to be mown down like meadow grass,”
recalled one British soldier. Another wrote later, “I felt sick
at the sight of this carnage and remember weeping.”
Philip Gibbs, an English journalist with the troops,
reported on what he found in the German trenches that the
British forces overran: “Victory! . . . Groups of dead lay in
ditches which had once been trenches, flung into chaos by
that bombardment I had seen. . . . Some of the German dead
were young boys, too young to be killed for old men’s crimes,
and others might have been old or young. One could not tell
because they had no faces, and were just masses of raw flesh
in rags of uniforms. Legs and arms lay separate without any
bodies thereabouts.”
In the first day of the Battle of the Somme, about 21,000
British soldiers died. After four months of fighting, the British
had advanced five miles (eight km). About one million Allied
and German soldiers lay dead or wounded.
About the Art
At the Battle of the Somme, the
British introduced a new
weapon—an armored vehicle
called the tank. However, it
made little difference to the outcome of the struggle. Tanks were
still too clumsy, too slow, and too
prone to mechanical failure to be
an effective weapon. The generals on both sides did not yet
understand how best to use
them.
The following literature from the
Glencoe Literature Library may
enrich the teaching of this chapter:
All Quiet on the Western Front by
E. M. Remarque
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
716
Why It Matters
World War I (1914–1918) devastated the economic, social, and
political order of Europe. People at
the time, overwhelmed by the size
of the war’s battles and the number
of casualties, simply called it the
Great War. The war was all the
more disturbing to Europeans
because it came after a period that
many believed to have been an age
of progress. World War I and the
revolutions it spawned can properly
be seen as the first stage in the crisis of the twentieth century.
History and You Look online or
in the library for a speech delivered
by Woodrow Wilson or another
leader, explaining the reasons
for entering the war. Analyze the
arguments. How might someone
opposed to the war counter those
arguments?
716
HISTORY AND YOU
After reading the story, ask students to imagine that they are a soldier on the Western Front fighting for either
side. Have them write a letter to their country’s leader about life at war. How would they feel about life on the
Western Front? How would they characterize their purpose for being there? How would they feel about the
enemy? What requests would they make of their leader? What would their hopes be for the future? Encourage
students to be creative in their approach and writing style and to share their letters with the class. L1
CHAPTER 23
The Road to
World War I
Section 1, 717–720
1 FOCUS
Guide to Reading
Section Overview
Main Ideas
People to Identify
Reading Strategy
• Militarism, nationalism, and a crisis in
the Balkans led to World War I.
• Serbia’s determination to become
a large, independent state angered
Austria-Hungary and initiated hostilities.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand, Gavrilo Princip, Emperor William II, Czar Nicholas II,
General Alfred von Schlieffen
Cause and Effect Use a diagram like the
one below to identify the factors that led
to World War I.
BELLRINGER
Places to Locate
Serbia, Bosnia
Key Terms
Skillbuilder Activity
Preview Questions
conscription, mobilization
Preview of Events
✦1860
✦1870
This section discusses the causes
of World War I.
✦1880
✦1890
✦1900
Project transparency and have
students answer questions.
World War I
1. How did the assassination of Archduke
Francis Ferdinand lead to World War I?
2. How did the system of alliances help
cause the war?
✦1910
Daily Focus Skills Transparency
23–1
✦1920
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
UNIT
1882
Triple Alliance
forms
1907
Triple Entente
forms
5
1914
World War I
begins
ANSWERS
1. the Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife
2. in Sarajevo 3. to avenge the seizure of Bosnia by Austria
DAILY FOCUS SKILLS
Chapter 23 TRANSPARENCY 23-1
The Road to World War I
1
Who was killed in the
assassination?
2
Where did the murders take 3 Why did the murders take
place?
place?
HEIR TO AUSTRIA’S THRONE IS SLAIN
WITH HIS WIFE BY A BOSNIAN YOUTH
TO AVENGE SEIZURE OF HIS COUNTRY
Voices from the Past
Francis
Ferdinand
Shot
During
State
Visit to
Sarajevo
On June 28, 1914, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Francis
Ferdinand, was assassinated in the Bosnian city of Sarajevo. One of the conspirators
described the scene:
SLAIN IN SECOND ATTEMPT
Answers to Graphic: World War I:
system of alliances, growth of nationalism, internal dissent, militarism
duke, the Archduchess Sophia, in the abdomen. She was an expectant mother. She
died instantly. The second bullet struck the Archduke close to the heart. He uttered
only one word: ‘Sophia’—a call to his stricken wife. Then his head fell back and he
collapsed. He died almost instantly.
” —Eyewitness to History, John Carey, ed., 1987
This event was the immediate cause of World War I, but underlying forces had been
moving Europeans toward war for some time.
Nationalism and the System of Alliances
In the first half of the nineteenth century, liberals believed that if European
states were organized along national lines, these states would work together and
create a peaceful Europe. They were wrong.
The system of nation-states that emerged in Europe in the last half of the nineteenth century led not to cooperation but to competition. Rivalries over colonies
War and Revolution
Archduke Saves His
Life First Time by
Knocking Aside a
Bomb Hurled at Auto.
Guide to Reading
“As the car came abreast, [the assassin] stepped forward from the curb, drew his
automatic pistol from his coat and fired two shots. The first struck the wife of the Arch-
CHAPTER 23
TWO ATTACKS
IN A DAY
Preteaching Vocabulary
Discuss the meaning of conscription
and mobilization with the students.
Ask them to consider why both of
these actions might be seen as a
threat to opposing nations. (expands
the size of the army; prepares the
army to go to war)
717
SECTION RESOURCES
Reproducible Masters
• Reproducible Lesson Plan 23–1
• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 23–1
• Guided Reading Activity 23–1
• Section Quiz 23–1
• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 23–1
Transparencies
• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 23–1
Multimedia
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
717
CHAPTER 23
Section 1, 717–720
Alliances in Europe, 1914
NORWAY
10°W
E
SPAIN
40°N
Corsica
E
S
Mediterra
ne
Rome
an Sea
R
RUSSIA
R
.
Budapest
AUSTRIAHUNGARY
BOSNIA
Sarajevo
Sardinia
AFRICA
400 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
Vienna
ITALY
W
Daily Lecture and
Discussion Notes 23–1
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes
Chapter 23, Section 1
?
In 1919, the German government was allowed
to submit a counter proposal to the Treaty of Versailles. In it the
Germans agreed to many of the terms including reparations, territorial adjustments, and reduction of military. However, the counter
proposal said that for Germany to sign the treaty as it stood, the
country would be signing its own death warrant. It asked that a
neutral inquiry into the question of responsibility for the war be
held, one that would inspect the archives of all the nations that had
fought. The counter proposal was rejected almost entirely.
MONTENEGRO
ALBANIA
B. Two main alliances divided Europe: The Triple Alliance (1882) was made up of
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy; and the Triple Entente (1907) was made up of
France, Great Britain, and Russia.
718
CHAPTER 23
r
epe
.
Black Sea
Constantinople
OM
AN
E MP
IR E
Sicily
10°E
20°E
nationalism in the first half of the nineteenth century lead
to increased competition or increased cooperation among
European nations?
A. Liberals during the first half of the 1800s hoped that the formation of European
nation-states would lead to peace. However, the imperialist states that emerged during
the second half of the 1800s became highly competitive over trade and colonies.
OT
T
GREECE
Reading Check Identifying Did the growth of
Nationalism and the System of Alliances (pages 717–718)
D ni
ROMANIA
SERBIA
BULGARIA
and trade grew during an age of frenzied nationalism
and imperialist expansion.
At the same time, Europe’s great powers had been
divided into two loose alliances. Germany, AustriaHungary, and Italy formed the Triple Alliance in
1882. France, Great Britain, and Russia created the
Triple Entente in 1907.
In the early years of the twentieth century, a series
of crises tested these alliances. Especially troublesome were the crises in the Balkans between 1908
and 1913. These events left European states angry at
each other and eager for revenge. Each state was
guided by its own self-interest and success. They
were willing to use war as a way to preserve the
power of their national states.
The growth of nationalism in the nineteenth century had yet another serious result. Not all ethnic
groups had become nations. Slavic minorities in the
Balkans and the Hapsburg Empire, for example, still
dreamed of creating their own national states. The
Irish in the British Empire and the Poles in the Russian Empire had similar dreams.
Answer: Conservative leaders feared
that their countries were on the
verge of revolution; the desire to
suppress internal disorder may have
encouraged them to plunge into war.
400 miles
0
R.
SWITZ.
N
Madrid
lt
e
ALSACE &
LORRAINE D anube
n
FRANCE
Ba
Berlin
GERMANY
e R.
ei
Triple Alliance
Triple Entente
Balkans
LUX.
R.
me e R.
Atlantic
Ocean
Answer: increased competition
D. European ethnic groups, such as Slavs in the Balkans and the Irish in the British
Empire, dreamed of creating their own national states, which also increased tensions
in Europe.
BELG.
m
o
ParisS
0°
C. During the early 1900s, several crises erupted, particularly in the Balkans, which created a great deal of anger and tension between the nations of the two alliances. Each
nation was willing to go to war to preserve its power.
Rhin
Loire R .
2. Triple Alliance: Austria-Hungary,
Germany, Italy; Triple Entente:
Britain, France, Russia; Other:
Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark,
Norway, Sweden, Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania
I.
lb
NETH.
nel
E n g li s h C h a n S
Answers:
1. Britain was separated from the
rest of Europe by water, making
it harder to invade.
Did You Know
DENMARK
London
50°
N
Moscow
SWEDEN
North
Sea
UNITED
KINGDOM
Se
a
TEACH
ic
2
St. Petersburg
Crete
30°E
Cyprus
The alliance system was
one of the major causes
of World War I.
1. Interpreting Maps
What geographic factor
made it unlikely that
World War I battles
would be fought in Great
Britain?
2. Applying Geography
Skills Create a threecolumn chart with the
headings Triple Entente,
Triple Alliance, and Other.
Place all the countries
labeled on the map in
the proper column.
Internal Dissent
National desires were not the only source of internal strife at the beginning of the twentieth century.
Socialist labor movements also had grown more
powerful. The Socialists were increasingly inclined
to use strikes, even violent ones, to achieve their
goals.
Some conservative leaders, alarmed at the increase
in labor strife and class division, feared that European nations were on the verge of revolution. In the
view of some historians, the desire to suppress internal disorder may have encouraged various leaders to
take the plunge into war in 1914.
Reading Check Explaining According to some historians, how might internal disorder have been one of the causes
of World War I?
Militarism
The growth of mass armies after 1900 heightened
the existing tensions in Europe. The large size of
these armies also made it obvious that if war did
come, it would be highly destructive.
Conscription, a military draft, had been established as a regular practice in most Western countries
before 1914. (The United States and Britain were
War and Revolution
READING THE TEXT
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
718
2
Synthesizing Have students do additional research on the origins of World War I and then
conduct a class debate on this topic. Have students assume the roles of the leaders of AustriaHungary, Germany, Serbia, Russia, France, and Britain. Debate which country was most responsible
for starting World War I and which country bore little or no responsibility for starting the war. Or,
have students use a map of 1914 Europe to explain the role geography played in the development
of the Schlieffen plan. Ask students how geography affected the war plans of the other World War I
participants. L2 FCAT LA.A.2.4.8
exceptions.) European armies doubled in size
between 1890 and 1914.
With its 1.3 million men, the Russian army had
grown to be the largest. The French and German
armies were not far behind, with 900,000 each. The
British, Italian, and Austro-Hungarian armies numbered between 250,000 and 500,000 soldiers each.
Militarism—aggressive preparation for war— was
growing. As armies grew, so too did the influence of
military leaders. They drew up vast and complex
plans for quickly mobilizing millions of men and
enormous quantities of supplies in the event of war.
Military leaders feared that any changes in these
plans would cause chaos in the armed forces. Thus,
they insisted that their plans could not be altered. In
the 1914 crises, this left European political leaders
with little leeway. They were forced to make decisions for military instead of political reasons.
Reading Check Examining What was the effect of
conscription on events leading up to World War I?
CHAPTER 23
It was against this backdrop of mutual distrust and
hatred that the events of the summer of 1914 were
played out.
Section 1, 717–720
Assassination in Sarajevo On June 28, 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of
Austria-Hungary, and his wife Sophia, visited the
Bosnian city of Sarajevo (SAR•uh•YAY•VOH). A
group of conspirators waited there in the streets. The
conspirators were members of the Black Hand, a Serbian terrorist organization that wanted Bosnia to be
free of Austria-Hungary and to become part of a
large Serbian kingdom.
The conspirators planned to kill the archduke,
along with his wife. That morning, one of the conspirators threw a bomb at the archduke’s car, but it
glanced off and exploded against the car behind him.
Later in the day, however, Gavrilo Princip, a 19-yearold Bosnian Serb, succeeded in shooting both the
archduke and his wife.
Answer: European armies doubled
in size between 1890 and 1914.
L1/ELL
Guided Reading Activity 23–1
Name
DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions as you read Section 1.
1. What did liberals believe about European states in early nineteenth century?
2. Name the two loose alliances of Europe's great powers.
3. How did Socialist labor movements affect strife at the start of the twentieth century?
4. What did the large size of European armies make obvious?
5. What three things may have played a role in starting World War I?
6. What assassination instigated war between Serbia and Austria-Hungary?
The Serbian Problem As we have seen, states in
southeastern Europe had struggled for many years to
free themselves of Ottoman rule. Furthermore, the
rivalry between Austria-Hungary and Russia for
domination of these new states created serious tensions in the region.
By 1914, Serbia, supported by Russia, was determined to create a large, independent Slavic state in
the Balkans. Austria-Hungary, which had its own
Slavic minorities to contend with, was equally determined to prevent that from happening.
Many Europeans saw the potential danger in this
explosive situation. The British ambassador to
Vienna anticipated war in 1913:
Serbia will some day set Europe by the ears, and
“
bring about a universal war on the Continent. . . . I
cannot tell you how exasperated people are getting
here at the continual worry which that little country
causes to Austria under encouragement from
Russia. . . . It will be lucky if Europe succeeds in avoiding war as a result of the present crisis.
The Austro-Hungarian
government did not know whether or not the Serbian
government had been directly involved in the archduke’s assassination, but it did not care. It saw an
opportunity to “render Serbia innocuous [harmless]
once and for all by a display of force,” as the Austrian
foreign minister put it.
Austrian leaders wanted to attack Serbia but
feared Russian intervention on Serbia’s behalf, so
they sought the backing of their German allies.
Emperor William II of Germany and his chancellor
responded with a “blank check,” saying that Austria-
7. What action of Russia prompted Germany to declare war?
8. What was Germany's Schlieffen Plan?
9. By what route did Germany invade France?
10. For what official reason did Great Britain declare war on Germany?
ht © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Militarism, nationalism, and the desire to stifle
internal dissent may all have played a role in the
starting of World War I. However, it was the decisions made by European leaders in response to
another crisis in the Balkans in the summer of 1914
that led directly to the conflict.
Class
The Road to World War I
Austria-Hungary Responds
The Outbreak of War: Summer 1914
Date
Guided Reading Activity 23-1
Government Ask students to
research the concept of neutrality as
defined by international law and
practiced in the twentieth century.
Suggest they consider the U.S. Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937.
L2
“Till the world
comes to an
end the
ultimate
decision will
rest with the
sword.”
3
Assign Section 1 Assessment as
homework or as an in-class
activity.
—Emperor William II
of Germany
”
CHAPTER 23
War and Revolution
ASSESS
719
Have students use Interactive
Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.
COOPERATIVE
LEARNING
ACTIVITY
EXTENDING
THE CONTENT
Preparing a News Report Organize students into small groups and have them stage a series of
radio or television newscasts devoted to the outbreak of World War I. Each group should select a
crucial date from June 28 to August 4, 1914. Students should incorporate researched information
with the text material and design visual aids, such as maps and charts, when appropriate. Groups
should assign members tasks, such as researching and compiling information, writing, designing,
visual aids, and performing. Have groups include participants’ comments and citizens’ responses.
L2 SS.A.3.4.9
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
For grading this activity, refer to the Performance Assessment Activities booklet.
719
CHAPTER 23
Hungary could rely on Germany’s “full support,”
even if “matters went to the length of a war between
Austria-Hungary and Russia.”
Strengthened by German support, Austrian leaders sent an ultimatum to Serbia on July 23. In it, they
made such extreme demands that Serbia had little
choice but to reject some of them in order to preserve
its sovereignty. On July 28, Austria-Hungary
declared war on Serbia.
Section 1, 717–720
Answer: It called for a two-front war
with France and Russia. By declaring
war on France, Germany brought
Great Britain into the war.
Russia Mobilizes
Russia was determined to support Serbia’s cause. On July 28, Czar Nicholas II
ordered partial mobilization of the Russian army
against Austria-Hungary. Mobilization is the
process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war. In 1914, mobilization was
considered an act of war.
Leaders of the Russian army informed the czar
that they could not partially mobilize. Their mobilization plans were based on a war against both Germany and Austria-Hungary. Mobilizing against only
Austria-Hungary, they claimed, would create chaos
in the army. Based on this claim, the czar ordered full
mobilization of the Russian army on July 29, knowing that Germany would consider this order an act
of war.
L2
Section Quiz 23–1
Name 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Date 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Class 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭
✔
Score
Chapter 23
Section Quiz 23-1
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)
Column A
Column B
1. military draft
A. mobilization
2. aggressive preparation for war
B. militarism
3. readying troops and supplies for war
C. Germany
4. ally of Austria-Hungry
D. Russia
5. protector of Serbia
E. conscription
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best
completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)
6. The Triple Alliance was a loose agreement of cooperation among
A. Serbia, Germany, Britain.
C. Germany, Italy, Russia.
L1/ELL
Reading Essentials and
Study Guide 23–1
Name
Date
Class
The Conflict Broadens Indeed, Germany reacted
quickly. The German government warned Russia
that it must halt its mobilization within 12 hours.
