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PAGES 407-410
•Events that change communities by removing or destroying
• Abiotic examples: droughts, fires, floods, etc.
• Biotic examples: elephants tearing up trees, prairie dogs
moving soil for burrows, etc
• Human examples: bulldozing, paving, etc
•Ability to withstand a disturbance and maintain constant
• The more species richness and evenness in an area, the more
stability a community shows
Ecological Succession
•Sequential and gradual growth of a community
•Primary succession: occurs when a community is first
formed (moving/melting glaciers, area covered by lava, rocky
outcropping, sand dunes, etc.)
• Occurs on bare rock
•Pioneer species are the first to colonize the area
• Microbes, lichens, and mosses must break down rocks into soil
before other organism can grow
•The community continues to change until a climax
community is reached
•Climax community: marked by the domination of long-lived
species and great diversity
•Secondary succession: occurs when succession must start
over after the destruction of a climax community (forest
fire, logging, farming, etc.)
• First the area will be settled by pioneer species, usually small
herbs, and will eventually become a climax community
1980 eruption of Mt. Saint Helens
Before the eruption
During and after the eruption