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Transcript
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Chapter Presentation
Transparencies
Visual Concepts
Standardized Test Prep
Brain Food Video Quiz
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Chapter 4
Earth Chemistry
Table of Contents
Section 1 Matter
Section 2 Combinations of Atoms
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Objectives
• Compare chemical properties and physical
properties of matter.
• Describe the basic structure of an atom.
• Compare atomic umber, mass number, and atomic
mass.
• Define isotope.
• Describe the arrangement of elements in the
periodic table.
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Properties of Matter
• matter anything that has mass and takes up space
• Every object in the universe is made up of particles of
matter. The amount of matter in any object is the
mass of that object.
• All matter has two types of distinguishing
properties—physical properties and chemical
properties.
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Properties of Matter, continued
• Physical properties are characteristics that can be
observed without changing the composition of the
substance.
• Physical properties include density, color, hardness,
freezing point, boiling point, and the ability to conduct
an electric current.
• Chemical properties are characteristics that describe
how a substance reacts with other substance to
produce different substances.
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Comparing Physical and Chemical Properties
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Properties of Matter, continued
Elements
• element a substance that cannot be separated or
broken down into simpler substances by chemical
means; all atoms of an element have the same
atomic number
• Each element has a characteristic set of physical and
chemical properties that identify it.
• Every known element is represented by a symbol of
one or two letters.
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Properties of Matter, continued
Atoms
• Elements are made of atoms.
• atom the smallest unit of an element that maintains
the chemical properties of that element
• A single atom is so small that its size is difficult to
imagine.
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Atomic Structure
• Even though atoms are very tiny, they are made up of smaller
parts called subatomic particles.
• There are three types of subatomic particles—protons,
electrons, and neutrons.
• proton a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that
is located in the nucleus of an atom; the number of protons of
the nucleus is the atomic number, which determines the identity
of an element
• electron a subatomic particle that has a negative charge
• neutron a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is
located in the nucleus of an atom
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Atomic Structure, continued
The Nucleus
• The protons and neutrons of an atom form the nucleus.
• The positively charged nucleus makes up most of an atom’s mass
but very little of its volume. The volume of an atom is mostly
empty space.
The Electron Cloud
• The electrons of an atom move in a certain region of space called
an electron cloud that surrounds the nucleus.
• The negatively charged electrons are attracted to the positively
charged nucleus. This attraction holds electrons in the atom.
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Parts of the Atom
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Atomic Number
• The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called the
atomic number.
• All atoms of any given element have the same atomic number.
An element’s atomic number sets the atoms of that element
apart from the atoms of all other elements.
• Elements on the periodic table are ordered according to their
atomic numbers.
• Elements in the same column on the periodic table have similar
arrangements of electrons in their atoms, and therefore have
similar chemical properties.
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Atomic Number, continued
The diagram below shows the atomic numbers and mass numbers of three
elements.
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Atomic Number, continued
The diagram below shows the periodic table.
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Periodic Table Overview
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Atomic Mass
• The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom
is the mass number.
• The mass of a subatomic particle is too small to be
expressed easily in grams, so a special unit called the
atomic mass unit (amu) is used.
• Protons and neutrons each have an atomic mass close to 1
amu.
• Electrons have much less mass than protons or neutrons do.
The mass of 1 proton is equal to the combined mass of
about 1,840 electrons.
• Because electrons add little to an atom’s total mass, their
mass can be ignored when calculating an atom’s
approximate mass.
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Atomic Mass, continued
Reading Check
What is the difference between atomic number, mass
number, and atomic mass unit?
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Atomic Mass, continued
Reading Check
What is the difference between atomic number, mass
number, and atomic mass unit?
The atomic number is the number of protons in an
atom’s nucleus. The mass number is the sum of the
number of protons and the number of neutrons in an
atom. The atomic mass unit is used to express the
mass of subatomic particles or atoms.
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Atomic Mass, continued
Isotopes
• Although all atoms of a given element contain the same number
of protons, the number of neutrons may differ.
• isotope an atom that has the same number of protons (or the
same atomic number) as the other atoms of the same element
do but that has a different number of neutrons (and thus a
different atomic mass)
• Because of their different number of neutrons and their different
masses, different isotopes of the same element have slightly
different properties.
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Atomic Mass, continued
Average Atomic Mass
• Because isotopes of an element have different
masses, the periodic table uses an average atomic
mass of each element.