When Russia ignored this warning, Germany
declared war on Russia on August 1.
Reading Essentials and Study Guide
Chapter 23, Section 1
For use with textbook pages 717–720
THE ROAD TO WORLD WAR I
KEY TERMS
conscription
a military draft (page 718)
mobilization the process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war
(page 720)
Like the Russians, the Germans had a military
plan. It had been drawn up under the guidance of
General Alfred von Schlieffen (SHLEE•fuhn), so
was known as the Schlieffen Plan. The plan called for
a two-front war with France and Russia, who had
formed a military alliance in 1894.
According to the Schlieffen Plan, Germany would
conduct a small holding action against Russia while
most of the German army would carry out a rapid
invasion of France. This meant invading France by
moving quickly along the level coastal area through
Belgium. After France was defeated, the German
invaders would move to the east against Russia.
Under the Schlieffen Plan, Germany could not
mobilize its troops solely against Russia. Therefore, it
declared war on France on August 3. About the same
time, it issued an ultimatum to Belgium demanding
the right of German troops to pass through Belgian
territory. Belgium, however, was a neutral nation.
On August 4, Great Britain declared war on Germany, officially for violating Belgian neutrality. In
fact, Britain, which was allied with the countries of
France and Russia, was concerned about maintaining
its own world power. As one British diplomat put it,
if Germany and Austria-Hungary won the war,
“what would be the position of a friendless England?” By August 4, all the great powers of Europe
were at war.
Reading Check Evaluating What was the Schlieffen
Plan and how did it complicate the events leading to World
War I?
DRAWING FROM EXPERIENCEII
Have you ever been given an ultimatum? How did you react to the ultimatum?
In this section, you will learn about the events that led to the start of World War I.
Ultimatums played an important role in starting World War I.
ORGANIZING YOUR THOUGHTSII
Use the time line below to help you take notes. Identify seven key events during the
summer of 1914 that led to World War I.
1.
2.
June 28
3.
July 23
July 28
Reteaching Activity
Ask students to identify the specific events that led to World
War I. L1 SS.A.3.4.9
4
CLOSE
Ask students to give examples
that explain the following sentence: “It was against this backdrop of mutual distrust and
hatred that the events of the
summer of 1914 were played
out.” L1 SS.A.3.4.9
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
720
Checking for Understanding
1. Define conscription, mobilization.
2. Identify Triple Alliance, Triple Entente,
Archduke Francis Ferdinand, Gavrilo
Princip, Emperor William II, Czar
Nicholas II, General Alfred von
Schlieffen.
3. Locate Serbia, Bosnia.
4. Explain why Great Britain became
involved in the war.
5. List the ethnic groups that were left
without nations after the nationalist
movements of the nineteenth century.
720
CHAPTER 23
Critical Thinking
6. Analyze How did the creation of military plans help draw the nations of
Europe into World War I? In your opinion, what should today’s national and
military leaders have learned from the
military plans that helped initiate World
War I? Explain your answer.
Analyzing Visuals
8. Examine the painting of Emperor
William II of Germany shown on page
719 of your text. How does this portrait
of the emperor reflect the nature of
leadership before World War I?
7. Sequencing Information Using a diagram like the one below, identify the
series of decisions made by European
leaders in 1914 that led directly to the
outbreak of war.
9. Expository Writing Some historians
believe that the desire to suppress
internal disorder may have encouraged leaders to take the plunge into
war. As an adviser, write a memo to
your country’s leader explaining how
a war might be advantageous for
domestic policy.
War and Revolution
1. Key terms are in blue.
2. Triple Alliance (p. 718), Triple
Entente (p. 718), Archduke Francis
Ferdinand (p. 719), Gavrilo Princip
(p. 719), Emperor William II
(p. 719), Czar Nicholas II (p. 720),
General Alfred von Schlieffen
(p. 720)
3. See chapter maps.
4. official cause: Germany violated
Belgian neutrality; actual cause:
Britain concerned about own
power
5. Slavic minorities in Balkans and
Hapsburg Empire; Irish in British
Empire; Poles in Russian Empire
6. Countries could not partially mobilize or limit war fronts.
7. Austria-Hungary punish Serbia →
Germany helps Austria-Hungary →
Russia against Austria-Hungary,
Germany → German war against
Russia and France → Britain
declares war on Germany
8. rise of militarism
9. Answers should be consistent with
material presented in this section.
CHAPTER 23
The War
Section 2, 721–727
Guide to Reading
Main Ideas
People to Identify
Reading Strategy
• The stalemate at the Western Front led
to new alliances, a widening of the war,
and new weapons.
• Governments expanded their powers,
increased opportunities for women, and
made use of propaganda.
Lawrence of Arabia, Admiral Holtzendorff, Woodrow Wilson
Organizing Information Identify which
countries belonged to the Allies and the
Central Powers. What country changed
allegiance? What country withdrew from
the war?
Key Terms
Preview Questions
Places to Locate
Marne, Tannenberg, Masurian Lakes,
Verdun, Gallipoli
1. How did trench warfare lead to
a stalemate?
2. Why did the United States enter the
war?
propaganda, trench warfare, war of attrition, total war, planned economies
Preview of Events
✦1914
Allies
✦1915
✦1916
1915
Lusitania sunk by
German forces
✦1917
1916
Battle of Verdun
1 FOCUS
Section Overview
This section discusses the widening of World War I and the
expansion of government powers to accommodate the war.
Central Powers
Allies
BELLRINGER
Split Off
✦1918
Skillbuilder Activity
✦1919
Project transparency and have
students answer questions.
1917
United States
enters the war
Daily Focus Skills Transparency
23–2
Voices from the Past
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
ANSWERS
1. Russia 2. Germany 3. Germany had the largest
number of soldiers and great wealth and so was likely to be a
strong opponent in a war.
UNIT
5
Chapter 23
DAILY FOCUS SKILLS
TRANSPARENCY 23-2
The War
1
Stefan Zweig, an Austrian writer, described the excitement Austrians felt going to
war in 1914:
Which country had
the greatest population
in 1914?
2
Which country had the
largest numbers of available
soldiers?
(in millions)
1,200
150
spective of their school readers and of paintings in museums; brilliant cavalry attacks
in glittering uniforms, the fatal shot always straight through the heart, the entire campaign a resounding march of victory—‘We’ll be home at Christmas,’ the recruits
shouted laughingly to their mothers in August of 1914. . . . The young people were
honestly afraid that they might miss this most wonderful and exciting experience of
their lives; . . . that is why they shouted and sang in the trains that carried them to the
slaughter.
0
8
1,030
6
46
3.5
3
424
50
40
300
21
190
2
199
.75
67
0
.33
0
Great Britain
France
Russia
Germany
Austria-Hungary
Turkey
Guide to Reading
Europeans went to war in 1914 with remarkable enthusiasm.
1914 to 1915: Illusions and Stalemate
Before 1914, many political leaders had thought that war involved so many
political and economic risks that it would not be worth fighting. Others had
believed that diplomats could easily control any situation and prevent war. At the
beginning of August 1914, both ideas were shattered. However, the new illusions
that replaced them soon proved to be equally foolish.
Government propaganda—ideas spread to influence public opinion for or
against a cause—had worked in stirring up national hatreds before the war. Now,
in August 1914, the urgent pleas of European governments for defense against
War and Revolution
4.5
4
600
65
”
—The World of Yesterday, Helmut Ripperger and B. W. Buebsch, trans., 1943
CHAPTER 23
(in millions)
8.5
1,223
900
50
Soldiers Available
on Mobilization
10
1,500
(in millions)
167
100
From the information in
the three graphs, what
conclusion can you draw
about Germany’s power?
Explain.
Annual Value of Foreign
Trade in British Pounds
Population
200
“What did the people know of war in 1914, after nearly half a century of peace?
They did not know war; they had hardly given it a thought. They still saw it in the per-
3
Answers to Graphic: Allies: Great
Britain, France, United States, Italy,
Russia;
Central Powers: Germany, AustriaHungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire;
Italy changed from Central Powers to
Allies; Russia withdrew from the war
Preteaching Vocabulary
Have students define war of attrition,
propaganda, and total war, and discuss why a war of attrition might
require more propaganda and lead
to a total war. L2
721
SECTION RESOURCES
Reproducible Masters
• Reproducible Lesson Plan 23–2
• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 23–2
• Guided Reading Activity 23–2
• Section Quiz 23–2
• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 23–2
Transparencies
• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 23–2
Multimedia
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
721
CHAPTER 23
Section 2, 721–727
2
TEACH
Daily Lecture
Daily Lecture
and and
Discussion
Notes 23–2
Discussion Notes 1–1
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
aggressors fell on receptive ears in every nation at
war. Most people seemed genuinely convinced that
their nation’s cause was just.
A new set of illusions also fed the enthusiasm
for war. In August 1914, almost everyone believed
that the war would be over in a few weeks. People
were reminded that almost all European wars since
1815 had, in fact, ended in a matter of weeks. Both the
soldiers who boarded the trains for the war front in
August 1914, and the jubilant citizens who showered
them with flowers as they left, believed that the warriors would be home by Christmas.
6–10). To stop the Germans, French military leaders
loaded two thousand Parisian taxicabs with fresh
troops and sent them to the front line.
The war quickly turned into a stalemate, as neither
the Germans nor the French could dislodge each
other from the trenches they had dug for shelter.
These trenches were ditches protected by barbed
wire. Two lines of trenches soon reached from the
English Channel to the frontiers of Switzerland. The
Western Front had become bogged down in trench
warfare that kept both sides in virtually the same
positions for four years.
The Western Front
The Eastern Front In contrast to the Western Front,
the war on the Eastern Front was marked by mobility.
The cost in lives, however, was equally enormous.
At the beginning of the war, the Russian army
moved into eastern Germany but was decisively
defeated at the Battle of Tannenberg on August 30
and the Battle of Masurian Lakes on September 15.
As a result of these defeats, the Russians were no
longer a threat to German territory.
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes
Chapter 23, Section 2
Did You Know
German hopes for a quick end
to the war rested on a military gamble. The Schlieffen
Plan had called for the German army to make a vast
encircling movement through Belgium into northern
France. According to the plan, the German forces
would sweep around Paris. This would enable them
to surround most of the French army.
The German advance was halted a short distance
from Paris at the First Battle of the Marne (September
?
When President Woodrow Wilson declared
war in 1917, he called it the “war to end all wars” and said that the
United States would fight to “make the world safe for democracy.”
The government asked for volunteers, saying it needed a million
men. However, public support was not as strong as the government
would have liked. In the first six weeks after war was declared,
about 70,000 men volunteered, which led Congress to start the
draft.
I.
1914 to 1915: Illusions and Stalemate (pages 721–723)
A. The events of August 1914 shattered two previously held ideas: that war was not
worth fighting and that diplomats could prevent war.
B. Government propaganda—ideas spread to influence public opinion—had stirred up
national hatreds before the war. When the war began, propaganda was used to urge
people to defend their own country. The majority of people thought their country’s
cause was just.
C. All European wars since 1815 had only lasted a few weeks. In August, 1914, most people thought the war would be over by Christmas.
D. In the Western Front, Germany swept through Belgium into northern France and was
stopped a short distance from Paris at the First Battle of the Marne. The Western Front
turned into a stalemate, with neither side able to push the other out of the system of
trenches they had built. The trenches stretched from the English Channel nearly to the
Swiss border. For four years both sides remained in almost the same positions.
E. In the Eastern Front, the war was far more mobile. The Russian army moved into eastern Germany but was defeated in two battles, making them no longer a threat to
invade Germany. The Russians defeated Austria-Hungary and dislodged them from
Serbia. The Italians, who had been allied with Germany and Austria-Hungary, broke
their alliance in 1915 and attacked Austria-Hungary. The Germans came to the aid of
the Austrians and together they defeated the Russians in several battles and drove
them back. 2.5 million Russians had been killed, captured, or wounded. The Russians
were almost out of the war. After defeating Serbia, Germany turned its attention back
to the Western Front.
turn
327
Trench Warfare
W
arfare in the trenches of the Western
Front produced unimaginable horrors. Battlefields were hellish landscapes of
barbed wire, shell holes, mud, and injured
and dying men. The introduction of poison
gas in 1915 produced new forms of
injuries. One British writer described them:
I wish those people who
write so glibly about this
being a holy war could
see a case of mustard
gas . . . could see the
poor things burnt and
blistered all over with
great mustard-coloured suppurating [pus-forming] blisters with
blind eyes all sticky . . . and stuck
together, and always fighting for
breath, with voices a mere whisper,
Art Ask interested students to bring
in copies of visual arts used as propaganda before and during World
War I, including posters, cartoons, or
paintings. Who were the artists? How
effective was their work? L2
“
Critical Thinking
Have students explain the significance of the First Battle of the
Marne. (It ended the Schlieffen
Plan, began trench warfare, and
showed that the war would last a
long time.)
722
saying that their throats are closing and
they know they will choke.
Soldiers in the trenches also lived with
the persistent presence of death. Because
combat went on for months, soldiers had
to carry on in the midst of countless bodies of dead men or the remains of men
blown apart by artillery barrages. Many soldiers remembered the
stench of decomposing
bodies and the swarms
of rats that grew fat in
the trenches.
Daily life in the
trenches was predictable. Thirty minutes
before sunrise, troops
had to “stand to,”
or be combat-ready to
repel any attack. If no
attack came that day,
”
British gas mask and pack
READING THE TEXT
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
722
Making Inferences After World War I, many Europeans feared going to war again. European leaders also followed policies to keep the peace. The Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, which renounced
war as an instrument of national policy, is an outstanding example of the interwar mood. Have students write a paragraph explaining how trench warfare and the course of World War I influenced
this mood. L1
Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activities
in the TCR.
Austria-Hungary, Germany’s ally, fared less well at
first. The Austrians had been defeated by the Russians
in Galicia and thrown out of Serbia as well. To make
matters worse, the Italians betrayed their German and
Austrian allies in the Triple Alliance by attacking Austria in May 1915. Italy thus joined France, Great
Britain, and Russia, who had formed the Triple
Entente, but now were called the Allied Powers, or
Allies.
By this time, the Germans had come to the aid of
the Austrians. A German-Austrian army defeated the
Russian army in Galicia and pushed the Russians far
back into their own territory. Russian casualties stood
at 2.5 million killed, captured, or wounded. The Russians had almost been knocked out of the war.
Buoyed by their success, Germany and AustriaHungary, joined by Bulgaria in September 1915,
attacked and eliminated Serbia from the war. Their
successes in the east would enable the Germans to
move back to the offensive in the west.
Reading Check Contrasting How did the war on the
Eastern Front differ from the war on the Western Front?
the day’s routine consisted of breakfast followed by inspection, sentry duty, work on
the trenches, care of personal items, and
attempts to pass the time. Soldiers often
recalled the boredom of life in the dreary,
lice-ridden, and muddy or dusty trenches.
At many places along the opposing lines
of trenches, a “live and let live” system
evolved. It was based on the realization
that neither side was going to drive out the
other. The “live and let live” system resulted
in such arrangements as not shelling the
latrines and not attacking during breakfast.
On both sides, troops produced their
own humor magazines to help pass the
time and fulfill the need to laugh in the
midst of their daily madness. The British
trench magazine, the B. E. F. Times,
devoted one of its issues to defining military terms, including “DUDS—These are of
two kinds. A shell on impact failing to
explode is called a dud. They are unhappily
not as plentiful as the other kind, which
often draws a big salary and explodes for
no reason.”
CHAPTER 23
1916 to 1917: The Great Slaughter
Section 2, 721–727
On the Western Front, the trenches dug in 1914
had by 1916 become elaborate systems of defense.
The lines of trenches for both sides were protected by
barbed wire entanglements up to 5 feet (about 1.5 m)
high and 30 yards (about 27 m) wide, concrete
machine-gun nests, and other gun batteries, supported further back by heavy artillery. Troops lived in
holes in the ground, separated from each other by a
strip of territory known as no-man’s-land.
Answer: The Western Front reached
a stalemate due to trench warfare;
the Eastern Front was a more typical
war of movement and maneuver.
Tactics of Trench Warfare
The unexpected development of trench warfare baffled military leaders.
They had been trained to fight wars of movement
and maneuver. The only plan generals could devise
was to attempt a breakthrough by throwing masses
of men against enemy lines that had first been battered by artillery. Once the decisive breakthrough
had been achieved, they thought, they could return
to the war of movement that they knew best.
At times, the high command on either side would
order an offensive that would begin with an artillery
Answers:
1. Each side realized that it was
not going to drive out the other,
so they could refrain from
shelling latrines or attacking
during breakfast.
2. Answers should be consistent
with material presented in this
section.
L1/ELL
Guided Reading Activity 23–2
Name
Date
Class
Guided Reading Activity 23-2
The War
DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 2.
Before 1914, many political leaders thought war in Europe could be
(1)
. Government (2)
had worked in stir-
ring up national hatreds before the war. In August, 1914, most people seemed
genuinely convinced that their nation's cause was (3)
.
The German Schlieffen Plan called for the German army to sweep around
(4)
and surround most of the French army. The German
advance was halted at (5)
(6)
. The war quickly turned into a
. The unexpected development of (7)
on the Western Front baffled military leaders. In 10 months at
(8)
, France, in 1916, seven hundred thousand men lost their
lives over a few miles of land. By the end of 1915 (9)
British soldiers in the trenches
CONNECTING TO THE PAST
1. Explain What was the rationale behind the “live
and let live” system?
2. Writing about History Write several journal
entries as if you were a soldier in the trenches.
723
began to
Literature Have students read all
or parts of All Quiet on the Western
Front and then write a letter in which
they try to explain to their friends
and family back home exactly what
they are experiencing in the trenches
on the Western Front. What difficulties do they face in trying to describe
what they are experiencing? L2
DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION
At-Risk Students Have students identify the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente countries on the
map on page 718, and ask them to list each country in its correct category. Then have students find
photographs depicting scenes from each of the countries in the early 1900s. Have the students
share their lists and pictures with the class. To aid in memorization and learning, pass out 35
cards upon which students list all countries in the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente. Ask students to
sort the cards into these two categories. L1
Refer to Inclusion for the High School Studies Classroom Strategies and Activities
in the TCR.
