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Transcript
Nations Unies et ONG:
Quelle place ensemble dans les
processus du développement?
Ricardo Espinosa – Chef, Unité de liaison avec les ONG
Office des Nations Unies à Genève, ONUG
The UN today
Il n’y a pas de définition universellement reconnue du
paradigme « développement »
Pour le PNUD:
« Le développement humain vise à élargir l’éventail des
choix des populations»
L’approche du système multilatéral est multidimensionnelle
et multisectorielle, dans le temps et dans l’espace:
santé, travail, éducation, environnement, droits de
l’homme, paix, aide humanitaire, gouvernance, …
The UN today (I)
193 states
More than 63’400 employees (« UN Family »)
UN budget 2012 – 2013: 5.15 billion US$
(without Agencies, Programs, …)
Peacekeeping Operations: 16
Peacekeepers: 98’917
Peacekeeping budget: 7.84 billion US$
The UN today (II)
Broad range of fundamental issues:
sustainable development,
environment,
refugees protection,
disaster relief,
counter terrorism,
disarmament and non-proliferation,
Promotion of democracy,
human rights,
gender equality and the advancement of women,
governance,
economic and social development and international health,
clearing landmines,
expanding food production, …etc
and more, in order to achieve its goals and coordinate efforts for a safer
world for this and future generations.
Organization (I)
Main bodies (Article 7 of the Charter) :
• General Assembly : 193 member states
• Security Council : 5 permanent members and 10 non
permanent
• Economic and social Council (ECOSOC) : 54 members
• Trusteeship Council
• International court of justice : 15 judges
• Secretariat
And subsidiary bodies as Human Rights Council for the General
Assembly or Peacekeeping operations and political missions for the
Security Council.
Organization (II)
15 Specialized agencies (World Health Organization/WHO,
UNESCO, International Labour Organization/ILO, …)
11 Programmes (UN High Commissioner for Refugees/HCR,
United Nations Development Programme/UNDP, …)
3 Funds (United Nations Children’s Fund/UNICEF, …)
Research and training institutes (United Nations Institute
for Training and Research /UNITAR, …)
Other entities (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS,
…)
The General Assembly - GA
The GA: Main deliberative organ of the UN
Decisions on important questions (peace and security,
admission of new members and budgetary matters a two-thirds
majority).
Decisions on other questions: by simple majority.
Each country has one vote
The UNGA has established a number of Councils,
Working Groups, Boards, …etc
The General Assembly adopts its own rules of
procedures and elects its one year President.
One regular session (from September to December) thereafter as required.
The UNGA plays a significant role in the process of
standard-setting and the codification of international law.
The Security Council – SC (I)
The SC’s primary responsibility: maintaining international peace
and security
Functions continuously
Possibility of excluding one of its Member
Participation of UN Member States not members of the SC: without
vote
The Presidency of the SC rotates monthly
The Security Council (II)
to maintain international peace and security;
to investigate any dispute or situation
to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of
settlement;
to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate
armaments;
to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression
and to recommend what action should be taken;
to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not
involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression;
to take military action against an aggressor;
to recommend the admission of new Members;
to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in "strategic
areas";
to recommend to the General Assembly the nomination of the SecretaryGeneral and to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.
The economic and social
Council (I)
The ECOSOC (54 Members) works under the authority of the GA,
It coordinates the economic and social work of the United Nations and the
UN family of organizations,
Is the central forum for international economic and social issues,
Formulates policy recommendations and plays a key role in fostering
international cooperation for development,
Consults with non-governmental organizations and civil society
organizations,
Its Members are elected by the GA and holds a substantive session in July,
including a High-Level Segment (Ministers and higher representatives),
Council's subsidiary bodies meet regularly and report back to it.
Five regional commissions promote economic development and cooperation in
their respective regions.