• The average atomic mass is the weighted average of
the atomic masses of the naturally occurring isotopes
of an element.
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Valence Electrons and Periodic Properties
• Based on similarities in their chemical properties, elements on
the periodic table are arranged in columns, which are called
groups.
• An atom’s chemical properties are largely determined by the
number of the outermost electrons in an atom’s electron cloud.
These electrons are called valence electrons.
• The elements that form each group commonly have the same
number of valence electrons.
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Chapter 4
Section 1 Matter
Valence Electrons and Periodic Properties,
continued
• When an atom has 8 valence electrons, it is considered stable,
or chemically unreactive. Unreactive atoms do not easily lose or
gain electrons.
• Elements whose atoms have only one, two, or three valence
electrons tend to lose electrons easily. These elements have
metallic properties and are generally classified as metals.
• Elements whose atoms have from four to seven valence
electrons are more likely to gain electrons. Many of these
elements are classified as nonmetals.
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Objectives
• Define compound and molecule.
• Interpret chemical formulas.
• Describe two ways that electrons form chemical
bonds between atoms.
• Explain the differences between compounds and
mixtures.
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Molecules
• Elements rarely occur in pure form in Earth’s crust. They
generally occur in combination with other elements.
• compound a substance made up of atoms of two or more
different elements joined by chemical bonds
• The properties of a compound differ from the properties of the
elements that make up the compound.
• molecule a group of atoms that are held together by chemical
forces; a molecule is the smallest unit of matter that can exist by
itself and retain all of a substance’s chemical properties
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Compounds
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Chemical Formulas
• A chemical formula is a combination of letters and numbers that
shows which elements make up a compound and the number of
atoms of each element that are required to make a molecule of
a compound.
• In a chemical formula, the subscript that appears after the
symbol for an element shows the number of atoms of that
element that are in a molecule. For example:
H2O = 2 H (hydrogen atoms) + 1 O (oxygen atom)
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Chemical Equations
• Elements and compounds often combine through chemical
reactions to form new compounds.
• The reaction of these elements and compounds can be
described in a formula called a chemical equation.
Equation Structure
• In a chemical equation, the reactants (to the left of the arrow)
form the products (to the right of the arrow) through chemical
reactions.
• The arrow means “gives” or “yields.”
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Chemical Equations, continued
Equation Structure, continued
• In the following equation, one molecule of methane, CH4, reacts
with two molecules of oxygen, O2, to yield one molecule of
carbon dioxide, CO2, and two molecules of water, H2O.
CH4 +
2O2

methane + oxygen yields
CO2
carbon
dioxide
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+ 2H2O
+ water
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Chemical Equations, continued
The diagram below shows a chemical equation.
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Chemical Equations, continued
Balanced Equations
• A chemical equation must be balanced to be useful for showing
the types and amounts of the products that could from from a
particular set of reactants
• An equation is balanced when the number of atoms of each
element on the right side of the equation is equal to the number
of atoms of the same element on the left side.
• To balance an equation, you must put numbers called
coefficients in front of chemical formulas.
• A coefficient multiplies the subscripts in an equation.
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Balancing a Chemical Equation by Inspection
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Chemical Bonds
• The forces that hold together the atoms in molecules are called
chemical bonds.
• Chemical bonds form because of the attraction between positive
and negative charges.
• Atoms form chemical bonds by either sharing or transferring
electrons from one atom to another.
• Scientists can study interactions of atoms to predict which kinds
of atoms will form chemical bonds together.
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Chemical Bonds, continued
Reading Check
In what two ways do atoms form chemical bonds?
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Chemical Bonds, continued
Reading Check
In what two ways do atoms form chemical bonds?
Atoms form chemical bonds by transferring electrons or
by sharing electrons.
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Chemical Bonds, continued
Ions
• When an electron is transferred from one atom to another, both
atoms become charged.
• ion an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more
electrons and has a negative or positive charge
Ionic Bonds
• ionic bond the attractive force between oppositely charged
ions, which form when electrons are transferred from one atom
or molecule to another
• A compound that forms through the transfer of electrons is
called an ionic compound.
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Chemical Bonds, continued
Covalent Bonds
• covalent bond a bond formed when atoms share one or more
pairs of electrons
• A compound that forms through the sharing of electrons is called
a covalent compound.
