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Luke 8:20 (NA28)
Luke 8:20 (sa 1)
Thomas 99:1
ἀπηγγέλη δὲ αὐτῷ·
ġʼnƛijേŁĿʼnőേħĩേĻġƕേƛĩേ
ŁĩƛĩേͧĹġıįŇįŅേĻġƕേƛĩേ
ἡ μήτηρ σου καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοί σου
ŇĩĵĹġġʼnേĻͧേĻĩĵŅĻįĿʼnേ
ĻĩĵŅĻįʼnേĹͩേŇĩĵĹġġʼnേ
ἑστήκασιν ἔξω
ġƙĩŃġŇĿʼnേƙijേŁŅġേ͑ģĿķ
ŅĩġƙĩŃġŇĿʼnേƙijേŁŅġേĻģĿķേ
ἰδεῖν θέλοντές σε
ĩʼnĿʼnĩƓേĻġʼnേĩŃĿĵേ
േ
I proceed now to the discussion of the various aspects of the meaning of “standing” in Thomas.
It is evident that neither Greek ἵστημι nor Coptic őƙĩേĩŃġŇƑ has only a single meaning. It is the context
rather that determines if it is to be understood either literally or figuratively.
I suggest that őƙĩേĩŃġŇƑ denotes one of the three following kinds of “standing” in Thomas: (a)
literal standing, (b) standing as presenting or revealing oneself, and (c) transcendental standing.
8.2.1. Literal Standing in Sayings 99 and 75
It is fairly obvious that őƙĩേĩŃġŇƑ in Thomas 99:1 refers to literal standing. Thomas 99:1 serves
as the narrative framework for Thomas 99:2–3. When the disciples mention his relatives standing
outside, Jesus uses this opportunity to define who his real relatives are:
േŁĩƛĩേͧĹġıįŇįŅേĻġƕേƛĩേĻĩĵŅĻįʼnേĹͩേŇĩĵĹġġʼnേŅĩġƙĩŃġŇĿʼnേƙijേŁŅġേĻģĿķേേŁĩƛġƕേĻġʼnേ
ƛĩേĻĩŇͩĻĩĩijĹġേĩƟŃĩേͧŁĿʼnőƓേͧŁġĩijőŇേĻġĩijേĻĩേĻġŅĻįʼnേĹͩേŇġĹġġʼnേേͩŇĿĿʼnേŁĩേĩŇĻġģőĵേ
ĩƙĿʼnĻേĩŇĹͩŇĩŃĿേͧŁġĩijőŇ
99:1 The disciples said to him: “Your brothers and your mother are standing outside.” 99:2 He
said to them: “Those here, who do the will of my Father—they are my brothers and my mother.
99:3 They are the ones who will enter the kingdom of my Father.”
As Stephen J. Patterson has pointed out, Thomas 99:3 is the Thomasine addition to its source.503
Although this addition does not contribute much to the content of the saying, it certainly refines its
literary form: while Thomas 99:1 and 99:2 contrast blood relatives with spiritual ones, Thomas 99:1
and 99:3 contrast those who “stand outside” with those who “go inside” (ģőĵേĩƙĿʼnĻ). Thus, “standing
outside” is meant literally in Thomas 99:1 and then reinterpreted allegorically as spiritual
imperfection in Thomas 99:3.
In a similar fashion, őƙĩേĩŃġŇƑ refers to literal standing in saying 75. Quite remarkably, saying
75, just like saying 99, contrasts “standing outside” with “going inside”:
502
Quecke 1977, 156.
See Patterson 1993, 68. Whether saying 99 is dependent on the Synoptic tradition or draws on a source that was parallel
to it is a matter of debate. Patterson 1993, 67–8, champions Thomas’ independence from the Synoptics; Gathercole 2012,
196–8, argues against it. I am inclined to agree with Kloppenborg 2014, 213, who has recently called Gathercole’s
arguments into question and concluded that saying 99 may well represent “an independent performance of the saying.”
503
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