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
723
CHAPTER 23
barrage to flatten the enemy’s barbed wire and leave
the enemy in a state of shock. After “softening up”
the enemy in this fashion, a mass of soldiers would
climb out of their trenches with fixed bayonets and
hope to work their way toward the enemy trenches.
The attacks rarely worked because men advancing
unprotected across open fields could be fired at by
the enemy’s machine guns. In 1916 and 1917, millions
of young men died in the search for the elusive
breakthrough. In 10 months at Verdun, France, in
1916, seven hundred thousand men lost their lives
over a few miles of land. World War I had turned into
a war of attrition, a war based on wearing the other
side down by constant attacks and heavy losses. ;
(See page 998 to read an excerpt from Arthur Guy Empey’s Over
the Top in the Primary Sources Library.)
Section 2, 721–727
Answer: Traditional military methods
did not work in trenches.
Answer: Both sides had to search for
new allies who might provide a winning advantage, bringing more countries into the war.
War in the Air
By the end of 1915, airplanes had
appeared on the battlefront for the first time in history. At first, planes were used to spot the enemy’s
position. However, planes soon began to attack
ground targets, especially enemy communications.
Fights for control of the air occurred and increased
over time. At first, pilots fired at each other with
handheld pistols. Later, machine guns were mounted
on the noses of planes, which made the skies considerably more dangerous.
The Germans also used their giant airships—the
zeppelins—to bomb London and eastern England.
This caused little damage but frightened many people.
Germany’s enemies, however, soon found that zeppelins, which were filled with hydrogen gas, quickly
became raging infernos when hit by antiaircraft guns.
Then and Now
Answer: In addition to airplanes,
they used zeppelins.
Science and Technology Ask
students to prepare a display showing the development of aviation during World War I. L2
Reading Check Explaining Why were military
leaders baffled by trench warfare?
Critical Thinking
Ask students to identify the
important American figures
arguing for and against U. S.
neutrality. Ask students to speculate on the outcome of the war
had the United States chosen to
remain neutral. L3
Widening of the War
Because of the stalemate on the Western Front,
both sides sought to gain new allies who might provide a winning advantage. The Ottoman Empire had
already come into the war on Germany’s side in
August 1914. Russia, Great Britain, and France—the
Allies—declared war on the Ottoman Empire in
November.
The Allies tried to open a Balkan front by landing
forces at Gallipoli (guh•LIH•puh•lee), southwest of
Constantinople, in April 1915. However, Bulgaria
entered the war on the side of the Central Powers, as
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman
Empire were called. A disastrous campaign at Gallipoli forced the Allies to withdraw.
In return for Italy entering the war on the Allied
side, France and Great Britain promised to let Italy
have some Austrian territory. Italy on the side of the
Allies opened up a front against Austria-Hungary.
By 1917, the war that had started in Europe had
truly become a world conflict. In the Middle East, a
British officer known as Lawrence of Arabia, in 1917,
urged Arab princes to revolt against their Ottoman
overlords. In 1918, British forces from Egypt
destroyed the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East.
For their Middle East campaigns, the British mobilized forces from India, Australia, and New Zealand.
The Allies also took advantage of Germany’s preoccupations in Europe and lack of naval strength to
seize German colonies in the rest of the world. Japan,
a British ally beginning in 1902, seized a number of
German-held islands in the Pacific. Australia seized
German New Guinea.
Reading Check Describing What caused the widening of the war?
Then and Now
The introduction of airplanes greatly changed the
nature of warfare during the twentieth century.
What kind of aircraft did the Germans use during
World War I?
British fighter plane, c. 1917 䊳
U.S. jet fighter, 2001 䊲
Critical Thinking
When students finish reading
this section, have them explain
why World War I is considered a
major era in world history. Have
students describe the defining
characteristics of this era. L1
724
SS.A.3.4.9
CRITICAL THINKING ACTIVITY
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
724
Decision Making New machines and devices were first used on a large scale during World War I.
These included submarines, airplanes, tanks, motor trucks, machine guns, rapid-fire artillery, barbed
wire, and poison gas. Break students into groups and ask them to complete a project (visual display, oral report, multimedia presentation) that answers the following question: What mistake did
military leaders continue to make even though new technology was available? Remind students to
define tasks thoroughly and to assign roles and responsibilities. After the project is complete, the
group should evaluate everyone’s contribution, highlighting aspects of the work that went well and
suggesting ways the team might have functioned better. L2 L3
CHAPTER 23
World War I in Europe, 1914–1918
60
°N
20°W
10°W
0°
10°E
20°E
30°E
Section 2, 721–727
40°E
Allies
Central Powers
Neutral nations
NORWAY
Line of trench warfare,
1915–1917
Farthest advance of
Allies with date
W
SWEDEN
Masurian Lakes
Sept. 1914
No
v
1915
ber
em
9 14
Baltic
Sea
.1
ug
Berlin
BELGIUM GERMANY
SWITZ.
PO
RT
UG
A
L
FRANCE
Verdun
Feb.–Dec. 1916
SPAIN
Corsica
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
Budapest
Sarajevo
O
ALBANIA . 1915
ec
D
Sardinia
GREECE
SPANISH
MOROCCO
MOROCCO
Fr.
5
916
t. 1
Indecisive
ROMANIA
SERBIA Ja n. 1917
BULGARIA
MONTENEGRO
ITALY
40°
N
Central Powers victory
Jan
. 19
15
LUXEMBOURG
Schlieffen Plan
1917
n.
Ja
Marne N o v. 191 4
Sept. 1914,
July–Aug. 1918
Tannenberg,
Aug. 1914
Sep
Paris
. 19
1
ATLaNTIC
OCEaN
Somme
July 1916
A
NETH.
ct
London
March 1918
Fr.
TUNISIA Mediterranean Sea
Fr.
Caspian
Sea
Cartography Have students draw
their own thematic maps to show the
widening of the war into the Balkans,
the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. Students should include an appropriate
legend for their maps. Discuss reasons why military leaders sought to
expand the conflict into these areas.
(Because of the stalemate in the
west, both sides sought to gain
strength in new allies.)
Black Sea
N o v . 1917
OTTOMAN
EMPIRE
8
ber 191
Octo
Sicily
ALGERIA
Answer:
1. Students will create a graph
based on the map.
Farthest advance of
Central Powers with date
British naval blockade
Allied mine barrier
German submarine war zone
Sinking of the Lusitania,
May 7, 1915
Armistice line, Nov. 11, 1918
Treaty line of Brest-Litovsk
Allied victory
RUSSIAN
EMPIRE
18
h 19
UNITED
KINGDOM
50
°N
rc
Ma
North
Sea
DENMARK
0
Crete
Cyprus
Oct
. 19
18
191
8
E
ar.
S
M
N
500 miles
500 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
Entry of the United States
At first, the United States tried to remain neutral.
As World War I dragged on, however, it became more
difficult to do so. The immediate cause of United
States involvement grew out of the naval war
between Germany and Great Britain.
Britain had used its superior naval power to set up
a naval blockade of Germany. The blockade kept war
materials and other goods from reaching Germany
by sea. Germany had retaliated by setting up its own
blockade of Britain. Germany enforced its blockade
with the use of unrestricted submarine warfare,
which included the sinking of passenger liners.
On May 7, 1915, the British ship Lusitania was
sunk by German forces. There were about 1,100 civilian casualties, including over 100 Americans. After
strong United States protests, the German government suspended unrestricted submarine warfare
in September 1915 to avoid antagonizing the United
States further. Only once did the German and British
naval forces actually engage in direct battle—at the
Battle of Jutland on May 31, 1916, when neither side
won a conclusive victory.
Trench warfare produced a stalemate on the Western Front.
1. Applying Geography Skills Create a line graph with
dates as one axis and miles as the other. Starting from
Berlin, plot the Central Powers advances for the dates
shown on the map.
Critical Thinking
Ask students to discuss the following sentence: “The immediate cause of U.S. involvement
grew out of the naval war
between Germany and Great
Britain.” SS.A.3.4.9
By January 1917, however, the Germans were eager
to break the deadlock in the war. German naval
officers convinced Emperor William II that resuming
the use of unrestricted submarine warfare could
starve the British into submission within six months.
When the emperor expressed concern about the
United States, he was told not to worry. The British
would starve before the Americans could act. Even if
the Americans did intervene, Admiral Holtzendorff
assured the emperor, “I give your Majesty my word
as an officer that not one American will land on the
continent.”
The German naval officers were quite wrong. The
British were not forced to surrender, and the return to
unrestricted submarine warfare brought the United
States into the war in April 1917. United States troops
CHAPTER 23
War and Revolution
Critical Thinking
725
Ask students why the psychological impact of the United
States’s entry into World War I
might have been greater than the
actual military impact. (The entry
would have given a desperately
needed morale boost to the Allies
and discouraged Germany and
Austria-Hungary. The opposition
would have been more willing to
seek a settlement.) L2
DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION
Reading Support Encourage students needing extra reinforcement to summarize the material
under each subhead in this section in a manner of their own choosing. Some students may elect
to prepare oral summaries. Visual learners might draw a series of cartoons depicting such subjects
as the battle, the weapons used, or trench warfare. Gifted students may use outside resources to
enhance their summaries. You may wish to have students work in small groups to complete this
activity. L1 ELL FCAT LA.A.1.4.2
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
725
CHAPTER 23
Section 2, 721–727
Answer: The Germans wanted to
starve Britain into submission. They
believed they could accomplish that
before the United States would enter
the war.
3
ASSESS
Assign Section 2 Assessment as
homework or as an in-class
activity.
American troops leave for war.
did not arrive in large numbers in Europe until 1918.
However, the entry of the United States into the war
not only gave the Allied Powers a psychological
boost, but also brought them a major new source of
money and war goods.
Have students use Interactive
Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.
L2
Reading Check Evaluating Why did the Germans
resort to unrestricted submarine use?
Section Quiz 23–2
Name 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Date 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Class 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭
✔
Chapter 23
Score
The Home Front:
The Impact of Total War
Section Quiz 23-2
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)
Column A
Column B
1. ideas spread to influence public opinion
A. trench warfare
2. warfare based on wearing down opponents
B. propaganda
3. huge German airship
C. zeppelin
4. system of competing “dug in” defenses
D. total war
5. complete mobilization of resources and people
E. war of attrition
As World War I dragged on, it became a total war,
involving a complete mobilization of resources and
people. It affected the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, however remote they might be from
the battlefields.
Masses of men had to be organized and supplies
had to be manufactured and purchased for years of
combat. (Germany alone had 5.5 million men in uniform in 1916.) This led to an increase in government
powers and the manipulation of public opinion to
keep the war effort going. The home front was rapidly becoming a cause for as much effort as the war
front.
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best
completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)
6. During the war, new roles in the workforce were created for women
because
A. they were experienced workers.
B. so many men entered the military effort.
C. women needed something to do.
D. women demanded equality.
8. Air warfare in World War I involved all of the following EXCEPT
A. the first long-range missiles.
C. attacking ground targets.
B. spotting enemy positions.
D. shooting down enemy aircraft.
9. Across Europe, wartime governments
A. maintained free-market conditions.
B. set up planned economies.
C. reduced their powers.
D. re-regulated prices, wages, rent.
10. The United States entered the war largely over the issue of
A. Serbian independence.
C. German use of zeppelins.
B. trench warfare.
D. unrestricted submarine warfare.
2
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7. To maintain high morale and maintain support for the war among their
citizens
A. only the authoritarian regimes used propaganda.
B. only the authoritarian powers allowed peace rallies.
C. the democratic states used propaganda.
D. the democratic states never resorted to exaggeration.
Increased Government Powers
Most people had
expected the war to be short, so little thought had
been given to long-term wartime needs. Governments had to respond quickly, however, when the
war machines failed to achieve their goals. Many
more men and supplies were needed to continue the
war. To meet these needs, governments expanded
their powers. Countries drafted tens of millions of
young men for that elusive breakthrough to victory.
Glencoe World History
Who?What?Where?When?
African American Soldiers More
than 350,000 African Americans
served in segregated units in World
War I. Several units saw action alongside French soldiers fighting against
the Germans. The French Legion of
Honor was awarded to 171 African
Americans.
726
CHAPTER 23
Throughout Europe, wartime governments also
expanded their power over their economies. Freemarket capitalistic systems were temporarily put
aside. Governments set up price, wage, and rent
controls; rationed food supplies and materials; regulated imports and exports; and took over transportation systems and industries. In effect, in order to
mobilize all the resources of their nations for the war
effort, European nations set up planned economies—
systems directed by government agencies.
Under conditions of total war mobilization, the
differences between soldiers at war and civilians at
home were narrowed. In the view of political leaders,
all citizens were part of a national army dedicated to
victory. As United States president Woodrow Wilson
said, the men and women “who remain to till the soil
and man the factories are no less a part of the army
than the men beneath the battle flags.”
Manipulation of Public Opinion
As the war continued and casualties grew worse, the patriotic enthusiasm that had marked the early stages of World War
I waned. By 1916, there were signs that civilian
morale was beginning to crack under the pressure of
total war. War governments, however, fought back
against the growing opposition to the war.
Authoritarian regimes, such as those of Germany,
Russia, and Austria-Hungary, relied on force to subdue their populations. Under the pressures of the war,
however, even democratic states expanded their
police powers to stop internal dissent. The British Parliament, for example, passed the Defence of the Realm
Act (DORA). It allowed the government to arrest protestors as traitors. Newspapers were censored, and
sometimes their publication was even suspended.
Wartime governments made active use of propaganda to arouse enthusiasm for the war. At the beginning, public officials needed to do little to achieve this
goal. The British and French, for example, exaggerated
German atrocities in Belgium and found that their citizens were only too willing to believe these accounts.
As the war progressed and morale sagged, governments were forced to devise new techniques for
motivating the people. In one British recruiting
poster, for example, a small daughter asked her
father, “Daddy, what did YOU do in the Great War?”
while her younger brother played with toy soldiers.
Total War and Women
World War I created new
roles for women. Because so many men left to fight at
the front, women were asked to take over jobs that
had not been available to them before. Women were
employed in jobs that had once been considered
War and Revolution
INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITY
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
726
Sociology and Economics Have students research and report on the effects of the war on civilians. Among the subjects students might investigate are rationing, restrictions on transportation,
popular entertainment, and the changing role of women. Ask students to describe the specific
roles of women, children, and families during this time. Ask students to examine the economic
and cultural influence of women during the time, as well. Finally, ask students to research and
report on how the war was financed, with special attention to the sale of war bonds. L2
SS.A.3.4.9
CHAPTER 23
beyond their capacity. These included such occupations as chimney sweeps, truck drivers, farm laborers, and factory workers in heavy industry. For
example, 38 percent of the workers in the Krupp
Armaments works in Germany in 1918 were women.
The place of women in the workforce was far from
secure, however. Both men and women seemed to
expect that many of the new jobs for women were
only temporary. This was evident in the British poem
“War Girls,” written in 1916:
1865–1915—British nurse
E
dith Cavell was born in Norfolk,
England. She trained as a nurse and
moved to Brussels in 1907 to head
the Berkendael Medical Institute.
After the outbreak of war, the institute
became a Red Cross hospital. Cavell
worked to shelter French and British soldiers
and help them reach safety in the Netherlands.
Outraged, German military authorities in Brussels put
her on trial for aiding the enemy and ordered her to be
shot. Before her execution, Cavell said, “I am glad to die
for my country.” To arouse anti-German sentiment, both
the French and British used her as an example of German barbarism. The Germans insisted they had the right
to execute a traitor—whether man or woman.
“
There’s the girl who clips your ticket for the train,
And the girl who speeds the lift [elevator] from floor
to floor,
There’s the girl who does a milk-round [milk delivery]
in the rain,
And the girl who calls for orders at your door.
Strong, sensible, and fit,
They’re out to show their grit,
And tackle jobs with energy and knack.
No longer caged and penned up,
They’re going to keep their end up
Till the khaki soldier boys come marching back.
”
At the end of the war, governments would quickly
remove women from the jobs they had encouraged
them to take earlier. The work benefits for women
from World War I were short-lived as men returned
to the job market. By 1919, there would be 650,000
unemployed women in Great Britain. Wages for the
women who were still employed would be lowered.
Nevertheless, in some countries the role played by
women in wartime economies had a positive impact
Section 2, 721–727
Edith Cavell
Answer: Citizens were subject to
rationing, propaganda, the draft, and
loss of free speech. Women took jobs
formerly considered beyond their
capacity.
Enrich
Have students discuss the
impact of World War I on the
status of women. How did their
acceptance, even if temporary,
into occupations previously considered beyond their ability
empower women to demand
equal rights with men? L2
on the women’s movement for social and political
emancipation. The most obvious gain was the right to
vote, which was given to women in Germany, Austria,
and the United States immediately after the war. Most
British women gained the vote in 1918.
Many upper- and middle-class women had also
gained new freedoms. In ever-larger numbers, young
women from these groups took jobs; had their own
apartments; and showed their new independence.
SS.A.3.4.9
L1/ELL
Reading Essentials and
Study Guide 23–2
Name
Date
Class
Reading Essentials and Study Guide
Reading Check Summarizing What was the effect of
Chapter 23, Section 2
total war on ordinary citizens?
For use with textbook pages 721–727
THE WAR
KEY TERMS
propaganda
ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause (page 721)
trench warfare
warfare fought in trenches (ditches protected by barbed war) (page 722)
war of attrition a war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy
losses (page 724)
total war a war involving a complete mobilization of resources and people in the warring
countries (page 726)
planned economies
Checking for Understanding
1. Define propaganda, trench warfare,
war of attrition, total war, planned
economies.
