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Roman Mythology
Major Gods of the Roman Pantheon
Greek (Apollo)
Apollo is the son of Jupiter and Leto, and the twin brother of Diana . He is the god of music,
playing a golden lyre. The Archer, far shooting with a silver bow. The god of healing who
taught man medicine. The god of light. The god of truth, who can not speak a lie. One of
Apollo's more important daily tasks is to harness his chariot with four horses an drive the Sun
across the sky. He is famous for his oracle at Delphi. People traveled to it from all over the
Greek world to divine the future. His tree was the laurel. The crow his bird. The dolphin his
Greek (Demeter)
Corn Goddess. Eternal Mother. the Sorrowing Mother. Grain Mother. Goddess of agriculture,
grain, crops, initiation, civilization, lawgiver and the love a mother bears for her child.
Protectress of women, motherhood, marriage. Daughter of Saturn and Ops. She and her
daughter Proserpine were the counterparts of the Greek goddesses Demeter and Persephone.
Her worship involved fertility rites and rites for the dead, and her chief festival was the
Greek (Artemis)
Fertility Goddess. Moon Goddess. Huntress Goddess. Triple Goddess- Lunar Virgin, Mother
of Creatures, the Huntress or Destroyer. Goddess of nature, fertility, childbirth, wildwood,
moon, forests, animals, mountains, woods, and women. Goddess of the hunt. In Roman art
Diana usually appears as a huntress with bow and arrow, along with a hunting dog or a stag.
Both a virgin goddess and an earth goddess, she was identified with the Greek Artemis. She is
praised for her strength, athletic grace, beauty and her hunting skills. With two other deities
she made up a trinity: Egeria the water nymph (her servant and assistant midwife), and
Virbius (the woodland god).
Greek (Hera)
Queen of the Gods. Jupiters wife and sister, sister to Neptune and Pluto, daughter of Saturn,
mother of Juventas, Mars, and Vulcan. Protectress of the Roman state. She was the guardian
of the Empire's finances and considered the Matron Goddess of all Rome. The Matronalia, her
major festival is March 1-2. Her other festival, on July 7-8, was called Nonae Caprotinae ("The
Nones of the Wild Fig"). The month of June was named after her.
Greek (Zeus)
Ruler of the Gods. He is the god of Sky, Lightning and Thunder. He is the son of Saturn and
brother of Neptune, Pluto and Juno, who is also his wife. His attribute is the lightning bolt
and his symbol the eagle, who is also his messenger. He was also considered the Patron god
of Rome, and his temple was the official place of state business and sacrifices.
Greek (Ares)
God of war, spring, growth in nature, agriculture, terror, anger, revenge, courage and fertility.
Protector of cattle. The son of Jupiter and Juno, he was the god of war. Mars was regarded as
the father of the Roman people because he was the father of Romulus, the legendary founder
of Rome, and husband to Bellona. He was the most prominent of the military gods that were
worshipped by the Roman legions. The martial Romans considered him second in importance
only to Jupiter. His festivals were held in March (named for him) and October.
Greek (Hermes)
God of Trade, Profit, Merchants and Travellers. His main festival, the Mercuralia, was
celebrated on May 15 and on this day the merchants sprinkled their heads and their
merchandise with water from his well near the Porta Capena. The symbols of Mercury are the
caduceus (a staff with two intertwined snakes) and a purse (a symbol of his connection with
Greek (Athena)
Etruscan (Menrva)
Goddess of Wisdom, Learning, the Arts, Sciences, Medicine, Dyeing, Trade, and of War.
Daughter of Jupiter, protectress of commerce, industry and education. Honored at the spring
equinox with her main festival, March 19 - 23, called the Quinquatria. On June 13 the minor
Quinquatrus was observed.
Greek (Poseidon)
God of the Sea. Brother of Jupiter, Pluto and Juno. The God and patron of Horses and Horse
Racing as Neptune Equester. Neptunalia was celebrated on July 23. The trident is Neptune's
Greek (Aphrodite)
Originally a Goddess of Gardens and Vinyards, Venus became the major deity of love and
beauty after the influx of Greek deities. On August 18 the Vinalia Rustica was observed. A
second festival, that of the Veneralia, was celebrated on April 1 in honor of Venus Verticordia,
who later became the protector against vice. On April 23 a festival, the Vinalia Priora,
celebrated the opening of one of her temples.
Greek (Hestia)
Goddess of the Fire (both sacred and domestic) and the Hearth. Daughter of Saturn and Ops.
Her sacred animal was the ass. Patroness of bakers. Her chief festival was the Vestalia on June
7. One of the most worshipped of the Roman deities.
Greek (Hephaestus)
Mr. Noble
God of Fire, Blacksmiths and Craftsmanship. His forge is located beneath Mount Etna. It is
here that he, together with his helpers, forges weapons for Gods and heroes. Closely
associated with Bona Dea with whom he shared the Volcanalia, observed on August 23.
Roman Mythology
Roman Mythology
The Roman mythology is the combination of the beliefs, the rituals, and the observances of supernatural occurences by the ancient Romans
from early periods until Christianity finally completely replaced the native religions of the Roman Empire.
The religion of the early Romans was so changed by the addition of numerous and conflicting beliefs in later times, and by the assimilation
of a vast amount of Greek mythology, that it cannot be ever reconstructed precisely. This was because of the extensive changes in the
religion before the literary tradition began. The origins of those myths were in most cases unknown to the early Roman writers on religion.
On the other hand classical writers, such as the poet Ovid in his Fasti (Calendar), were strongly influenced by Hellenistic models, and in
their works they frequently employed Greek beliefs to fill gaps in the Roman tradition.
Mr. Noble