* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Document related concepts
Hesiod The Boeotian School • Epic poetry: – Development (- 10th c. BC) – Maturity (9th c. BC.) – Decline (8th c. BC on) • Ionian School – Immitative heroic sagas • Boeotian School – More pragmatic subjects Legacy • Works and Days: – Socio-economic treatise – Prometheus and Pandora • Theogony: – Origins of the world from Chaos – Origins of the gods • Homeric Hymns: – Songs of praise to individual gods Theogony • • • • Chaos Gaia (Earth) Eros (Love) Tartarus (A place beneath Hades) – It takes nine days to fall from Earth to Tartarus (Theog. 721-23). Creation from the Void Chaos Erebus Nux (Night) A dark place between Earth and Hades Aether (Atmosphere) Hemere (Day) Creation from the Void Gaia (Earth) Uranus (Heaven) Pontus (Sea) The Titans: Oceanus, Coeus, Cruis, Hyperion, Iapetus,Theia, Rhea,Themis, Mnemosune, Phoebe, Tethys, Cronus The Cyclopes: Brontes, Steropes, Arges The First Battle • Heaven was hated by his children • Cronus castrated Heaven and the blood of Heaven produced: Erinyes Giants Nymphs Aphrodite = Eros Desire Cronus then becomes King of the gods and traps his brothers inside Earth Humans • Mortals: – Created by the gods when Cronus reigned – A golden race – Never had to work – Never fought – Everyone died peacefully of old age Chaos Erebus Nux (Night) A dark place between Earth and Hades Doom, Fate, Death, Sleep, Dreams, Blame, Woe, Hesperides, Destinies, Deceit, Friendship, Age, Strife The Avenging Fates Nemesis Heaven = Earth Cronus = Rhea Hestia Hera Demeter Hades Poseidon Zeus Cronus, fearing his children, swallowed the first five. Rhea appealed to Heaven and Earth and they protected Zeus and hid him on Crete Zeus • Defeated Cronus • Freed his own siblings • Freed the Titans, brothers of Cronus – As a reward, they gave Zeus the thunder and lightning – Zeus divided the spheres amongst his brothers: – Zeus, Heaven: Hades, Underworld: Poseidon, the Sea. Gaia (Earth) Uranus (Heaven) Oceanus = Tethys Iapetus (Titan) = Clymene Atlas Menoetius Themis Prometheus Epimetheus Titans and Mortals • Zeus defeated the Titans – Titanomachy – Imprisoned the Titans in Tartarus • The Silver Race – The Olympian gods made a new race of mortals. – Silver race were foolish and ungrateful – Zeus destroyed them Ocean = Tethys Metis = Zeus = Themis Athena The Hours Eunomia Dike Eirene Order Justice Eurynome = Zeus Peace = Demeter Charitas Algaea Euphrosune Thaleia Charity Pain Good Sprit Plenty Persephone Birth of the Muses • Mnemosune (memory) = Zeus – – – – – – – – – Clio Euterpe Thaleia Melpomene Terpsichore Erato Polyhymnia Urania Calliope History Song Comedy Tragedy Dance Love Poetry Hymns Astronomy Epic Poetry Jacques Stella ca. 1640 Zeus Hebe Ares = Eileithyia Hera Hephaestus Other Children of Zeus: • • • • • • Apollo and Artemis by Leto Hermes by Maia Dionysus by Semele (a mortal) Heracles by Alcmena Eris (competitive spirit) by Nux The Bronze Mortals – Violent men who annihilated themselves The Heroes • • • • • Zeus created a fourth race: “righteous god-like race” Some died at Thebes Some died at Troy The rest live on the Islands of the Blessed ruled by Cronos Fatalism • The Five Ages – – – – – Golden Age Silver Age Bronze Age Age of Heroes Iron Age: Mutability of Fortune • “When presumptuous arrogance swells above mortal measure, Zeus will punish it” (Euipides Heraclidae 387-8). • The Sun will not overstep his bounds, otherwise the Erinyes, the ministers of Diké, will find him out (Heraclitus i .22.94). Or Succession Theory? • When the Iron Age collapses, is it followed by another Golden Age?