2. Identify Lawrence of Arabia, Admiral
Holtzendorff, Woodrow Wilson.
3. Locate Marne, Tannenberg, Masurian
Lakes, Verdun, Gallipoli.
Critical Thinking
6. Identify What methods did governments use to counter the loss of
enthusiasm and opposition to the
war at home?
7. Organizing Information Use a diagram like the one below to identify
ways in which government powers
increased during the war.
4. Explain why World War I required total
warfare.
5. List some of the occupations opened to
women by the war.
Analyzing Visuals
8. Examine the photograph of British soldiers shown on page 723. How does
this photograph illustrate the type of
warfare that emerged during World
War I? What aspects of trench warfare
are not shown in the photo?
9. Expository Writing What lasting
results occurred in women’s rights
due to World War I? What were the
temporary results? Write an essay
discussing the effect of the war on
women’s rights.
Government
Powers
CHAPTER 23
1. Key terms are in blue.
2. Lawrence of Arabia (p. 724);
Admiral Holtzendorff (p. 725);
Woodrow Wilson (p. 726)
3. See chapter maps.
4. Masses of men had to be organized and supplies had to be manufactured and purchased for years
of combat, which led to measures
that affected the lives of all citizens
in the warring countries.
5. chimney sweeps, truck drivers,
farm laborers, factory workers in
heavy industry
6. propaganda, expanded police powers, protesters arrested, censorship
7. draft; rationing; price, wage, and
War and Revolution
DRAWING FROM EXPERIENCEII
Have you ever read the book All Quiet on the Western Front? How does the book
describe the fighting on the Western Front during World War I?
In the last section you learned about the events that led to the start of World War I
Reteaching Activity
Discuss the war’s major events
on both fronts and at sea; the
effects of technological advances;
the entrance of the United States
into the war. L1 SS.A.3.4.9
4
727
rent controls; takeover of transportation; import and export regulation;
8. trench warfare, waiting for next
assault; the disease, death, uncomfortable conditions
9. Essays should reflect students’
grasp of material.
economic systems directed by government agencies (page 726)
CLOSE
Have students summarize the
situations of the Allies and the
Central Powers in the spring of
1917. (The prospect of victory was
slim for both sides at this point.)
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
727
SPECIAL
REPORT
SPECIAL REPORT SUMMARY
the
In 1915, a German submarine sank the
British luxury liner Lusitania, killing
more than 1,000 people and helping
draw the United States into World
War I.
Lusitania
■
To clear up questions about the sinking, scientists used a robot vehicle to
examine the wreck on the ocean floor.
1
P
Passengers boarding the British liner R.M.S. Lusitania
in New York on May 1, 1915, for the voyage to Liver-
■
pool, England, knew of Germany’s threat to sink ships
Although the ship was carrying arms,
the team found that the weapons had
not exploded when a torpedo struck
the Lusitania. This disproved a oncepopular theory of why the ship sank
so fast.
bound for the British Isles. Britain and Germany had
been fighting for nine months. Still, few passengers
imagined that a civilized nation would attack an
unarmed passenger steamer without warning.
■
The team hypothesized that the powerful secondary explosion that caused
the ship to sink in only 18 minutes was
probably caused by the ignition of coal
dust in a storage compartment.
Built eight years earlier, the Lusitania
was described as a “floating palace.”
German authorities, however, saw her
as a threat. They accused the British
government of using the Lusitania to
carry ammunition and other war supplies across the Atlantic.
With her four towering funnels, the
liner looked invincible as she left New
York on her last voyage. Six days later,
at 2:10 P.M. on May 7, 1915, Walther
Schwieger, the 30-year-old commander
of the German submarine U 20, fired a
single torpedo at the Lusitania from a
range of about 750 yards (686 m).
Captain William Turner of the Lusitania saw the torpedo’s wake from the
navigation bridge just before impact. It
sounded like a “million-ton hammer
hitting a steam boiler a hundred feet
high,” one passenger said. A second,
more powerful explosion followed,
sending a geyser of water, coal, and
debris high above the deck.
TEACH
Points to Discuss
After students have read the feature, ask the following: Why did
the Germans see the Lusitania
as a threat? (They believed the ship
was carrying ammunition and other
war materials to England.) Why
did so many people lose their
lives when the Lusitania sank?
(The boat sank quickly, and the
lifeboats were almost impossible to
reach and board.) Why did the
sinking of the Lusitania anger
many Americans? (because sinking the unarmed passenger vessel
728
CHAPTER 23
Teacher’s Notes
728
Listing to starboard, the liner
began to sink rapidly at the bow,
sending passengers tumbling down
her slanted decks. Lifeboats on the
port side were hanging too far
inboard to be readily launched, those
on the starboard side too far out to be
easily boarded. Several overfilled
lifeboats spilled occupants into the
War and Revolution
2
2
sea. The great liner disappeared under
the waves in only 18 minutes, leaving
behind a jumble of swimmers,
corpses, deck chairs, and wreckage.
Looking back upon the scene from
his submarine, even the German
commander Schwieger was shocked.
He later called it the most horrible
sight he had ever seen.
SPECIAL
REPORT
SPECIAL REPORT
0 mi
0 km
killed more than 1,000 civilians,
including 128 Americans) What
questions were raised about the
sinking? (Was the ship warned
about German submarines? Why
did one torpedo sink it so fast? Was
it armed, as Germany claimed?
What caused a second explosion?)
How do British and German
accounts of responsibility for
the sinking of the ship differ?
(A British judge claimed Germany
was completely responsible. The
German government claimed that
the British had purposely made the
ship a target.)
30
30
Enrich
Ask students to evaluate the
political choices and decisions
made by Britain, Germany, and
the United States in regard to the
Lusitania. Be sure students take
into account the historical context. Then ask students to apply
this knowledge to the analysis of
choices and decisions faced by
societies today. Students should
use current news media for the
second part of this activity. L3
3
News of the disaster raced across
the Atlantic. Of 1,959 people aboard,
only 764 were saved. The dead included 94 children and infants.
Questions were immediately
raised. Did the British Admiralty
give the Lusitania adequate warning?
How could one torpedo have sunk
her? Why did she go down so fast?
Was there any truth to the German
claim that the Lusitania had been
armed?
From the moment the Lusitania
sank, she was surrounded by controversy. Americans were outraged by
the attack, which claimed the lives of
123 U.S. citizens. Newspapers called
the attack “deliberate murder” and a
“foul deed,” and former President
Theodore Roosevelt demanded
revenge against Germany. The attack
on the Lusitania is often credited with
drawing the United States into World
War I. However, President Woodrow
Wilson—though he had vowed to
hold Germany responsible for its submarine attacks—knew that the American people were not ready to go to
war. It was almost two years before
the United States joined the conflict
in Europe.
A British judge laid full blame on
the German submarine commander,
while the German government
claimed that the British had deliberately made her a military target. Tragically, inquiries following the sinking
of the Lusitania revealed that Captain
Turner had received warnings by
wireless from the British Admiralty,
1 The Lusitania arrives in New York
on her maiden voyage in 1907 (opposite page).
2 Captain William Turner of the Lusitania, (opposite page, center); Walther
Schwieger, commander of the German
submarine U 20 (opposite page, right).
SS.A.1.4.4
3 Headlines in Boston and New York
(above) report the terrible news of the
sinking of the Lusitania on May 7,
1915. In the two days prior to the
attack on the Lusitania, the German
submarine U 20 had sunk three ships
off Ireland’s southern coast. Yet the
captain of the Lusitania, who had
received warnings by wireless from the
British Admiralty, took only limited precautions as he approached the area.
CHAPTER 23
War and Revolution
729
FUN FACTS
■
■
Woodrow Wilson’s secretary of state, William Jennings
Bryan, resigned rather than sign a strongly worded
protest Wilson sent to Germany after the Lusitania’s
sinking.
The name of the ship came from the ancient Roman
province of Lusitania, which made up the region that
is now Portugal and western Spain.
■
The cargo of arms and ammunition that the Lusitania
was carrying weighed about 173 tons.
■
The British admiralty had recommended that the Lusitania follow a zigzag course, changing direction every
few minutes, to avoid torpedo attacks.
729
SPECIAL
REPORT
but took only limited precautions as
he approached the area where the
U 20 was waiting.
Rumors of diamonds, gold, and
valuables locked away in Lusitania’s
safes have prompted salvage attempts
over the years. To date, no treasure
has ever been reported.
Perhaps the biggest puzzle has
been the hardest to solve: Why did
the liner sink so fast? Newspapers
speculated that the torpedo had
struck munitions in a cargo hold,
causing the strong secondary explosion. Divers later reported a huge
hole in the port side of the bow,
opposite where munitions would have
been stored.
Science and Technology The
first submarine to be used in combat
was built by an American, David
Bushnell, in 1776 and was used during the Revolutionary War. It was
made of wood and moved by means
of a hand-turned propeller. (The
craft was used in an unsuccessful
attempt to blow up a British warship
in New York harbor.) By the late
1800s, an American engineer named
Simon Lake had made considerable
advances in submarine technology,
including the use of horizontal rudders for diving and water ballast for
submergence. The U.S. Navy was
slow to see the merits of Lake’s
work. In the early 1900s, however,
Lake was hired by the United States.
Hoping to settle the issue, a team
from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, sponsored by the
National Geographic Society, sent
their robot vehicle Jason down to
photograph the damage. Fitted with
cameras and powerful lights, the robot
sent video images of the wreck by
fiber-optic cable to a control room on
the surface ship, Northern Horizon. A
pilot maneuvered Jason with a joystick, while an engineer relayed
instructions to the robot’s computers.
Other team members watched for recognizable objects on the monitors. In
addition to using Jason to make a
visual survey of the Lusitania, the team
of researchers and scientists also used
sonar to create a computerized, threedimensional diagram of how the
wreck looks today.
From this data, it was discovered
that the Lusitania’s hull had been flattened—in part by the force of gravity—to half its original width. But
when Jason’s cameras swept across the
hold, looking for the hole reported by
divers shortly after the sinking, there
was none to be found. Indeed, no evidence was found that would indicate
that the torpedo had detonated an
explosion in a cargo hold, undermining one theory of why the liner sank.
Questions about her cargo have
haunted the Lusitania since the day
she went down. Was she carrying illegal munitions as the Germans have
always claimed? In fact, she was. The
manifest for her last voyage included
wartime essentials such as motorcycle
parts, metals, cotton goods, and food,
as well as 4,200 cases of rifle ammunition, 1,250 cases of shrapnel (not
explosive), and 18 boxes of percussion
fuses. However, the investigation conducted by the Woods Hole team and
Jason suggested that these munitions
did not cause the secondary blast that
sent the Lusitania to the bottom.
So what did?
One likely possibility was a coaldust explosion. The German torpedo
struck the liner’s starboard side about
10 feet (3 m) below the waterline,
rupturing one of the long coal
4
Connecting to the Past
In recent years a number of
wrecked ships have been raised
from the ocean bottom by scientists and entrepreneurs. The salvage operations have generated
controversy about the ownership
of the materials recovered,
which can be worth millions of
dollars.
Among the better-known cases
are the Padre Island wrecks in
Texas and the case of Nuestra
Señora de la Atocha in Florida.
730
CHAPTER 23
War and Revolution
CRITICAL THINKING ACTIVITY
Ask students to review the maps in this feature and throughout this chapter. Then have students
create a thematic database from the information contained on the maps. Students should interpret
the database by posing and answering questions about geographic distributions and patterns in
world history as revealed by information contained in the database. Make sure that students use
appropriate mathematical skills to interpret the information on the maps. L2 SS.B.1.4.1
730
SPECIAL
REPORT
SPECIAL REPORT
5
6
4 Homer, a small robot, (opposite page)
explores a hole in the stern of the Lusitania that was cut by a salvage crew to
recover silverware and other items.
5 A provocative poster (left) depicted
drowning innocents and urged Americans
to enlist in the armed forces.
6 Alice Drury (above left) was a young
nanny for an American couple on the
Lusitania. She and another nanny were
caring for the couple’s children: Audrey
(above right), Stuart, Amy, and Susan.
Alice was about to give Audrey a bottle
when the torpedo hit. Alice wrapped
Audrey in a shawl, grabbed Stuart, and
headed for the lifeboats. A crewman
loaded Stuart, but when Alice tried to
board, the sailor told her it was full.
Without a life jacket and with Audrey
around her neck, Alice jumped into the
water. A woman in the lifeboat grabbed
her hair and pulled her aboard. Audrey’s
parents were rescued too, but Amy,
Susan, and the other nanny were lost.
Alice and Audrey Lawson Johnston have
remained close ever since.
her superstructure is ghostly wreckage. Yet the horror and fascination
surrounding the sinking of the great
liner live on. With today’s high-technology tools, researchers and scientists at Woods Hole and the National
Geographic Society have provided
another look—and some new
answers—to explain the chain of
events that ended with the Lusitania
at the bottom of the sea.
FCAT MA.B.1.4.3
Who?What?Where?When?
INTERPRETING THE PAST
bunkers [storage bins] that stretched
along both sides. If that bunker,
mostly empty by the end of the voyage, contained explosive coal dust, the
torpedo might have ignited it. Such
an occurrence would explain all the
coal that was found scattered on the
seafloor near the wreck.
The Lusitania’s giant funnels have
long since turned to rust, an eerie
marine growth covers her hull, and
Geography Have students study
the map on page 729. How far was
the Lusitania from the Irish coast
when it was sunk? (about 10 miles
[16 km]) How far apart were the
two ships sunk by the U 20 on May
6, 1915? (about 10 miles [16 km])
What was the approximate distance
between Ireland and Wales? (about
50 miles [81 km])
German U-Boat Attacks After the
sinking of the Lusitania, German submarines continued to torpedo merchant vessels without warning. In
March 1916, fearing the United States
would enter the war, Germany
stopped the attacks. With the war
stalemated, however, Germany
resumed unrestricted submarine
attacks in February 1917, sinking four
American ships in just two months.
Wilson cited German violations of
“freedom of the seas” as a reason for
entering the war in April 1917.
SS.A.3.4.9
1. How did the Lusitania contribute to
drawing the United States into World
War I?
2. Describe the Lusitania’s route.
Where was it when it sank?
3. What mysteries were researchers
able to solve by using underwater
robot technology?
CHAPTER 23
War and Revolution
731
INTERPRETING THE PAST
Answers:
1. Americans were outraged by this action by the Germans against a civilian target.
2. The Lusitania was traveling from New York City,
across the Atlantic Ocean, and then along the southern coast of Ireland en route to Liverpool (on the
western coast), England. The Lusitania was sunk off
the southern coast of Ireland.
3. Researchers were able to determine that weapons
carried by the Lusitania had not exploded, and they
hypothesized that the second explosion was caused
by the ignition of coal dust.
731
CHAPTER 23
The Russian
Revolution
Section 3, 732–737
1 FOCUS
Guide to Reading
Section Overview
This section discusses the fall of
Czar Nicholas II in Russia and
the ensuing Russian Revolution,
which put the communists in
power.
BELLRINGER
Main Ideas
People to Identify
Reading Strategy
• The czarist regime in Russia fell as a
result of poor leadership.
• The Bolsheviks under Lenin came to
power.
• Communist forces triumphed over
anti-Communist forces.
Alexandra, Grigori Rasputin, Alexander
Kerensky, Bolsheviks, V. I. Lenin,
Leon Trotsky
Categorizing Information Using a chart
like the one below, identify the factors
and events that led to Lenin coming to
power in 1917.
Key Terms
Preview Questions
Places to Locate
Petrograd, Ukraine, Siberia, Urals
Skillbuilder Activity
Project transparency and have
students answer questions.
Preview of Events
✦1916
✦1917
1916
Rasputin assassinated
Daily Focus Skills Transparency
23–3
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
UNIT
5
Lenin in Power
(1917)
1. What promises did the Bolsheviks
make to the Russian people?
2. Why did civil war break out in Russia
after the Russian Revolution?
soviets, war communism
✦1918
1917
Czar Nicholas II
steps down
✦1919
✦1920
1918
Lenin signs Treaty
of Brest-Litovsk
✦1921
1921
Communists
control Russia
ANSWERS
1. the Czar 2. the peasants 3. the Czar, the officials,
the nobles, and the middle classes
DAILY FOCUS SKILLS
Chapter 23 TRANSPARENCY 23-3
The Russian Revolution
1
Who was in charge of
Russian society in the
nineteenth century?
2
What part of society had
the greatest number of
people?
3
Voices from the Past
What parts of society would
probably be overthrown in a
revolution?
THE CZAR — a complete
autocrat; his will was law
THE OFFICIALS — carried out czar’s commands;
included army, navy, secret service, and bureaucracy
THE NOBLES —
served czar but had
power over peasants
THE PEASANTS —
majority of Russian
people; very poor
with few rights
THE MIDDLE CLASSES
— included merchants
and craftsmen
John Reed, an American journalist, described an important event that took place in
St. Petersburg, Russia, on the night of November 6, 1917:
THE INDUSTRIAL
WORKERS — becoming
more numerous but
poor and underpaid
“
After a few minutes huddling there, some hundreds of men began again to flow
forward. By this time, in the light that streamed out of the Winter Palace windows, I
could see that the first two or three hundred men were Red Guards [revolutionaries],
with only a few scattered soldiers. Over the barricade of firewood we clambered, and
leaping down inside gave a triumphant shout as we stumbled on a heap of rifles
thrown down by the guards who had stood there. On both sides of the main gateway
the doors stood wide open, and from the huge pile came not the slightest sound.
Guide to Reading
Answers to Graphic: strikes by
working class women, workers, and
soldiers → provisional government
established → czarist regime falls
Germans ship Lenin back to Russia →
Bolsheviks use soviets to overthrow
Provisional Government
”
—Eyewitness to History, John Carey, ed., 1987
Reed was describing the Bolshevik seizure of the Winter Palace, seat of the Russian
Government, by Bolshevik revolutionaries. This act led to a successful revolution
in Russia.
