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069-071_GRS_CH17_065744-X 12/1/01 10:19 AM Page 69
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Name
CHAPTER
Class
17
Date
Guided Reading Strategies 17.1
The Ming and Qing Dynasties
Modern Chapter 8
READING THE SECTION As you read the section, fill in the effects of the causes
listed below.
1. Cause: The Ming dynasty wanted China to remain self-sufficient.
Effect:
2. Cause: The Qing wanted the Chinese to show their submission to the Manchu.
Effect:
3. Cause: Regions began to specialize in manufacturing goods, and cities grew.
Effect:
4. Cause: Farming populations grew and needed more food.
Effect:
5. Cause: A wealthy urban population developed.
Effect:
6. Cause: Chinese scholars began to have a humanist approach to study.
Effect:
7. Cause: The population of China grew rapidly during the Qing dynasty.
Effect:
8. Cause: Peasants were angered by tax increases and government inefficiency.
Effect:
POST-READING QUICK CHECK After you have finished reading the section, in the
space provided, explain why the Ming and the Qing looked down on merchants and
trade with other countries.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Holt World History: The Human Journey
69
Guided Reading Strategies
i-55_GRS-GEO_AK_065744-X 12/17/01 1:59 PM Page 28
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ANSWER KEY
6. Philip II treated the Dutch harshly
Detail C: Advances were made in ship building.
Main Idea II:
Detail A: Coins with fixed values were
introduced.
Detail B: Joint-stock companies were developed. They were a new kind of business in
which individual merchants joined together.
Main Idea III:
Detail A: Mercantilism stated that a government should do all that it can to increase a
country’s wealth.
Detail B: In order to regulate imports, a country could place tariffs on incoming goods.
Detail C: In order to foster domestic economic
growth, a country’s government could provide
grants of money to help businesspeople get
started.
7.
8.
9.
10.
because of the popularity of Calvinism in
their country.
The Dutch were able to defeat the
Spaniards using guerrilla warfare.
Because the Dutch were expert sailors and
shipbuilders, they controlled European
commerce.
Amsterdam was a lively cultural and
financial center.
The Dutch successfully established many
varied colonies, because they never tried
to convert people to their religion, or force
them to accept their language or laws.
Post-Reading Quick Check
1. Demand for costly, Spanish-made goods
declined.
2. The Spanish monarchy expelled Jews and
Moriscos, many of whom were skilled
bankers, businesspeople, and other people
essential to the economy.
3. Much of Spain’s wealth passed through
the country quickly, because it was used to
buy goods from other countries.
Post-Reading Quick Check
1. Some Europeans settled in the colonies to
gain land and wealth.
2. Some went to gain quick profits to take
home with them.
3. Other Europeans went seeking religious
freedom.
SECTION 3
Chapter 17
(Modern Chapter 8)
Reading the Section
1. a
6. a
2. b
7. b
3. b
8. a
4. a
9. a
5. b
10. a
SECTION 1
Reading the Section
1. The emperors refused to depend on
Post-Reading Quick Check
2.
As a result of the European slave trade, native
African populations dwindled. This had a disastrous effect on Africa’s development and
progress.
3.
SECTION 4
4.
Reading the Section
1. Ponce de León
2. Hernán Cortés
3. The Spaniards were able to defeat the
5.
6.
large Aztec army with their horses and
guns.
4. the Inca Empire
5. religious wars
7.
foreign trade as a source of government
revenue.
All Chinese men were required to wear
their hair tied in a queue (tail), a style that
was worn by the Manchu.
Merchants gained more respect, because
they provided essential goods to those
who lived in the cities.
Farmers increased the amount of land
used for farming and planted new crops.
As a result, popular culture grew in China.
Chinese scholars began to organize a
manuscript library of rare works from the
past.
Increased pressure was placed on the Qing
government.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
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28 Geography Activities/Guided Reading Answer Key
i-55_GRS-GEO_AK_065744-X 12/17/01 1:59 PM Page 29
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ANSWER KEY
SECTION 3
8. In the White Lotus Rebellion, a group of
Reading the Section
peasants led by a Buddhist cult revolted
against the government.
Topic I:
Detail B: The daimyo Toyotomi Hideyoshi
failed in his attempt to invade and capture
Korea.
Detail C: The daimyo Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate , which lasted
250 years.
Topic II: The Tokugawa shogunate had considerable influence over the daimyo and those
who supported him.
Detail B: Some historians believe that the
shoguns prohibited the daimyo from making
alliances with each other.
Topic III:
Detail A: The shogunate forced Portuguese
traders and missionaries to leave the country.
Detail C: Japanese people were prohibited
from traveling abroad.
Post-Reading Quick Check
The governments of both the Ming and the
Qing dynasties looked down on merchants
and trade with other countries, because they
didn’t see foreign goods and influence as being
especially beneficial to the Chinese people.
SECTION 2
Reading the Section
1. East India Company: British trading com-
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
pany who established a monopoly for the
trade of Chinese tea
Free Trade: supporters of this idea felt
that governments should not interfere or
regulate international trade
Opium War: British did not respond to
requests from China to stop the trade of
opium, so the Chinese tried to forcibly
stop it; war erupted, and the British
defeated the Chinese and gained the island
of Hong Kong.
Extraterritoriality: another benefit
granted to the British after the Opium
War; states that foreigners must follow the
laws of their own country instead of the
laws of the country in which they live
Unequal treaties: signed by the Chinese
with other countries due to defeat and
fear of further invasion; mainly benefited
foreign powers
Taiping Rebellion: rebellion against the
Qing dynasty; led by Hong Xiuquan who
was influenced by the teaching of
Christians and wanted to establish a new
dynasty; along with other revolts, it seriously weakened the Qing empire
Post-Reading Quick Check
The shogunate ended their time of isolation by
signing a treaty with the United States. This
caused their opponents to question their
authority to rule. Eventually they were overthrown.
Chapter 18
(Modern Chapter 9)
SECTION 1
Reading the Section
1. The first Ottomans were Turkish soldiers
2.
3.
4.
Post-Reading Quick Check
Because the Qing rulers were defeated in the
Opium War with Britain, they became fearful
of foreign powers and attempted to please
them with lenient trade laws and land grants.
5.
6.
7.
known as ghazis, or warriors for Islam.
Osman led the ghazis in their fight against
the Byzantines.
Timur defeated the Ottoman Turks at
Ankara.
Mehmed II conquered Constantinople,
renamed it Istanbul, and made it the
Ottoman capital.
Süleyman was the greatest sultan because
he extended the Ottoman Empire and
brought it to its height.
The grand viziers were second in command to the sultans.
The reaya were the ordinary people in the
Ottoman society.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Holt World History: The Human Journey
29 Geography Activities/Guided Reading Answer Key