The economic and social
Council (II)
The UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (Rés. 2000/22
ECOSOC)
+ Special Raporteur on the situation of HR and fundamental freedoms of indigenous
peoples (Human Rights Council)
+ Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous People (HRC)
On the 13 September 2007, Adoption of the « United Nations Declaration on the
Rights of Indigenous Peoples »
Gathers once a year (UNHQ/NY)
16 Independent Experts (8 nominated by the ECOSOC, 8 elected by Indigenous
Organizations
UN Member States, Indigenous People Organizations, NGOs, CSO, UN Agencies
& Programs, Intergovernmental Organizations,… are allowed to attend ;
Six mains areas: Economic & Social Development; Culture; Environment;
Education; Health and Human Rights.
The Trusteeship Council
Established to provide international supervision to 11
Trust Territories administered by the UN;
By 1994, all Trust Territories had achieved autonomy or
independence, either as autonomous States or by joining
neighbouring independent countries;
Having achieved its task, the Trusteeship Council meets
as and where occasion may require.
The international court of justice
The ICJ, also known as the World Court (UN Tribunal) is the
main judicial organ of the UN;
Based in The Hague (NL);
15 judges (elected by the GA and the Security Council);
For a term of 9 years;
The ICJ shall decide on disputes between countries (not between
individuals);
Members State which participate in a proceeding, must
implement decisions of the Court;
The Court also gives advisory opinions to the United
Nations Specialized agencies, Programs and other Entities.
The Secretariat
The Secretariat carries out the substantive and
administrative work of the United Nations;
Its head is the Secretary-General;
The Secretariat consists of Departments and Offices
(total staff of about 44,000 under the regular budget);
Duty stations include UN Headquarters in New York, as
well as UN offices in Geneva, Vienna, Nairobi and many
other locations.
UN & Civil Society
"Our times demand a new definition of leadership - global leadership.
They demand a new constellation of international cooperation governments, civil society and the private sector, working together
for a collective global good.“
SecretarySecretary-General Ban KiKi-moon
Speech at World Economic Forum
Davos,
Davos, Switzerland (29 January 2009)
The Article 71 of the UN Charter;
More and more, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other civil
society organizations (CSOs) are UN system partners;
CSOs play a key role at major United Nations Conferences and at country level;
The UN organizes and hosts, on a regular basis, briefings, meetings and
conferences for NGO representatives who are accredited to UN Offices,
Programmes and Agencies
UN & Civil Society
Contribution aux processus de développement:
Projets sur le terrain
Plaidoyer
Recherches, Publications, Formation,
Portes d’entrée:
Agences, Programmes, Entités,…
Conférences, réunions, …
Sommets
Système des « Points focaux pour les ONG/OSC
UN & Civil Society
Financements:
Projets sur le terrain
Plaidoyer: très rare
Recherches, Publications, Formation,..
Statuts:
Agences, Programmes, Entités,…
ECOSOC
Conférences, réunions, …
Sommets
Droits, obligations, responsabilités
UN & Civil Society
Succès:
Développement local (PNUD, OMS, HCR, UNICEF...)
Plaidoyer: Droits de l’homme, Mines anti-personnel,
droits de l’enfant, handicapés, …
Recherches, Publications, Formation,.. : paix,
sécurité, prévention de conflits
Echecs:
Les moyens matériels et financiers
Relatif: les responsabilités sont du domaine des Etats
Aucun pouvoir formel de décision
Rio+20: un succès ou un échec? Pour qui?
The UN Millenium Declaration
In 2000, 189 Nations made a
promise to free people from
extreme poverty and multiple
deprivations. This pledge
became the eight Millennium
Development Goals to be
achieved by 2015. In
September 2010, the world
recommitted itself to
accelerate progress towards
these goals.
The Millenium Development Goals
MDGs
1.Eradicate extreme poverty
and hunger
2. Achieve universal primary
education
3. Promote gender equality and
empower women
4. Reduce child mortality
5. Improve maternal health
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria
and other diseases
7. Ensure environmental
sustainability
8. Develop a global partnership
for development
The Secretary-General’s Five-Year
Action Agenda
"The future we want”
Generational Imperatives and
Opportunities :
1. Sustainable development
2. Prevention
3.Building a safer and more
secure world by innovating
and building on our core
business
4. Supporting nations in
transition
5. Working with and for
women and young people