Background to Revolution
Preteaching Vocabulary
Ask students to define soviet and discuss it with the class. L2
As you will learn, out of Russia’s collapse in 1917 came the Russian
Revolution. Its impact would be felt all over the world.
Russia was unprepared both militarily and technologically for the total war
of World War I. Russia had no competent military leaders. Even worse, Czar
732
CHAPTER 23
War and Revolution
SECTION RESOURCES
Reproducible Masters
• Reproducible Lesson Plan 23–3
• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 23–3
• Guided Reading Activity 23–3
• Section Quiz 23–3
• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 23–3
732
Transparencies
• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 23–3
Multimedia
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
CHAPTER 23
Section 3, 732–737
History
2
Rasputin (shown upper right corner) had great
influence over Czar Nicholas II and his family,
shown here in a 1913 photograph. Why was
Rasputin able to influence Russian political
TEACH
History
Nicholas II insisted on taking personal
charge of the armed forces despite his obvious lack of ability and training.
In addition, Russian industry was unable
to produce the weapons needed for the army.
Many soldiers trained using broomsticks.
Others were sent to the front without rifles
and told to pick one up from a dead comrade.
Given these conditions, it is not surprising
that the Russian army suffered incredible
losses. Between 1914 and 1916, two million
soldiers were killed, and another four to six
million wounded or captured. By 1917, the
Russian will to fight had vanished.
Daily
DailyLecture
Lectureand
and
Discussion
DiscussionNotes
Notes23–3
1–1
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes
Chapter 23, Section 3
Did You Know
?
Vladimir Ulianov Lenin was born in 1870 to a
middle class family. He was educated and became a lawyer. In 1887,
his older brother was executed by the czarist police for planning to
assassinate the czar. This event turned Lenin into a revolutionary,
and he dedicated his life to overthrowing the czar.
then tied him up and threw him into the Neva River.
He drowned, but not before he had managed to untie
the knots underwater. The killing of Rasputin
occurred too late, however, to save the monarchy.
I.
Background to Revolution (pages 732–734)
A. Due to a lack of experienced military leaders and technology, Russia was unprepared
for World War I. The Russian army was poorly trained and equipped and suffered terrible losses.
B. By 1917, the Russian will to continue fighting in the war had disappeared.
C. Czar Nicholas II relied on his army and government to keep him in power. His wife
Alexandra cut him off from events. She was strongly influenced by Grigori Rasputin,
who claimed to be a holy man. Though he had no military experience, Czar Nicholas
II insisted on commanding the army in the field and was away from the capital. In his
absence, Alexandra made important decisions with the help of Rasputin.
The March Revolution
At the beginning of March
1917, a series of strikes led by working-class women
broke out in the capital city of Petrograd
(formerly St. Petersburg). A few weeks
FINLAND
RUSSIA
earlier, the government had started
Petrograd
(St. Petersburg)
bread rationing in
Petrograd after the
price of bread had skyrocketed.
Many of the women who stood in the lines
waiting for bread were also factory workers who
worked 12-hour days. A police report warned the
government:
D. The Russian people became increasingly upset with the Czar and his wife due to military and economic disasters. Conservatives wanted to save the deteriorating situation
and assassinated Rasputin late in 1916. However, this did not save the monarchy.
E. In March, 1917 working-class women led a series of strikes in the capital city of
Petrograd. They were upset about bread shortages and rationing. They called a general
strike that shut down all the factories.
F. Alexandra reported the situation to Nicholas, describing the demonstrators as hooligans. Nicholas responded by ordering troops to break up the crowds with force.
However, many soldiers refused to shoot and joined the demonstrators. On March 12,
the Duma, or legislature, met and established a provisional government. The government then urged the Czar to step down, which he did.
G. The provisional government was headed by Alexander Kerensky and decided to continue fighting the war. This was a grave mistake, as it upset workers and peasants who
wanted to end the years of fighting.
H. The government was also challenged by the soviets—councils representing workers
and soldiers—who came to play an important role in Russian politics. Soviets sprang
up around the country, and were mostly made up of socialists.
Baltic Sea
Beginnings of Upheaval Czar Nicholas II was an
autocratic ruler who relied on the army and bureaucracy to hold up his regime. Furthermore, he was
increasingly cut off from events by his German-born
wife, Alexandra. She was a willful and stubborn
woman who had fallen under the influence of Grigori Rasputin (ra•SPYOO•tuhn), an uneducated
Siberian peasant who claimed to be a holy man.
Alexandra believed that Rasputin was holy, for he
alone seemed able to stop the bleeding of her son
Alexis. Alexis, the heir to the throne, had hemophilia
(a deficiency in the ability of the blood to clot).
With the czar at the battlefront, Alexandra made
all of the important decisions. She insisted on first
consulting Rasputin, the man she called “her
beloved, never-to-be-forgotten teacher, savior, and
mentor.” Rasputin’s influence made him an important power behind the throne. He did not hesitate to
interfere in government affairs.
As the leadership at the top stumbled its way
through a series of military and economic disasters,
the Russian people grew more and more upset with
the czarist regime. Even conservative aristocrats who
supported the monarchy felt the need to do something to save the situation.
For a start, they assassinated Rasputin in December 1916. It was not easy to kill this man of incredible
physical strength. They shot him three times and
Answer: Alexandra believed that
Rasputin was a holy man who could
stop her son’s bleeding, and this belief
gave Rasputin influence at court.
turn
331
Critical Thinking
Ask students to research and
analyze further how Rasputin’s
interference in Russia’s political
affairs contributed to the undermining of the czarist government. L2
Mothers of families, exhausted by endless stand“
ing in line at stores, distraught over their half-starving
and sick children, are today perhaps closer to revolution than [the liberal opposition leaders] and of
course they are a great deal more dangerous
because they are the combustible material for which
only a single spark is needed to burst into flame.
”
CHAPTER 23
War and Revolution
733
COOPERATIVE
LEARNING
ACTIVITY
EXTENDING
THE CONTENT
Creating a Presentation Divide students into four groups and assign each group a major figure in
the Russian Revolution: Czar Nicholas II, Rasputin, Lenin, and Trotsky. Have each group research its
assigned individual. Students should include his background, education, beliefs, and role in the
revolution. Students should divide up the research appropriately and combine their findings to prepare a written or oral report to present to the class. If possible, the report should be accompanied
by illustrations. Following the presentations, students should analyze the influence of each of these
individuals on political events of the twentieth century. L2
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
733
CHAPTER 23
On March 8, about
10,000 women marched
HISTORY
through the city of Petrograd demanding “Peace
Web Activity Visit
and Bread” and “Down
the Glencoe World
History Web site at
with Autocracy.” Soon the
wh.glencoe.com and
women were joined by
click on Chapter 23–
other workers. Together
Student Web Activity
they called for a general
to learn more about the
strike. The strike shut
Russian royal family.
down all the factories in
the city on March 10.
Alexandra wrote her husband Nicholas II at the
battlefront, “This is a hooligan movement. If the
weather were very cold they would all probably stay
at home.” Nicholas ordered troops to break up the
crowds by shooting them if necessary. Soon, however, large numbers of the soldiers joined the demonstrators and refused to fire on the crowds.
The Duma, or legislative body, which the czar had
tried to dissolve, met anyway. On March 12, it established the provisional government, which mainly
consisted of middle-class Duma representatives. This
Section 3, 732–737
Answer: The Russian army suffered
incredible losses in the war.
Nicholas II’s wife made decisions
under the influence of Rasputin; then
came a series of military and economic disasters. At the beginning of
March 1917, strikes led by workingclass women broke out in Petrograd,
which developed into a general
strike. Large numbers of the soldiers
joined the demonstrators. The Duma
met and established a provisional
government. Nicholas II stepped
down on March 15.
government urged the czar to step down. Because he
no longer had the support of the army or even the
aristocrats, Nicholas II did step down, on March 15,
ending the 300-year-old Romanov dynasty.
The provisional government, headed by Alexander Kerensky (keh•REHN•skee), now decided to
carry on the war to preserve Russia’s honor. This
decision to remain in World War I was a major blunder. It satisfied neither the workers nor the peasants,
who, tired and angry from years of suffering, wanted
above all an end to the war.
The government was also faced with a challenge to
its authority—the soviets. The soviets were councils
composed of representatives from the workers and
soldiers. The soviet of Petrograd had been formed in
March 1917. At the same time, soviets sprang up in
army units, factory towns, and rural areas. The soviets, largely made up of socialists, represented the
more radical interests of the lower classes. One
group—the Bolsheviks—came to play a crucial role.
Reading Check Identifying Develop a sequence
of events leading to the March Revolution.
Answer: One reason may have been to
obtain the Romanov wealth.
The Mystery of Anastasia
L1/ELL
Guided Reading Activity 23–3
Name
Date
Class
Guided Reading Activity 23-3
The Russian Revolution
DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 3.
I. Russia was
A.
for the total war of World War I.
was increasingly cut off from events by his wife.
B. In March 1917, a series of strikes led by
, started in Petrograd.
C. Nicholas ordered troops to break up crowds by
D. A socialist group, the
if necessary.
, represented the radical interests of lower
classes.
II. The Bolsheviks were a
party called the Russian Social Democrats.
A. The Bolsheviks came under the leadership of V.I.
1. They became a party dedicated to
2 “P
B
.
revolution.
d”
d
th B l h
ik
Czar Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra, and their five children were murdered on the night of July 16, 1918. Soon
after, rumors began to circulate that some members of
the family had survived.
In 1921, a young woman in Dalldorf, Germany,
claimed to be the Grand Duchess Anastasia, youngest
daughter of Nicholas II. Some surviving members of
the Romanov family became convinced
that she was Anastasia. Grand Duke
Andrew, Nicholas II’s first cousin,
said after meeting with her, “For me
there is definitely no doubt; it is
Anastasia.”
䊱
Literature Have students research
and report on one of the following:
Maksim Gorky, a champion of the
revolutionary movement in Russia;
Alexander Blok, who wrote “The
Twelve,” a poem about the revolution; or Vladimir Mayakovski, a poet
who popularized the revolution. L3
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
734
Grand
Duchess
Anastasia
Later, the woman claiming to be Anastasia came to
the United States. While in New York, she registered at a
Long Island hotel as Anna Anderson and soon became
known by that name. In 1932, she returned to Germany.
During the next 30 years, she pursued a claim in German courts for part of the estate left to Empress Alexandra’s German relatives. In the 1960s in the United States,
she became even better known as a result of a popular
play and film, Anastasia.
In 1968, Anna Anderson returned to the United
States, where she died in 1984. In 1994, DNA testing of
tissues from Anna Anderson revealed that she was not
the Grand Duchess Anastasia. In all probability, Anna
Anderson was Franziska Schanzkowska, a Polish
farmer’s daughter who had always dreamed of being
an actress.
䊴 Anna
Anderson
The woman claiming to be Anastasia convinced
many people of the authenticity of her claim. What
do you think might have motivated her to act out the
part of Anastasia for so many years?
734
EXTENDING THE CONTENT
Health As if the world war, revolution, and civil war were not devastating enough to the Russian
people, an even greater danger appeared in the form of lice. Lice carry Rickettsia bacteria, which
causes typhus. During the war years, between 1914 and 1916, the typhus outbreak on the Eastern
Front was serious (there were no similar outbreaks on the Western Front due to the use of fumigants). After the revolution of 1917, Russia experienced the worst typhus epidemic in history.
Between 1917 and 1921, over 25 million Russians came down with typhus and more than 2.5 million died. Ask students to compare this typhus epidemic with the fourteenth-century plague and
identify any contemporary situations that parallel these historical situations.
FCAT LA.A.2.2.7, SC.F.1.4.7
CHAPTER 23
Russian Revolution and Civil War, 1917–1922
Section 3, 732–737
Western boundary of Russia, 1914
Russia, 1922
°E
20
60
Land lost by Russia (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918)
Center of revolutionary (Bolshevik) activity, 1917–1918
°E
Murmansk
White Russian (anti-Bolshevik) or Allied attack, 1918–1920
Area under Bolshevik control, October 1919
80°E
Helsinki
TA
AN
IA
UN
S
W
M
IN
S
RO
Archangel
Petrograd
Riga (St. Petersburg)
Minsk
Novgorod
Moscow
Vladimir
WESTERN
Kiev
Kazan
SIBERIA
UK
Smolensk
RA
Perm
INE
O
Odessa
Orel
M Tobolsk
AL
Samara U R
Yekatarinburg
Black
Rostov
Tsaritsyn
Sea
(Volgograd)
N
FINLAND
°E
IA
N
TO A
ES VI NIA
T A
LA HU
T
LI
GERMANY
PO
LA
N
Warsaw D
BrestLitovsk
40
AY
NORW
N
E
D
E
SW
E
North
Sea
50
°N
0°
Arctic
OCEaN
Answers:
1. area not under Bolshevik control
is larger, but area under Bolshevik control contained main cities
2. Questions and answers will vary.
BU
R U S S I A
LG
AR
IA
RK
US
AS
EY
CA U C
TU
°N
40
Caspian
Sea
Vladivostok
Aral
Sea
IRAN
MONGOLIA
CHINA
JAPAN
1,000 miles
0
1,000 kilometers
0
Two-Point Equidistant projection
The Rise of Lenin
The Bolsheviks began as a small faction of a
Marxist party called the Russian Social Democrats.
The Bolsheviks came under the leadership of
Vladimir Ilyich Ulianov (ool•YAH•nuhf), known to
the world as V. I. Lenin.
Under Lenin’s direction, the Bolsheviks became a
party dedicated to violent revolution. Lenin believed
that only violent revolution could destroy the capitalist system. A “vanguard” (forefront) of activists, he
said, must form a small party of well-disciplined professional revolutionaries to accomplish the task.
Between 1900 and 1917, Lenin spent most of his
time abroad. When the provisional government was
formed in March 1917, he saw an opportunity for the
Bolsheviks to seize power. In April 1917, German
military leaders, hoping to create disorder in Russia,
shipped Lenin to Russia. Lenin and his associates
were in a sealed train to prevent their ideas from
infecting Germany.
Lenin’s arrival in Russia opened a new stage of the
Russian Revolution. Lenin maintained that the soviets of soldiers, workers, and peasants were readymade instruments of power. He believed that the
Bolsheviks should work toward gaining control of
N
30°
PaCIFIC
OCEaN
Critical Thinking
Have students research and analyze the three Bolshevik slogans:
“Peace, Land, Bread,” “Worker
Control of Production,” and “All
Power to the Soviets.” Which did
Lenin attempt to address? Which
were strictly propaganda? What
is the appeal of these slogans? L2
The Russian Revolution and civil war resulted in significant
changes to Russia’s boundaries.
1. Interpreting Maps Compare the area of Russia under
Bolshevik control in 1919 with the area not under
Bolshevik control. Which is larger? Which contained
Russia’s main cities?
2. Applying Geography Skills Pose two questions for
your classmates to determine whether or not they can
describe the changes in Russia’s boundaries resulting
from the Russian Revolution and World War I.
these groups and then use them to overthrow the
provisional government.
At the same time, the Bolsheviks reflected the discontent of the people. They promised an end to the
war, the redistribution of all land to the peasants, the
transfer of factories and industries from capitalists to
committees of workers, and the transfer of government power from the provisional government to the
soviets. Three simple slogans summed up the Bolshevik program: “Peace, Land, Bread,” “Worker Control of Production,” and “All Power to the Soviets.”
Turning Points in World History
The ABC News videotape
includes a segment on the
Russian Revolution.
Writing Activity
Reading Check Examining What was Lenin’s plan
when he arrived in Russia?
CHAPTER 23
War and Revolution
Answer: to gain control of the soviets of soldiers, workers, and peasants
and use them to overthrow the provisional government
735
Have students write an essay in
which they identify and explain
the causes and effects of the rise
of communism on the Soviet
Union. L3 SS.A.3.4.9
INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITY
Art Have students use the Internet or library to research Communist propaganda posters from this
period. Ask them to write a brief report analyzing at least one of the posters. Students should consider the following questions: What can be learned by examining the poster? What message is the
poster trying to convey? Does the poster elicit an emotional response? How do the images in the
poster portray Communist ideology and values? Students’ reports should include a copy of the
poster, and reports can be presented orally to the class. L2
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
735
CHAPTER 23
The Bolsheviks Seize Power
Section 3, 732–737
Answer: Russia gained peace but
lost eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland,
and the Baltic provinces.
Answer: groups loyal to the czar,
liberals, anti-Leninist socialists,
Communist White Russians, Allied
forces, and Ukrainians
3
ASSESS
Assign Section 3 Assessment as
homework or as an in-class
activity.
Have students use Interactive
Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.
Reading Check Describing What was the impact of
the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on Russia?
Civil War in Russia
L2
Many people were opposed to the new Bolshevik,
or Communist, regime. These people included not
only groups loyal to the czar but also liberals and
anti-Leninist socialists. These groups were joined by
the Allies, who were extremely concerned about the
Communist takeover. The Allies sent thousands of
troops to various parts of Russia in the hope of
Section Quiz 23–3
Name 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Date 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Class 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭
✔
Score
Chapter 23
Section Quiz 23-3
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)
Column A
Column B
1. Russian legislative body in 1917
A. Trotsky
2. representative councils of workers and soldiers
B. duma
3. small faction of the Russian Social Democrat party
C. soviets
4. red army’s commissar
D. war communism
5. temporary suspension of communist practices
E. bolsheviks
736
CHAPTER 23
Se a
SS.A.3.4.9
an
Ask students to write an essay in
which they identify the historic
origins of the economic systems
of capitalism and socialism. Then
have students identify the historical origins of the economic and
political system of communism.
