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Airborne vs. bone conduction
Conduction hearing loss
Sensorineural hearing loss
The three parts of the ear
Sound frequency ≈ pitch
Sound amplitude ≈ loudness
Middle ear ossicles
Amplification due to surface area
~16 times
Amplification due to lever action
Total amplification =(sa reduction)*(lever)
Total amplification =16*1.3 times
Middle ear muscles reduce pressure
tensor tympani: lower amplitude, higher f
stapedius: lower amplitude
The simplified (unrolled) cochlea
Cochlear tonotopy
Pressure waves and the cochlear duct
Organ of Corti
Outer and inner hair cells
Outer hair cells move
OHCs are the cochlear amplifier
Hair cell and
afferent neuron
responses to
depends on
Speech production