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Volunteer Teaching Outline: Signs of Leaf-eaters By summer’s end, nearly every leaf bears some signs of feeding by plant-eaters small or large. Some make holes, some scallop the edges, some roll the leaves into tubes. Plants capture energy from the sun and, in turn, produce food for a variety of leaf-eaters. When we watch a leaf-eater feeding on a leaf – or being eaten by a predator – we are seeing the flow of energy from sun to plant to herbivore to carnivore. These interactions are evidence of food chains and webs, which are important components of every ecosystem. ! UNIT VOCABULARY Ecosystem Carnivores Herbivores Habitat Predator Prey Producers Consumers Food chain Food web Inhabitant Larva ! SUGGESTED OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES ! Look and Listen Leaf-eater Search Food Chains and Webs Journal Activity Upper Grades Challenge: Schoolyard Haiku Sharing Circle! ! THIS MONTH’S ACTIVITES Puppet Show: meet some leaf-eaters and learn about the flow of energy through food chains in an ecosystem. Sorting Leaf-eater Patterns: view examples of leaf-feeding, noticing patterns and grouping by shared characteristics. Look and Listen: sit quietly, observing signs of leaf-eaters and other animals on the school grounds. Leaf-eater Search: look for and collect leaves with evidence of various leaf-eating or shelter-building insects or spiders. Food Chains and Webs: model how plants and animals in an ecosystem are connected in a complex food web. Journal Activity and Closing Thoughts: notice and record patterns of leaf-feeding in a leaf collected on the school grounds. Share drawings in small groups. Upper Grades Challenge: Schoolyard Haiku: use poetry to record thoughts and observations of ecosystems on the school grounds. ! BOOKS FOR KIDS The Young Oxford Book of Ecology, by Michael Scott, Oxford University Press, 1998. (Informational) The World of Food Chains with Max Axiom, Super Scientist, by Liam O’Donnell, Cynthia Martin (Illustrator), and Bill Anderson (Illustrator), Capstone Press, 2007. (Fiction; Age 8-14; Grade 3-4; Lexile GN 720L) Who Eats What? Food Chains and Food Webs, by Patricia Lauber and Holly Keller, Collins, 1994. ! (Informational; Age 4-8; Grade K-4; Lexile 620L) ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 07/14 ! SINGS OF LEAF-EATERS ALIGNMENT WITH NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS Grades K-2 • Core Idea LS1C: All animals need food in order to live and grow. They obtain their food from plants or from other animals. Plants need water and light to live and grow. p.147 • Core Idea LS2A: Animals depend on their surroundings to get what they need, including food, water, shelter, and a favorable temperature. Animals depend on plants or other animals for food. p.151 Grades 3-5 • Core Idea LS2A: The food of almost any kind of animal can be traced back to plants. Organisms are related in food webs in which some animals eat plants for food and other animals eat the animals that eat plants. Either way, they are “consumers.” p.151-152 Grades 6-8 • Core Idea LS1C: Animals obtain food from eating plants or eating other animals. p.148 • Core Idea LS2A: Organisms, and populations of organisms, are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with nonliving factors. P.152 Note: The Disciplinary Core Ideas listed above are taken from Grade Band Endpoints in A Framework for K-12 Science Education. Additionally, our activities give children opportunities to engage in many of the Science and Engineering Practices and reflect on the Crosscutting Concepts as identified in the Next Generation Science Standards. SIGNS OF LEAF EATERS ALIGNMENT WITH COMMON CORE STANDARDS Grades 6-8 • Common Core Reading for Literature Standard 10: By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas and poems, in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. Note: The Common Core Standards listed here are in addition to the ones that our activities typically address, as listed in the Four Winds document, The Nature Program: Alignment with Learning Standards. !!!!07/14!