Finally, ask students to state the
reasons for the Communist victory in the Russian civil war. L3
sp i
Writing Activity
Ca
By the end of October, Bolsheviks made up a slight
majority in the Petrograd and Moscow soviets. The
number of party members had grown from 50,000 to
240,000. With Leon Trotsky, a dedicated revolutionary, as head of the Petrograd soviet, the Bolsheviks
were in a position to claim power in the name of the
soviets. During the night of November 6, Bolshevik
forces seized the Winter Palace, the seat of the provisional government. The government quickly collapsed with little bloodshed.
This overthrow of the provisional government coincided
with a meeting in Petrograd of
the all-Russian Congress of
Soviets, which represented local
soviets from all over the country. Outwardly, Lenin turned
over the power of the provisional government to the Congress of Soviets. The real power,
however, passed to a Council of
People’s Commissars, headed
V. I. Lenin
by Lenin.
The Bolsheviks, who soon renamed themselves
the Communists, still had a long way to go. Lenin
had promised peace, and that, he realized, would not
be an easy task. It would mean the humiliating loss
of much Russian territory. There was no real choice,
however.
On March 3, 1918, Lenin signed the Treaty of BrestLitovsk with Germany and gave up eastern Poland,
Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic provinces. To his
critics, Lenin argued that it made no difference. The
spread of the socialist revolution throughout Europe
would make the treaty largely irrelevant. In any case,
he had promised peace to the Russian people. Real
peace did not come, however, because the country
soon sank into civil war.
bringing Russia back into the war. The Allied forces
rarely fought on Russian soil, but they did give
material aid to anti-Communist forces.
Between 1918 and 1921, the Communist (Red)
Army was forced to fight on many fronts against
these opponents. The first serious threat to the Communists came from Siberia. Here an anti-Communist
(White) force attacked westward and advanced
almost to the Volga River before being stopped.
Attacks also came from the Ukrainians in the
southwest and from the Baltic regions. In mid-1919,
White forces swept through Ukraine and advanced
almost to Moscow before being pushed back.
By 1920, however, the major White forces had
been defeated and Ukraine retaken. The next year, the
Communist regime
RUSSIA
regained control over
the independent
Black Sea GEORGIA
nationalist governments in Georgia,
ARMENIA
Russian Armenia,
and Azerbaijan ( A •
AZERBAIJAN
zuhr•BY•JAHN).
The royal family
was another victim of the civil war. After the czar
abdicated, he, his wife, and their five children had
been taken into captivity. In April 1918, they were
moved to Ekaterinburg, a mining town in the Urals.
On the night of July 16, members of the local soviet
murdered the czar and his family and burned their
bodies in a nearby mine shaft.
Reading Check Identifying Who opposed the new
Bolshevik regime?
Triumph of the Communists
How had Lenin and the Communists triumphed
in the civil war over what seemed to be overwhelming forces? One reason was that the Red Army was a
well-disciplined fighting force. This was largely due
to the organizational genius of Leon Trotsky. As
commissar of war, Trotsky reinstated the draft and
insisted on rigid discipline. Soldiers who deserted or
refused to obey orders were executed on the spot.
Furthermore, the disunity of the anti-Communist
forces weakened their efforts. Political differences
created distrust among the Whites and prevented
them from cooperating effectively with one another.
Some Whites insisted on restoring the czarist regime.
Others believed that only a more liberal and democratic program had any chance of success.
War and Revolution
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best
completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)
6. Russia was unprepared for war in all of the following ways EXCEPT one.
Which one?
READING THE TEXT
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
736
Reading Maps, Graphs, and Charts Organize the class into three groups. Have one group create
a chart identifying the causes and evaluating the effects of the English, American, French, and Russian Revolutions. The second group will create a chart summarizing the ideas from the same revolutions concerning separation of powers, liberty, equality, democracy, popular sovereignty, human
rights, constitutionalism, nationalism, capitalism, socialism, and communism. The third group will
identify and explain the causes and effects of World War I. Have groups share their information,
and have all students write a summary of this information. L2 FCAT LA.A.2.4.8, LA.E.2.2.1
CHAPTER 23
History
Section 3, 732–737
The Red Army is shown here marching through
Moscow. Between 1918 and 1921, the Communist
(Red) Army faced resistance from both the Allies and
the anti-Communist (White) forces. Who was the
Communist commissar of war during this period?
The Whites, then, had no common goal.
The Communists, in contrast, had a singleminded sense of purpose. Inspired by their
vision of a new socialist order, the Communists had the determination that comes from
revolutionary zeal and convictions.
The Communists were also able to translate
their revolutionary faith into practical instruments of power. A policy of war communism, for
example, was used to ensure regular supplies for the
Red Army. War communism meant government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain
from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control.
Another Communist instrument was revolutionary terror. A new Red secret police—known as the
Cheka—began a Red Terror aimed at the destruction
of all those who opposed the new regime (much like
the Reign of Terror in the French Revolution). The
Red Terror added an element of fear to the Communist regime.
Finally, the presence of foreign armies on Russian
soil enabled the Communists to appeal to the powerful force of Russian patriotism. At one point, over a
History
Answer: Leon Trotsky
Answer: The Red Army had the
organizational genius of Leon Trotsky
and a common goal; there were conflicting goals among the antiCommunist White forces.
hundred thousand foreign troops—mostly Japanese,
British, American, and French—were stationed in
Russia in support of anti-Communist forces. Their
presence made it easy for the Communist government to call on patriotic Russians to fight foreign
attempts to control the country.
By 1921, the Communists were in total command
of Russia. In the course of the civil war, the Communist regime had transformed Russia into a centralized
state dominated by a single party. The state was also
largely hostile to the Allied powers, because the
Allies had tried to help the Communists’ enemies in
the civil war.
Enrich
Have students write a brief
essay explaining why the police
believed that Russian women
were “a great deal more dangerous” than political leaders, as
stated in the report on page 733.
L2
L1/ELL
Reading Essentials and
Study Guide 23–3
Reading Check Contrasting Why did the Red Army
prevail over the White Army?
Name
Date
Class
Reading Essentials and Study Guide
Chapter 23, Section 3
For use with textbook pages 732–737
THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
KEY TERMS
Checking for Understanding
1. Define soviets, war communism.
2. Identify Alexandra, Grigori Rasputin,
Alexander Kerensky, Bolsheviks,
V.I. Lenin, Leon Trotsky.
3. Locate Petrograd, Ukraine, Siberia,
Urals.
4. Explain why Lenin accepted the loss of
so much Russian territory in the Treaty
of Brest-Litovsk.
5. List some of the different opinions that
split the White forces.
Critical Thinking
6. Explain How did the presence of Allied
troops in Russia ultimately help the
Communists?
7. Organizing Information Using a chart
like the one below, sequence the steps
the Communists took to turn Russia
into a centralized state dominated by
a single party.
Analyzing Visuals
8. Examine the photograph of Czar
Nicholas II and his family shown on
page 733 of your text. Is this photograph an idealized view of royalty? Do
you think the people of Russia would
have agreed with this view of the royal
family as portrayed in this photograph,
especially during World War I?
Steps to Communist control
1.
9. Expository Writing Write an essay
comparing the economic, political,
and social causes of the American,
French, and Russian Revolutions.
2.
CHAPTER 23
1. Key terms are in blue.
2. Alexandra (p. 733); Grigori
Rasputin (p. 733); Alexander
Kerensky (p. 734); Bolsheviks
(p. 735); V. I. Lenin (p. 735); Leon
Trotsky (p. 736)
3. See chapter maps.
4. Lenin promised the people peace,
thinking the socialist revolution
would make the treaty irrelevant.
5. a restoration of the czarist regime,
a liberal democracy
6. The presence of foreign forces
stirred Russian patriotism, to
which the Communists appealed.
7. well-disciplined, zealous Red Army;
political differences among antiCommunists; war communism;
Cheka
War and Revolution
soviets
councils in Russia composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers (page 734)
war communism a Communist policy that was used to ensure regular supplies for the Red Army
through government control of banks and industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and
the centralization of state administration under Communist control (page 737)
DRAWING FROM EXPERIENCEII
What is communism? Have you ever thought what it would be like to live in a
Communist country? How would your life be different?
Reteaching Activity
Have students construct a chart
using dates from 1916 to 1922
along the side and these headings at the top: Government
Leader(s); Political/Social Events.
Have students fill in their charts.
L1
737
8. appear prosperous, country was
poor
9. Essays should be supported from
material in the text.
4
CLOSE
Have students summarize the
effects of World War I on the
Russian Revolution. SS.A.3.4.9
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
737
TEACH
Ten Days That Shook the World
Analyzing Primary Sources
This selection captures the fervor
and excitement of the early days
of communism. What aspects of
the Communist program would
have seemed most attractive to
people exhausted by war? What
would have been the fascination
for people like John Reed, who
had become disenchanted with
capitalism and angry about continuing social inequalities? Why
did the Bolsheviks have such
revolutionary fervor? How do
Lenin’s use of language and his
mannerisms affect the crowd?
Compare Reed’s enthusiasm and
the Bolsheviks’ fervor to the new
revolutionary fervor that overthrew communism in the revolutions of 1989. L3 FCAT LA.A.2.4.7
Lenin speaks to the troops in Moscow.
JOHN REED WAS AN AMERICAN JOURNALIST
sympathetic to socialism. In Ten Days That Shook
the World, he left an eyewitness account of the
Russian Revolution. Inspired by the Bolsheviks,
he helped found the American Communist Labor
Party in Chicago. Accused of treason, he returned
to the Soviet Union, dying there in 1920.
It was just 8:40 when a thundering wave of
“
cheers announced the entrance of the presidium
[executive committee], with Lenin—great Lenin—
among them. A short, stocky figure, with a big head
set down in his shoulders, bald and bulging. Little
eyes, a snubbish nose, wide, generous mouth, and
heavy chin. Dressed in shabby clothes, his trousers
much too long for him. Unimpressive, to be the idol
of a mob, loved and revered as perhaps few leaders
in history have been. . . .
Now Lenin, gripping the edge of the reading
stand, letting his little winking eyes travel over the
crowd as he stood there waiting, apparently oblivious to the long-rolling ovation, which lasted several
minutes. When it finished, he said simply, ‘We shall
The following literature from the
Glencoe Literature Library may
enrich the teaching of this chapter:
Animal Farm by G. Orwell
now proceed to construct the
socialist order!’ Again that overwhelming human roar.
‘The first thing is the adoption
of practical measures to realize
peace. . . . We shall offer peace
to the peoples of all the warring
countries upon the basis of the
Soviet terms—no annexations,
no indemnities, and the right
of self-determination of
peoples. . . . This proposal of
peace will meet with resistance
on the part of the imperialist
governments—we don’t fool ourselves on that score. But we
hope that revolution will soon
break out in all the warring
countries; that is why we
address ourselves especially to the workers of
France, England and Germany. . . .’
‘The revolution of November 6th and 7th,’ he
ended, ‘has opened the era of the Social Revolution. . . . The labour movement, in the name of
peace and socialism, shall win, and fulfill its
destiny. . . .’
There was something quiet and powerful in
all this, which stirred the souls of men. It was
understandable why people believed when
Lenin spoke.
—John Reed, Ten Days That Shook the World
”
Analyzing Primary Sources
1. Did John Reed agree or disagree with
Lenin?
2. How do you know that Reed’s account
of Lenin is biased?
738
ANSWERS TO ANALYZING PRIMARY SOURCES
1. John Reed agreed with Lenin and considered Lenin a
hero.
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
738
2. Answers will vary, but students should support their
answers with examples from the excerpt. Students
should know that phrases such as “great Lenin” and
“the idol of the mob, loved and revered as perhaps
few leaders in history have been” show bias.
CHAPTER 23
End of the War
Section 4, 739–744
Guide to Reading
Main Ideas
People to Identify
Reading Strategy
• Combined Allied forces stopped the
German offensive.
• Peace settlements brought political and
territorial changes to Europe and created bitterness and resentment in
several nations.
Erich von Ludendorff, Friedrich Ebert,
David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau
Key Terms
1. What were the key events in bringing
about an end to the war?
2. What was the intended purpose of the
League of Nations?
Organizing Information At the Paris
Peace Conference, the leaders of France,
Britain, and the United States were motivated by different concerns. Using a
chart, identify the national interests of
each country as it approached the peace
deliberations.
Places to Locate
Kiel, Alsace, Lorraine, Poland
Preview Questions
armistice, reparation, mandate
Preview of Events
✦1917
✦1918
France
Britain
Section Overview
This section discusses the end of
the Great War and the peace settlements that followed.
BELLRINGER
Skillbuilder Activity
✦1919
1918
Germany agrees
to an armistice
United
States
1 FOCUS
Project transparency and have
students answer questions.
✦1920
1919
Treaty of Versailles signed at
the Paris Peace Conference
Daily Focus Skills Transparency
23–4
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
UNIT
5
Voices from the Past
ANSWERS
1. in Paris, on November 11, at 5 A.M. Paris time
11:00 A.M. Paris time 3. They rejoiced.
2. at
DAILY FOCUS SKILLS
Chapter 23 TRANSPARENCY 23-4
End of the War
1
On what day, at what time,
and where was the
armistice signed?
2
At what time did the war
actually stop?
3
How do you think the Allied
countries reacted to the
news?
On September 15, 1916, on the Western Front, a new weapon appeared:
“
We heard strange throbbing noises, and lumbering slowly towards us came three
huge mechanical monsters such as we had never seen before. My first impression was
that they looked ready to topple on their noses, but their tails and the two little wheels
at the back held them down and kept them level. . . . Instead of going on to the German lines the three tanks assigned to us straddled our front line, stopped and then
opened up a murderous machine-gun fire. . . . They finally realized they were on the
wrong trench and moved on, frightening the Germans out of their wits and making
them scuttle like frightened rabbits.
W
ashington, November 11.—The armistice was signed at 5 a.m.
today, Paris time, and hostilities will cease at 11 a.m., Paris time.
Guide to Reading
” —Eyewitness to History, John Carey, ed., 1987
The tank played a role in bringing an end to World War I and foreshadowed a new
kind of warfare.
The Last Year of the War
The year 1917 had not been a good one for the Allies. Allied offensives on the
Western Front had been badly defeated. The Russian Revolution, which began in
November 1917, led to Russia’s withdrawal from the War a few months later. The
cause of the Central Powers looked favorable, although war weariness was beginning to take its toll.
On the positive side, the entry of the United States into the war in 1917 gave the
Allies a much-needed psychological boost, along with fresh men and material. In
1918, American troops would prove crucial.
CHAPTER 23
War and Revolution
Answers to Graphic: France: strip
Germany of weapons; reparations;
separate Rhineland;
Britain: make Germany pay for war
United States: reduce armaments;
ensure self-determination; League of
Nations
Preteaching Vocabulary
Ask students to define armistice,
reparation, and mandate and use
each word in sentences of their own.
L1
739
SECTION RESOURCES
Reproducible Masters
• Reproducible Lesson Plan 23–4
• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 23–4
• Guided Reading Activity 23–4
• Section Quiz 23–4
• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 23–4
Transparencies
• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 23–4
Multimedia
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
739
CHAPTER 23
A New German Offensive
For Germany, the withdrawal of the Russians offered new hope for a successful end to the war. Germany was now free to
concentrate entirely on the Western Front. Erich von
Ludendorff, who guided German military operations, decided to make one final military gamble—a
grand offensive in the west to break the military
stalemate.
The German attack was launched in March 1918.
By April, German troops were within about 50 miles
(80 km) of Paris. However, the German advance was
stopped at the Second Battle of the Marne on July 18.
French, Moroccan, and American troops (140,000
fresh American troops had just arrived), supported
by hundreds of tanks, threw the Germans back over
the Marne. Ludendorff’s gamble had failed.
With more than a million American troops pouring into France, Allied forces began a steady advance
toward Germany. On September 29, 1918, General
Ludendorff informed German leaders that the war
was lost. He demanded that the government ask for
peace at once.
Section 4, 739–744
2
TEACH
Daily Lecture
Daily Lecture
and and
Discussion
Notes 23–4
Discussion Notes 1–1
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes
Chapter 23, Section 4
Did You Know
?
The 1919 Treaty of Versailles demanded that
Germany pay $5 billion in reparations for damages caused by the
war. In 1921, Germany had paid nearly half the amount. However,
the reparations committee met and decided that Germany should
pay a total of $32.5 billion by 1963, an amount that many experts
agreed could cause the German people to starve.
I.
The Last Year of the War (pages 739–741)
A. During 1917, the Allies had been defeated in their offensives on the Western Front, and
the Russians had withdrawn from the war. The Central Powers appeared to have the
advantage.
B. In March 1918, the Germans launched a large offensive on the Western Front and came
to within 50 miles of Paris. The Germans were stopped at the Second Battle of the
Marne by French, Moroccan, and American troops and hundreds of tanks.
C. In 1918, the addition of more than 2 million American troops helped the Allies begin to
advance toward Germany. By the end of September, the German military commander
General Erich von Ludendorff told German leaders that the war was lost.
D. The Allies were not willing to negotiate with the German government under Emperor
William II. The German people were angry and exhausted by the war. In spite of
attempted government reforms, German workers and soldiers revolted and set up
their own councils. On November 9, William II left the country.
Collapse and Armistice German officials soon discovered that the Allies were unwilling to make
peace with the autocratic imperial government of
Germany. Reforms were begun to create a liberal
government, but these efforts came too late for the
exhausted and angry German people.
On November 3,
Baltic Sea
sailors in the town
North
Sea
of Kiel, in northern
Kiel
Germany, mutinied.
GERMANY
Within days, councils
of workers and solMunich
diers were forming
throughout northern
Germany and taking over civilian and military
offices. William II gave in to public pressure and left
the country on November 9.
After William II’s departure, the Social Democrats
under Friedrich Ebert announced the creation of a
democratic republic. Two days later, on November
11, 1918, the new German government signed an
armistice (a truce, an agreement to end the fighting).
E. The German Social Democratic party, led by Friedrich Ebert, declared that Germany
would become a democratic republic. On November 11, the new German government
signed an armistice with the Allies that ended the war.
