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Name _______________________________________ Period _____ Date _____________ AP Physics 2 Applications of Thermodynamics 1. from Knight, 12-25 0.0040 mol of gas undergoes the process shown at right. What type of process is this? What are the initial and final temperatures? initial final 2. from Knight, 12-26 0.0040 mol of gas follows the hyperbolic trajectory shown at right. What type of process is this? What are the initial and final temperatures? What is the final volume? initial final 1 of 7 3. from Knight, 12-27 A gas with an initial temperature of 900ο°C undergoes a process shown to the right. What type of process is this? What is the final temperature? How many moles of gas are there? final initial 4. from Knight, 12-28 How much work is done ON the gas in the process shown at right? final initial 5. from Knight, 12-31 A weather balloon rises through the atmosphere. Its volume expands from 4.0 m3 to 12 m3 as the temperature drops from 20ο°C to -10ο°C. If the initial gas pressure is 1.0 atm, what is the final pressure? 2 of 7 6. from Giancoli, 15-10 Heat is allowed to flow out of an ideal gas at a constant volume so that its pressures drops from 2.2 atm to 1.4 atm. Then, the gas expands at a constant pressure, from a volume of 5.9 L to 9.3 L, where the temperature reaches its original value. a. Calculate the total work done by the gas in the process. b. Calculate the change in the internal energy of the gas. c. Calculate the total heat flow into or out of the gas. 3 of 7 7. from Etkina, 13-36 The following equations represent four parts (A, B, C, and D) of a cyclic process with a gas. In this case, we consider the work done BY the system on the environment, i.e., π β π = οππππ‘πππππ π = (3.0π₯105 π π ) (0.020 π3 β 0.010 π3 ) + 0 + (1.0π₯105 2 ) (0.010 π3 β 0.020 π3 ) + 0 2 π π 3 2 οππππ‘πππππ = ( ) (1 πππ) (8.3 π½ ) [(700 πΎ β 300 πΎ) + (480 πΎ β 700 πΎ) πππ πΎ + (240 πΎ β 480 πΎ) + (360 πΎ β 240πΎ)] π = ππ΄ + ππ΅ +ππ + ππ· a. Draw and label a PV graph for the process. Include an appropriate scale. b. Determine the net change in the internal energy during the entire cycle. c. Determine the heating of the system for each of the four parts of the process. 4 of 7 8. from Etkina, 13-26 A cyclic process involving 1 mole of ideal gas is shown at right. a. Calculate the temperature at each corner of the process. A B D C b. Consider the part of the process Aο°B i. Determine the work done on the gas.1 ii. Determine the change in internal energy. iii. Determine heat added to the gas.2 c. Consider the part of the process Bο°C i. Determine the work done on the gas. ii. Determine the change in internal energy. iii. Determine the heat added to the gas. 1 2 W+ = work done on the gas; W- = work done by the gas Q+ = heat added to gas; Q- = heat released from gas 5 of 7 d. Consider the part of the process Cο°D i. Determine the work done on the gas. ii. Determine the change in internal energy. iii. Determine the heat added to the gas. e. Consider the part of the process Dο°A. i. Determine the work done on the gas. ii. Determine the change in internal energy. iii. Determine the heat added to the gas. 9. from Etkina, 13-25 A nuclear power plant operates between a high-temperature heat reservoir at 560ο°C and a low-temperature stream at 20ο°C. a. Determine the maximum efficiency of this thermodynamic engine. b. Determine the heating rate (J/s) from the high-temperature heat reservoir to the power plant so that it produces 1000 MW of power (work / time) 6 of 7 10. From Giancoli, 15-26 A heat engine exhausts its heat at 340ο°C and has an efficiency of 36%. What exhaust temperature would enable it to achieve an efficiency of 42%? 11. From Giancoli, 15-27 A engineβs operating temperatures are 210ο°C and 45ο°C. The engineβs power output is 910 W. Calculate the rate of heat output. 12. from Etkina, 13-28 A heat pump collects thermal energy from outside at 5ο°C and delivers it to the house at 40ο°C. a. Determine the maximum coefficient of performance. b. If the motor uses 1000 J of electrical energy to do work during a certain time interval, how much thermal energy is delivered to the house through heating? 7 of 7