Polar Covalent Bonds
• A covalent bonds in which the bonded atoms have an unequal
attraction for the shared electrons is called a polar covalent
compound.
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Chemical Bonds, continued
The diagram below compares ionic bonds and covalent bonds.
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Chemical Bonds, continued
Reading Check
Why do water molecules form from polar covalent
bonds?
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Chemical Bonds, continued
Reading Check
Why do water molecules form from polar covalent
bonds?
The oxygen atom has a larger and more positively
charged nucleus than the hydrogen atoms do. As a
result, the oxygen nucleus pulls the electrons from
the hydrogen atoms closer to it than the hydrogen
nuclei pull the shared electrons from the oxygen. This
unequal attraction forms a polar-covalent bond.
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Mixtures
• mixture a combination of two or more substances that are not
chemically combined
• Because the substances that make up a mixture keep their
individual properties, a mixture can be separated into its parts
by physical means.
Heterogeneous Mixtures
• Mixtures in which two or more substances are not uniformly
distributed are called heterogeneous mixtures.
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Chapter 4
Section 2 Combinations of
Atoms
Mixtures, continued
Homogeneous Mixtures
• In chemistry, the word homogeneous means “having the same
composition and properties throughout.”
• solution a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
that are uniformly dispersed throughout the mixture
• Liquids, gases, and solids can all be solutions.
• An alloy is a solution composed of two or more metals, such as
steel.
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Chapter 4
Maps in Action
Maps in Action
Element Resources in the United States
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Chapter 4
Earth Chemistry
Brain Food Video Quiz
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Multiple Choice
1. Soil is an example of
A. a solution
B. a compound
C. a mixture
D. an element
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Multiple Choice, continued
1. Soil is an example of
A. a solution
B. a compound
C. a mixture
D. an element
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Multiple Choice, continued
2. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have
different mass numbers. This difference is caused by
F.
G.
H.
I.
a different number of electrons in the atoms
a different number of protons in the atoms
a different number of neutrons in the atoms
a different number of nuclei in the atoms
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Multiple Choice, continued
2. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have
different mass numbers. This difference is caused by
F.
G.
H.
I.
a different number of electrons in the atoms
a different number of protons in the atoms
a different number of neutrons in the atoms
a different number of nuclei in the atoms
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Multiple Choice, continued
3. Which of the following statements best describes the charges
of subatomic particles?
A. Electrons have a negative charge, protons have a positive
charge, and neutrons have no charge.
B. Electrons have a positive charge, protons have a negative
charge, and neutrons have a positive charge.
C. Electrons have no charge, protons have a positive charge,
and neutrons have a negative charge.
D. In neutral atoms, protons, neutrons, and electrons have no
charges.
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Multiple Choice, continued
3. Which of the following statements best describes the charges
of subatomic particles?
A. Electrons have a negative charge, protons have a positive
charge, and neutrons have no charge.
B. Electrons have a positive charge, protons have a negative
charge, and neutrons have a positive charge.
C. Electrons have no charge, protons have a positive charge,
and neutrons have a negative charge.
D. In neutral atoms, protons, neutrons, and electrons have no
charges.
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Multiple Choice, continued
4. An element is located on the periodic table
according to
F.
G.
H.
I.
when the element was discovered.
the letters of the element’s chemical symbol.
the element’s chemical name.
the element’s physical and chemical properties.
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Multiple Choice, continued
4. An element is located on the periodic table
according to
F.
G.
H.
I.
when the element was discovered.
the letters of the element’s chemical symbol.
the element’s chemical name.
the element’s physical and chemical properties.
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Short Response
5. What is the name for an atom that has gained or lost
one or more electrons and has acquired a charge?
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Short Response, continued
5. What is the name for an atom that has gained or lost
one or more electrons and has acquired a charge?
an ion
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Short Response, continued
6. Scientists use atomic numbers to help identify the
atoms of different elements. How is the atomic
number of an element determined?
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Short Response, continued
6. Scientists use atomic numbers to help identify the
atoms of different elements. How is the atomic
number of an element determined?
by the number of protons in the atom
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Reading Skills
Read the passage below. Then, answer questions 7–9.
Chemical Formulas
All substances can be formed by a combination of elements from a list of about
100 possible elements. Each element has a chemical symbol. A chemical formula is
shorthand notation that uses chemical symbols and numbers to represent a
substance. A chemical formula shows the amount of each kind of atom present in a
specific molecule of a substance.