F. In December, 1918, a group of radical socialists formed the German Communist Party
and then tried to seize power. They were defeated by the new government, which was
backed by the army. The revolutionary leaders were killed.
G. The attempt by the Communists to take over the government left many middle-class
Germans deeply afraid of communism.
H. At the end of the war, ethnic groups in Austria-Hungary sought independence. The
Austro-Hungarian Empire disintegrated into the independent republics of Austria,
Hungary, and Czechoslovakia and the monarchial state of Yugoslavia. National rivalries in the region would weaken eastern Europe for years to come.
turn
335
“
Enrich
Ask students to define an idealist. (One guided by ideals—lofty,
high principles—rather than by
practical considerations.) Have
them discuss the ways in which
Woodrow Wilson was an idealist. Since ideals are usually considered positive and admirable,
why didn’t European leaders
embrace Wilson’s proposals? L2
Who Caused
World War I?
Immediately after World War I,
historians began to assess
which nation was most
responsible for beginning the war. As these
four selections show,
opinions have varied
considerably.
SS.A.1.4.1
Writing Activity
The Allied and Associated Governments
affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of
Germany and her allies for causing all the loss
and damage to which the Allied and Associated
Governments have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the
aggression of Germany and her allies.
”
Treaty of Versailles, Article 231, 1919
“
None of the powers wanted a European
War. . . . But the verdict of the Versailles Treaty
that Germany and her allies were responsible
for the War, in view of the evidence now available, is historically unsound. It should therefore
be revised.
”
—Sidney Bradshaw Fay
Origins of the World War, 1930
Have students write an essay
analyzing the influence of
Woodrow Wilson on political
events of the twentieth century.
L3
740
CHAPTER 23
War and Revolution
COOPERATIVE
LEARNING
ACTIVITY
EXTENDING
THE CONTENT
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
740
Preparing a Presentation Organize the class into four groups to research and report on World
War I in the Middle East. One group should research the life of T.E. Lawrence. The second group
should research Britain’s role in the Middle Eastern front, including its broken promise of Arab
independence. The third group should research the goals and participation of the Arab people
involved. The fourth group should research the immediate results and long-term effects that the
peace agreement has had on the people living in the Middle East. All four groups should then
meet to share their data in presentations to the rest of the class. L3 SS.A.3.4.9
Revolutionary Forces
The war was over, but the
revolutionary forces it had set in motion in Germany
were not yet exhausted. A group of radical socialists,
unhappy with the moderate policies of the Social
Democrats, formed the German Communist Party in
December 1918. A month later, the Communists tried
to seize power in Berlin.
The new Social Democratic government, backed by
regular army troops, crushed the rebels and murdered
Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht (LEEP•
KNEHKT), leaders of the German Communists. A similar attempt at Communist revolution in the city of
Munich, in southern Germany, was also crushed.
The new German republic had been saved from
radical revolution. The attempt at revolution, however, left the German middle class with a deep fear of
communism.
Austria-Hungary, too, experienced disintegration
and revolution. As war weariness took hold of the
empire, ethnic groups increasingly sought to achieve
their independence. By the time the war ended, the
Austro-Hungarian Empire was no more.
“
In estimating the order of guilt of the various
countries we may safely say that the only direct
and immediate responsibility for the World War
falls upon Serbia, France and Russia, with the
guilt about equally divided.
”
—Harry Elmer Barnes
The Genesis of the World War, 1927
”
—Fritz Fischer,
Germany’s Aims in the First World War, 1961
1. Write a quote of your own that reflects your views
on which nation caused World War I. Support
your quote with passages from the text.
Section 4, 739–744
Answer: William II left country;
Social Democrats formed republic;
Communists tried to seize power,
leaving German middle class with
deep fear of communism
Reading Check Describing What happened within
Germany after the armistice?
The Peace Settlements
In January 1919, representatives of 27 victorious
Allied nations met in Paris to make a final settlement
of the Great War. Over a period of years, the reasons
for fighting World War I had changed dramatically.
When European nations had gone to war in 1914 they
sought territorial gains. By the beginning of 1918,
more idealistic reasons were also being expressed.
Answer: Have students share their
quotes with the class.
Wilson’s Proposals
No one expressed these idealistic reasons better than the U.S. president, Woodrow
Wilson. Even before the end of the war, Wilson outlined “Fourteen Points” to the United States Congress—his basis for a peace settlement that he
believed justified the enormous military struggle
being waged.
Wilson’s proposals for a truly just and lasting
peace included reaching the peace agreements
openly rather than through secret diplomacy; reducing armaments (military forces or weapons) to a
“point consistent with domestic safety”; and ensuring self-determination (the right of each people to
have its own nation).
Wilson portrayed World War I as a people’s war
against “absolutism and militarism.” These two enemies of liberty, he argued, could be eliminated only
by creating democratic governments and a “general
association of nations.” This association would guarantee “political independence and territorial
integrity to great and small states alike.”
Wilson became the spokesperson for a new world
order based on democracy and international cooperation. When he arrived in Europe for the peace conference, he was enthusiastically cheered by many
Europeans. Wilson soon found, however, that more
practical motives guided other states.
L1/ELL
Guided Reading Activity 23–4
Name
DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 4.
1. Allied
on the Western Front had been badly defeated.
2. The entry of the United States into the war in 1917 gave the Allies a much-needed
boost.
3. The withdrawal of the Russians allowed Germany to concentrate on the
.
4. After William II's departure, the
in Germany under Friedrich
Ebert announced the creation of a
republic.
5. An attempt at revolution left the German middle class with a deep fear of
.
6.
among the nations that succeeded Austria-Hungary would
weaken eastern Europe for the next 80 years.
7. In January 1919, representatives of 27 victorious Allied nations met in
to make a final settlement of the Great War.
8. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson portrayed World War I as a people's war against
“
and
.”
9. David Lloyd George, prime minister of
, had a simple platform at
the Peace Conference: make the Germans
10. In the
for this dreadful war.
, Germany was ordered to pay reparations for all the dam-
age to which the Allied nations had been subjected.
11. Both the German and Russian empires lost considerable
Austro-Hungarian Empire
and the
altogether.
120
World War I and the Russian Revolution were important turning points in
world history. Ask students to identify
changes that resulted from these two
events. L2 SS.A.3.4.9
Delegates met in
Paris in early 1919 to determine the peace settlement.
At the Paris Peace Conference, complications became
obvious. For one thing, secret treaties and agreements that had been made before the war had raised
War and Revolution
Class
End of the War
The Paris Peace Conference
CHAPTER 23
Date
Guided Reading Activity 23-4
741
EXTENDING THE CONTENT
Treaty of Versailles The mishandling of the peace accords of World War I directly led to World War
II and the eventual dominant role of the United States in the world. Ask students to identify the
two key nations that were not at the Paris Peace Conference. (Germany and Russia) Guide students in a discussion concerning how national interests, desire for revenge, and hopes for territorial
gains figured in the peace talks. Have students list as many ways as they can in which the Paris
Peace Conference and the Treaty of Versailles led to future problems. How did the absence of
Germany and Russia impact future prospects for peace? Then have students debate the relative
importance and possible results of each item on the list. L2 SS.A.3.4.9
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
741
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
“
As Germany willed and coveted the AustroSerbian war and, in her confidence in her military
superiority, deliberately faced the risk of a conflict
with Russia and France, her leaders must bear
a substantial share of the historical responsibility
for the outbreak of general war in 1914.
CHAPTER 23
The empire had been replaced by the independent
republics of Austria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia,
along with the large monarchical state called
Yugoslavia. Rivalries among the nations that succeeded Austria-Hungary would weaken eastern
Europe for the next 80 years.
CHAPTER 23
the hopes of European nations for territorial gains.
These hopes could not be totally ignored, even if they
did conflict with the principle of self-determination
put forth by Wilson.
National interests also complicated the deliberations of the Paris Peace Conference. David Lloyd
George, prime minister of Great Britain, had won a
decisive victory in elections in December of 1918. His
platform was simple: make the Germans pay for this
dreadful war.
France’s approach to peace was chiefly guided
by its desire for national security. To Georges
Clemenceau (KLEH•muhn•SOH), the premier of
France, the French people had suffered the most from
German aggression. The French desired revenge and
security against future German aggression.
Clemenceau wanted Germany stripped of all
weapons, vast German payments—reparations—to
cover the costs of the war, and a separate Rhineland
as a buffer state between France and Germany.
The most important decisions at the Paris Peace
Conference were made by Wilson, Clemenceau, and
Lloyd George. Italy, as one of the Allies, was considered one of the so-called Big Four powers. However,
it played a smaller role than the other key powers—
the United States, France, and Great Britain, called the
Big Three. Germany was not invited to attend, and
Russia could not be present because of its civil war.
Section 4, 739–744
Critical Thinking
Many different political systems
are represented by the nations
mentioned in this chapter. Ask
students to define and give
examples of different political
systems of the past and present.
L2
Political Science Ask students to
research and compare the League of
Nations and the United Nations. Or,
students may choose to research the
Treaty of Versailles to discover what,
specifically, were its provisions. L2
SS.A.3.4.9
Who?What?Where?When?
The Windsor family Anti-German
feeling reached near-hysteria in many
of the Allied countries during World
War I. In the United States, Germanlanguage instruction was dropped
from schools. In Britain, King George
V changed his family name from the
German Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to the
English name Windsor.
Government Ask students to discuss the failure of Wilson’s approach
to the peace. Since the United States
entered the war so late and since no
battles were fought on United States
soil, was it fair for Wilson to expect
the European nations to share his
views? L2
Georges Clemenceau
1841–1929—French statesman
Georges Clemenceau was one of
France’s wartime leaders. He had a
long political career before serving
as French premier (prime minister)
from 1906 to 1909 and from 1917 to
1920.
When Clemenceau became premier in 1917, he suspended basic civil liberties for the rest of the war. He had
the editor of an antiwar newspaper executed on a charge
of helping the enemy. Clemenceau also punished journalists who wrote negative war reports by having them
drafted.
Clemenceau strongly disliked and distrusted the Germans and blamed them for World War I. “For the catastrophe of 1914 the Germans are responsible,” he said.
“Only a professional liar would deny this.”
742
CHAPTER 23
In view of the many conflicting demands at the
peace conference, it was no surprise that the Big
Three quarreled. Wilson wanted to create a world
organization, the League of Nations, to prevent
future wars. Clemenceau and Lloyd George wanted
to punish Germany. In the end, only compromise
made it possible to achieve a peace settlement.
Wilson’s wish that the creation of an international
peacekeeping organization be the first order of business was granted. On January 25, 1919, the conference accepted the idea of a League of Nations. In
return, Wilson agreed to make compromises on territorial arrangements. He did so because he believed
that the League could later fix any unfair settlements.
Clemenceau also compromised to obtain some
guarantees for French security. He gave up France’s
wish for a separate Rhineland and instead accepted
a defensive alliance with Great Britain and the
United States. The U.S. Senate refused to ratify this
agreement, which weakened the Versailles peace
settlement.
The Treaty of Versailles The final peace settlement of Paris consisted of five separate treaties with
the defeated nations—Germany, Austria, Hungary,
Bulgaria, and Turkey. The Treaty of Versailles with
Germany, signed at Versailles near Paris, on June 28,
1919, was by far the most important.
The Germans considered it a harsh peace. They
were especially unhappy with Article 231, the socalled War Guilt Clause, which declared that Germany (and Austria) were responsible for starting the
war. The treaty ordered Germany to pay reparations
for all the damage to which the Allied governments
and their people had been subjected as a result of the
war “imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.”
The military and territorial provisions of the
Treaty of Versailles also angered the Germans. Germany had to reduce its army to a hundred thousand
men, cut back its navy, and eliminate its air force.
Alsace and Lorraine, taken by the Germans from
France in 1871, were now returned. Sections of eastern Germany were awarded to a new Polish state.
German land along both sides of the Rhine was
made a demilitarized zone and stripped of all
weapons and fortifications. This, it was hoped,
would serve as a barrier to any future German military moves westward against France. Outraged by
the “dictated peace,” the new German government
complained but, unwilling to risk a renewal of the
war, they accepted the treaty.
War and Revolution
DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
742
Reading Support Have the class read carefully pages 739 to 744. Assist the students with the
reading or have them read it aloud. Divide the class into three groups representing France, Britain,
and the United States. Have each group prepare their country’s opinions about how to deal with
Germany and make a final settlement of World War I. Once each group is ready, they may come
together and discuss their respective concerns in a role-playing activity where each student plays
the role of a delegate. Some of the expected responses should be: 1) from the United States:
reduction of military forces and weapons; self-determination of people (liberty); 2) Britain:
revenge; 3) France: national security, strip Germany of all weapons, make Germany pay
reparations. L2 SS.A.3.4.9
CHAPTER 23
Europe and the Middle East after World War I
Section 4, 739–744
FINLAND
60°
N
NORWAY
N
W
Atlantic
Ocean
BELGIUM
Versailles
LUX.
Se
c
B
EAST
PRUSSIA
C ZE
SOVIET UNION
Ger.
Aral
Sea
POLAND
CHO
n
a
Se
ALBANIA
GREECE
ia
40°N
Black Sea
Connecting Across Time
TURKEY
SYRIA
in
e
M
R.
LUX.
ALSACE &
LORRAINE
Ask students to look at a contemporary map of Europe and
the Middle East and compare it
with the map on page 743. Have
students list the ways in which
Europe and the Middle East
have changed since the end of
World War I. What do these
changes suggest about the effectiveness of the peace treaties to
satisfy the nations in Europe? L2
PERSIA
Rh
IU
LG
BE
MOROCCO
2. Many students might have predicted that Germany would lose
the most territory, but answers
will vary.
SLOV
A KIA
Y
SWITZ. AUSTRIA
AR
G
HUN
YU
ROMANIA
GO
SL
AV
IA BULGARIA
ITALY
0°
SPANISH
GERMANY
MOROCCO
Answers:
1. Russia, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman
Empire, Germany
sp
100 mi.
0 100 km
Lambert Azimuthal
Equal-Area projection
500 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal
Equal-Area projection
Territory lost by:
Austria-Hungary
Bulgaria
Germany
Ottoman Empire
Russia
Ca
SPAIN
0
LATVIA
t i LITHUANIA
l
a
GERMANY
FRANCE
10°W
a
North
Sea
UNITED
DENMARK
IRELAND
Independent
from 1922 KINGDOM NETHERLANDS
50°
N
NETH.
ESTONIA
E
S
500 miles
0
SWEDEN
TUNISIA
N
W
E
S
Me d
iterr
anean
ALGERIA
IRAQ
LEBANON
Se a
PALESTINE
JORDAN
FRANCE
LIBYA
ARABIA
EGYPT
Re
SWITZ.
Pe
G ursia n
lf
d
10°E
20°E
A New Map of Europe As a result of the war, the
Treaty of Versailles, and the separate peace treaties
made with the other Central Powers—Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey—the map of Eastern
Europe was largely redrawn. Both the German and
Russian empires lost much territory in eastern
Europe. The Austro-Hungarian Empire disappeared.
New nation-states emerged from the lands of
these three empires: Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Hungary.
New territorial arrangements were also made in the
Balkans. Romania acquired additional lands from
Russia, Hungary, and Bulgaria. Serbia formed the
nucleus of a new state, called Yugoslavia, which combined Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.
The Paris Peace Conference was supposedly
guided by the principle of self-determination. However, the mixtures of peoples in eastern Europe made
it impossible to draw boundaries along neat ethnic
lines. Compromises had to be made, sometimes to
satisfy the national interests of the victors. France, for
30°E
a
Se
Rhineland
40°E
World War I dramatically changed political boundaries.
1. Interpreting Maps Rank the countries and empires
listed in the map legend according to the amount of lost
territory, from largest loss to smallest loss.
2. Applying Geography Skills Look back at the map on
page 718, then examine the map above. Now, knowing
the outcome of the war, predict which countries would
lose the most territory. Why does the actual loss of
territory, as shown above, differ from (or match) your
predictions?
3
ASSESS
Assign Section 4 Assessment as
homework or as an in-class
activity.
Have students use Interactive
Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.
example, had lost Russia as its major ally on Germany’s eastern border. Thus, France wanted to
strengthen and expand Poland, Czechoslovakia,
Yugoslavia, and Romania as much as possible. Those
states could then serve as barriers against Germany
and Communist Russia.
As a result of compromises, almost every eastern
European state was left with ethnic minorities: Germans in Poland; Hungarians, Poles, and Germans in
Czechoslovakia; Hungarians in Romania, and the
L2
Section Quiz 23–4
Name 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Date 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Class 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭
✔
Chapter 23
Score
Section Quiz 23-4
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)
Column A
Column B
1. truce agreement
A. mandate system
2. payments to cover war costs
B. Lloyd George
3. governing without owning the territory
C. armistice
4. British prime minister in 1919
D. Georges
Clemenceau
5. French premier in 1919
E. reparations
CHAPTER 23
War and Revolution
743
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best
completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)
6. American President Wilson argued at the Paris Peace conference most
t
l f
READING THE TEXT
Reading Primary and Secondary Sources For writers who were involved in the military during
World War I, the war was an especially unforgettable experience. Have students research and write
brief biographies of authors who created fiction or memoirs about their experiences. Possible subjects include Robert Graves, Siegfried Sassoon, e.e. cummings, John Dos Passos, and Ernest Hemingway. Encourage students to read a work by one of these writers and discuss with the class how the
literary work reflects the writer’s experience in the war. L1 FCAT LA.A.2.4.2
Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activities
in the TCR.
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
743
CHAPTER 23
History through Art
Section 4, 739–744
Signing of the Treaty of Versailles by John
Christen Johansen, 1919 A peace settlement with
Germany was signed at Versailles on June 28, 1919.
What were the names of the representatives of the
Big Three powers at the Paris Peace Conference?
History through Art
Answer: Woodrow Wilson (United
States), David Lloyd George (Great
Britain), Georges Clemenceau
(France)
combination of Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Macedonians,
and Albanians in Yugoslavia. The problem of ethnic
minorities within nations would lead to later conflicts.
Yet another centuries-old empire—the Ottoman
Empire—was broken up by the peace settlement. To
gain Arab support against the Ottoman Turks during
the war, the Western Allies had promised to recognize the independence of Arab states in the Ottoman
Empire. Once the war was over, however, the Western nations changed their minds. France took control
of Lebanon and Syria, and Britain received Iraq and
Palestine.
These acquisitions were officially called mandates.
Woodrow Wilson had opposed the outright annexation of colonial territories by the Allies. As a result,
the peace settlement created the mandate system.
According to this system, a nation officially governed
another nation as a mandate on behalf of the League
of Nations but did not own the territory.
Answer: Article 231, the War Guilt
Clause, which declared that Germany
(and Austria) were responsible for
starting the war
L1/ELL
Reading Essentials and
Study Guide 23–4
Name
Date
Class
Reading Essentials and Study Guide
Chapter 23, Section 4
For use with textbook pages 739–744
END OF THE WAR
KEY TERMS
armistice
a truce or an agreement to end the fighting in a war (page 740)
reparation a payment by a nation defeated in a war to other nations to cover the costs of the
war (page 742)
mandate a commission from the League of Nations to a nation that allowed it to officially govern another nation or region without actually owning the territory (page 744)
DRAWING FROM EXPERIENCEII
The War’s Legacy World War I shattered the
liberal, rational society that had existed in
late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century
Europe. The death of almost 10 million people,
as well as the incredible destruction caused by the war,
undermined the whole idea of progress. Entire populations had participated in a devastating slaughter.
World War I was a total war—one that involved a
complete mobilization of resources and people. As a
result, the power of governments over the lives of
their citizens increased. Freedom of the press and
speech were limited in the name of national security.
World War I made the practice of strong central
authority a way of life.
The turmoil created by the war also seemed to
open the door to even greater insecurity. Revolutions
broke up old empires and created new states, which
led to new problems. The hope that Europe and the
rest of the world would return to normalcy was,
however, soon dashed.
Reading Check Identifying What clause in the
Treaty of Versailles particularly angered the Germans?
Have you ever heard the slogans, “the war to end all wars” and “to make the world
safe for democracy”? Did you know that these slogans were used in reference to World
War I?
In the last section, you read about the events that led to the Russian Revolution. In
this section, you will read about the end of World War I and the efforts to restore peace
after the war.
ORGANIZING YOUR THOUGHTSII
ompanies, Inc.
Use the chart below to help you take notes. In January 1919, representatives of the
victorious nations met in Paris to make a final settlement of World War I. The peace settlement with Germany was called the Treaty of Versailles. List the major provisions of
the treaty as they relate to the four areas in this chart.
Major Provisions of the Treaty of Versailles
Responsibility/costs of the war
1.
Reteaching Activity
Have students list the major participants at the Paris Peace Conference and summarize the aims
of each. L1 SS.A.3.4.9
4
CLOSE
Review with students the major
consequences of World War I on
European society. In what sense
did the conflict undermine “the
whole idea of progress”?
Checking for Understanding
1. Define armistice, reparation, mandate.
2. Identify Erich von Ludendorff,
Friedrich Ebert, David Lloyd George,
Georges Clemenceau.
3. Locate Kiel, Alsace, Lorraine, Poland.
4. Explain why the mandate system was
created. Which countries became mandates? Who governed them?
Critical Thinking
6. Making Generalizations Although
Woodrow Wilson came to the Paris
Peace Conference with high ideals, the
other leaders had more practical concerns. Why do you think that was so?
7. Compare and Contrast Using a Venn
diagram like the one below, compare
and contrast Wilson’s Fourteen Points
to the Treaty of Versailles.
5. List some of President Wilson’s proposals for creating a truly just and lasting
peace. Why did he feel the need to
develop these proposals?
744
CHAPTER 23
Fourteen
Points
Treaty of
Versailles
Analyzing Visuals
8. Compare the photograph of troops
going to war on page 721 with the
painting on page 715. How do you
think the soldiers’ expectations compared to their actual experiences?
9. Informative Writing You are a
reporter for a large newspaper, sent
to the Paris Peace Conference to
interview one of the leaders of the
Big Three. Prepare a written set of
questions you would like to ask the
leader you have selected.
War and Revolution
SS.A.3.4.9
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
744
2
1. Key terms are in blue.
2. Erich von Ludendorff (p. 740);
Friedrich Ebert (p. 740); David
Lloyd George (p. 742); Georges
Clemenceau (p. 742)
3. See chapter maps.
4. as an alternative to territorial
annexation; France oversaw
Lebanon, Syria; Britain oversaw
Iraq, Palestine
5. open peace agreements reducing
armaments; self-determination;
creating a “general association of
nations”
6. national interests
7. Fourteen Points: open diplomacy;
self-determination of people;
Treaty of Versailles: assignment of
war guilt; reparations; demilitarized zone in Germany; map of
Europe redrawn: Fourteen Points
and Treaty of Versailles: reduction
of arms; establishment of League
of Nations
8. long war, not short adventure
9. Questions will vary.
TEACH
Interpreting Military
Interpreting Military Movements on Maps
Movements on Maps Ask students to make their own military
maps of an engagement in an
imaginary war. They should use
two different colors to represent
the opposing sides. Have students use different symbols or
colors for the victories of each
side and arrows to show the
direction of troop movements.
The students should label land
and water areas and a few
important towns or cities. The
map should also include a legend explaining what the various
colors and symbols represent. L1
Why Learn This Skill?
Although wars begin over many different issues,
they end as fights to control territory. Because wars
are basically fought over land, maps are particularly
useful tools for seeing the “big picture” of a war.
• Identify all symbols. These may include symbols
for battle sites, victories, and types of military
units and equipment.
Once you have studied the key and the map,
follow the progress of the campaign that is shown.
Notice where each side began, in which direction it
moved, where the two sides fought, and which side
claimed victory.
Practicing the Skill
The map on this page shows the Middle East
front during World War I. Study the map and then
answer the following questions.
1 On which side did Arabia and Egypt fight?
2 Who won the battle at the Dardanelles?
3 Describe the movement of the Central Powers
offensives.
4 When did the Allies win the most battles in the
Middle East?
Dardanelles
1915
OTTOMAN
EMPIRE
RUSSIA
40°E
I
ARM E N
A
Tabriz
1914–1915
Tikrit
Aleppo 1917
Crete
Cyprus
1918
Baghdad
U.K.
Damascus
1917 PERSIA
Mediterranean Sea
Beirut
1918
Ramadi
1918
1917
Basra
Gaza
Suez Canal
Kut-el-Amara
1914
1917
1915
1916
EGYPT
U.K.
KUWAIT
Aqaba
1917
ARABIA
Persian
Gulf
N
Allies
Central Powers
Neutral nations
Allied victory
Central Powers victory
Allied offensive
Central Powers offensive
E
W
Sea
Red
• Study the arrows, which show the direction of
military movements. Because these movements
occur over time, some maps give dates showing
when and where troops advanced and retreated.
E
Black
Sea
Gallipoli 1915
Additional Practice
S
500 miles
0
0
L1
500 kilometers
Lambert Azimuthal
Equal-Area projection
Skills Reinforcement
Activity 23
Name
Applying the Skill
✎
Date
Class
Skills Reinforcement Activity 23
Interpreting Military Movements on Maps
Choose a military map from this text or select one from
another source. Study the map selection carefully.
Write a paragraph about the war or conflict as it is
depicted in the map. You should respond to issues such
as where most of the fighting occurred; the year in
which the most significant advance was made, and by
whom; and whether or not there was a decisive victory
by either side. Attach a copy of the map to your report.
important to read the map key. The key
tells you what various colors and symbols
on the map represent.
When looking at a map that explains military information such as battles, troop
movements, and conquered territory, it is
DIRECTIONS: Study the key to the map below, then use the map to answer the questions in
the space provided.
1. a. Before the war began, to what
country did Warsaw belong?
Western Russia at the time
of Bolshevik control
Entente Fleet
NORWAY
b. Was Finland part of Russia
after World War I?
c. Judging from the map, which
was bigger the Russian Empire
Murmansk
British
French
Canadians
Italians
Serbs
SWEDEN
Baltic
Se
• Determine the meanings of the colors on the
map. Usually, colors represent different sides
in the conflict.
GREE
C
The map key is essential in interpreting military
maps. The key explains what the map’s colors and
symbols represent. Use the following steps to study
the key:
30°E
BULGARIA
ian
sp a
Ca Se
Learning the Skill
Middle East in
World War I, 1914–1918
a
FINLAND
Finns
Archangel
sh
Briti ch
Fren dians
na
ns
Boundary of Russian
Empire, 1914
Eastern Front, Mar. 1917
Towns under Bolshevik
control Nov–Dec. 1917
Towns not under Bolshevik
control
Russian territory occupied by
Central Powers 1918
Area controlled by
Bolsheviks, Oct. 1919
Glencoe’s Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook,
Level 2, provides instruction and practice in key
social studies skills.
CD-ROM
745
ANSWERS TO PRACTICING THE SKILL
1. Arabia and Egypt fought with the Allied forces.
2. The Central Powers won the battle at the Dardanelles.
3. The Central Powers moved north from the Ottoman
Empire across the Black Sea into Russia.
4. The Allies won the most battles in the Middle East in
1917 and 1918.
Glencoe Skillbuilder
Interactive Workbook
CD-ROM, Level 2
This interactive CD-ROM reinforces
student mastery of essential social
studies skills.
Applying the Skill: Essays should be supported by information on maps that students will attach. Students should
use social studies terminology correctly. They should also
use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and
punctuation in their essays.
745
CHAPTER 23
Assessment and Activities
MJ
Using Key Terms
MindJogger Videoquiz
Use the MindJogger Videoquiz to
review Chapter 23 content.
Available in VHS.
Using Key Terms
1. conscription 2. mobilization
3. trench warfare 4. war of attrition
5. total war 6. planned economies
7. soviets 8. War communism
9. reparations
Reviewing Key Facts
10. by passing the Defence of the Realm
Act, which allowed the government
to arrest protesters as traitors and to
censor or shut down newspapers
11. They promised an end to the war,
redistribution of land to peasants,
transfer of factories and industries
from capitalists to committees of
workers, and transfer of government
power to soviets.
12. 1914: start of World War I; 1917:
beginning of the Russian Revolution,
and U.S. enters the war; 1918: end
of World War I
13. During the war, women assumed
many of the jobs men had vacated.
After the war, women were encouraged to relinquish those jobs. They
retained some social freedom and
in some countries received the right
to vote.
14. Czar Nicholas II was away leading
the Russian army, leaving Alexandra
to make decisions; she had come
under Rasputin’s influence.
Reviewing Key Facts
1. The practice of requiring young people to join the military,
which was followed by many nations before World War I,
was called
.
2. Before World War I, many European nations completed the
of their military by assembling troops and supplies
for war.
3. The development of
baffled military leaders who had
been trained to fight wars of movement.
4. World War I became a
, or war based on wearing the
other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses.
5. World War I involved a complete mobilization of resources
and people that affected the lives of all citizens in the warring countries—a situation called
.
6. European nations set up
, or systems directed by government agencies to mobilize the entire resources of their
nations.
7. Councils of workers and soldiers called
challenged
the provisional government established after Nicholas II
stepped down.
8.
is the term used to describe the Communists’ centralization of control over its economy.
9. Germany was required by the Treaty of Versailles to make
payments called
to the nations that won the war.
10. Government How did the British government try to eliminate opposition from the people who were opposed to
World War I?
11. Culture Explain the social changes promised by the Bolshevik slogans.
12. History State the significance of the following dates: 1914,
1917, and 1918.
13. Culture Describe the role and contribution of women during World War I. What was their status after the war?
14. History Why were Alexandra and Rasputin able to control
the czar’s government during much of World War I?
15. Government How did international alliances help to draw
nations into World War I?
16. History Why was a “breakthrough” such an important military goal during the war?
17. Government What did the creation of a League of Nations
have to do with Woodrow Wilson’s willingness to sign the
Treaty of Versailles?
18. History Why did Russia withdraw from the war? How did
that affect Germany?
19. Science and Technology What innovations in military warfare occurred during World War I?
The outline below shows four themes of the chapter.
Cooperation:
Alliance System
• Two loose alliances form in
Europe: the Triple Alliance
(Germany, Austria-Hungary,
and Italy) and the Triple
Entente (France, Great
Britain, and Russia).
• Alliances draw France and
Great Britain into a conflict
in which they have no
direct interest.
Conflict:
World War I
• Combat takes the forms
of trench warfare on the
Western Front, a war of
movement on the Eastern
Front, and German
submarine warfare in the
waters surrounding Great
Britain.
• For the first time in history,
airplanes are used for
reconnaissance, combat,
and bombing.
Revolution:
Russian Revolution
Internationalism:
Peace of Paris
• Military and economic
crises lead to a spontaneous
revolution that ends the
reign of the czars.
• The peace is a compromise
between international and
national interests.
• The Bolsheviks overthrow
the provisional government
and establish a Communist
regime.
• Germany’s reparation
payments, military
reductions, and territorial
losses create a lasting
bitterness that helps spark
World War II.
746
15. Because nations were allies, they
were bound to respond.
16. Trench warfare caused a stalemate; a “breakthrough”
would allow a return to the war of movement that the
generals knew best.
17. He agreed to make compromises on territorial
arrangements in the Treaty of Versailles, believing
that the League of Nations could later fix any unfair
settlements.
18. Russia withdrew due to the Russian Revolution—the
Bolsheviks had promised peace in return for the support of the people. It meant that Germany only had to
746
fight a war on the Western Front, giving them hope of
winning.
19. fighter planes, tanks, submarines, bioweapons
Critical Thinking Answers
20. Lenin stressed revolution and dictatorial government.
Wilson affirmed democratic values, self-determination,
and free institutions. Answers to final part of question will vary but should be supported by logical
arguments.
CHAPTER 23
Assessment and Activities
Paris Peace Conference: The Big Three
HISTORY
Self-Check Quiz
Visit the Glencoe World History Web site at
wh.glencoe.com and click on Chapter 23–Self-Check
Quiz to prepare for the Chapter Test.
Critical Thinking
20. Decision Making Compare Lenin’s beliefs and goals with
those of Woodrow Wilson. Which leader has had the greater
impact on world history? Why?
21. Analyzing Why do some people feel that it is unlikely that a
lasting peace could have been created at the end of World
War I?
Writing about History
22. Persuasive Writing Both Britain and the United States
passed laws during the war to silence opposition and censor
the press. Are democratic ideals consistent with such laws?
Provide arguments for and against.
Analyzing Sources
Reread the quote below, which appears on page 719, then
answer the questions below.
“I cannot tell you how exasperated people are getting here at the continual worry which that little country
Country
Leader
Goal
United States
Wilson
Lasting peace
Great Britain
Lloyd George
Germany pays
France
Clemenceau
French security
Treaty of Versailles
International • League of Nations is formed.
Relations
Responsibility • Germany accepts responsibility for starting the
war and agrees to make reparations to the Allies.
Territory
• New nations are formed.
• Germany returns Alsace and Lorraine to France.
• France and Great Britain acquire mandates in
the Middle East.
Military
• Germany will reduce its army and navy and
Strength
eliminate its air force.
• German land along the Rhine River is
demilitarized.
Analyzing Maps and Charts
Using the chart above, answer the following questions:
27. Which of the Big Three nations at the Treaty of Versailles
wanted to punish Germany for World War I?
28. What was the effect of the Treaty of Versailles on Germany’s
military?
29. What territory did France regain after the war?
25. Interpreting the Past Use the Internet to research the total
costs of World War I. Determine how many people, both
military and civilian, were killed or wounded on both sides.
Also find the monetary costs of the war for both sides. Create a table that clearly shows your findings.
Making Decisions
26. Some historians argue that the heavy psychological and economic penalties placed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles created the conditions for World War II. How might
the treaty have been written to alleviate worldwide concern
over German militarism without exacting such a heavy toll?
Standardized
Test Practice
Directions: Choose the best answer to the
following statement.
The role Russia played in World War I can best be
described as
A a strong supporter of Germany and Austria.
B a strong supporter of France and Great Britain.
C a weak role due to the Russian Revolution.
D militarily strong because of its vast army.
Writing about History
War and Revolution
Analyzing Maps and Charts
27. Britain
29. Alsace and Lorraine
Standardized
Test Practice
747
24. A Serbian nationalist shot the heir to the Austrian
throne; Russia backed Serbia when Austria-Hungary
declared war, while Germany backed Austria and
declared war on France.
22. Answers should be supported by logical arguments.
Applying Technology Skills
Analyzing Sources
25. Answers will vary depending on sources. Only cost
estimates are available because many were unaccounted for.
23. Vienna is in Austria; answers will vary.
26. Answers will vary.
Test-Taking Tip: An important word in this question is
best. Although it is true that Russia entered on the side of
France and Great Britain, it could never provide strong
support due to internal weaknesses.
CHAPTER 23
21. too many compromises; many unresolved issues;
resentments among nations; no agreement satisfactory
to all
Making Decisions
Answer: C
Answer Explanation:
Students should remember the
domestic history in Russia during
World War I, especially that of the
Russian Revolution in 1917. Once
Lenin established a Bolshevik
government, he immediately
pulled Russia out of the war.
”
Applying Technology Skills
Have students visit the Web site at
wh.glencoe.com to review Chapter 23
and take the Self-Check Quiz.
28. reduce Germany’s army and navy,
eliminate its air force; German land
along the Rhine River demilitarized
[Serbia] causes to Austria under encouragement from
Russia. . . . It will be lucky if Europe succeeds in avoiding war as a result of the present crisis.
23. Where is Vienna located? Is the ambassador neutral in his
comments or does he favor one country over another?
24. Compare the ways in which the actual events that started
World War I mirror this ambassador’s concerns.
HISTORY
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
3
2
747