The chemical formula for water is H2O. This formula tells you that one water
molecule is composed of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. The 2 in
the formula is a subscript. A subscript is a number written below and to the right of a
chemical symbol in a formula. When a symbol, such as the O for oxygen in water’s
formula, has no subscript, only one atom of that element is present.
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Reading Skills, continued
7. What does a subscript in a chemical formula represent?
A. Subscripts represent the number of atoms of the chemical
symbol they directly follow present in the molecule.
B. Subscripts represent the number of atoms of the chemical
symbol they directly precede present in the molecule.
C. Subscripts represent the number of protons present in
each atom’s nucleus.
D. Subscripts represent the total number of atoms present in
the molecule.
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Reading Skills, continued
7. What does a subscript in a chemical formula represent?
A. Subscripts represent the number of atoms of the chemical
symbol they directly follow present in the molecule.
B. Subscripts represent the number of atoms of the chemical
symbol they directly precede present in the molecule.
C. Subscripts represent the number of protons present in
each atom’s nucleus.
D. Subscripts represent the total number of atoms present in
the molecule.
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Reading Skills, continued
8. Which of the following statements can be inferred
from the information in the passage?
F. Two atoms of hydrogen are always present in
chemical formulas.
G. A chemical formula indicates the elements that a
molecule is made of.
H. Chemical formulas can be used only to show
simple molecules.
I. No more than one atom of oxygen can be
present in a chemical formula.
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Reading Skills, continued
8. Which of the following statements can be inferred
from the information in the passage?
F. Two atoms of hydrogen are always present in
chemical formulas.
G. A chemical formula indicates the elements that a
molecule is made of.
H. Chemical formulas can be used only to show
simple molecules.
I. No more than one atom of oxygen can be
present in a chemical formula.
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Reading Skills, continued
9. How many atoms would be found in a single
molecule that has the chemical formula S2F10?
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Chapter 4
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Reading Skills, continued
9. How many atoms would be found in a single
molecule that has the chemical formula S2F10?
12 (2 of sulfur and 10 of fluorine)
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Interpreting Graphics
Use the figure below to answer questions 10–13. The
figure shows the upper right segment of the periodic
table.
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Chapter 4
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Interpreting Graphics, continued
10. Which pair of elements would most likely have a
similar arrangement of outer electrons and have
similar chemical behaviors?
A. boron and aluminum
B. helium and fluoride
C. carbon and nitrogen
D. chlorine and oxygen
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Interpreting Graphics, continued
10. Which pair of elements would most likely have a
similar arrangement of outer electrons and have
similar chemical behaviors?
A. boron and aluminum
B. helium and fluoride
C. carbon and nitrogen
D. chlorine and oxygen
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Interpreting Graphics, continued
11. What is the atomic mass of helium?
F.
G.
H.
I.
0.18
0.26
2.00
4.00
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Interpreting Graphics, continued
11. What is the atomic mass of helium?
F.
G.
H.
I.
0.18
0.26
2.00
4.00
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Interpreting Graphics, continued
12. How many neutrons does the average helium atom
contain?
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Chapter 4
Standardized Test Prep
Interpreting Graphics, continued
12. How many neutrons does the average helium atom
contain?
2
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Interpreting Graphics, continued
Use the figure below to answer questions 13–14. The
figure shows matter in three different states.
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Chapter 4
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Interpreting Graphics, continued
13. In what physical state is the matter in jar A?
A. solid
B. liquid
C. gas
D. plasma
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Interpreting Graphics, continued
13. In what physical state is the matter in jar A?
A. solid
B. liquid
C. gas
D. plasma
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Interpreting Graphics, continued
14. Explain how the positions and motions of particles
determine the characteristics of each state of matter.
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Interpreting Graphics, continued
14. Explain how the positions and motions of particles
determine the characteristics of each state of matter.
Answers should include the following: jar A has a
compact but unordered structure that fills the
space in the bottom of the jar—this is a liquid;
jar B has an ordered and self-contained structure
in which the atoms are held in close, fixed
positions—this is a solid; jar C shows fastmoving atoms that have no structure, that fill the
entire jar, and that have no ordered relationship
to each other—this is a gas.
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Chapter 4
Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
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Chapter 4
Periodic Table
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Chapter 4
Balancing Equations
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Chapter 4
Ionic Bonds and Covalent Bonds
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Chapter 4
Element Resources in the United States
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