Download B.A. Honrus

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Macedonian grammar wikipedia , lookup

Lithuanian grammar wikipedia , lookup

Compound (linguistics) wikipedia , lookup

Ojibwe grammar wikipedia , lookup

Comparison (grammar) wikipedia , lookup

Classical compound wikipedia , lookup

Agglutination wikipedia , lookup

Contraction (grammar) wikipedia , lookup

Stemming wikipedia , lookup

Word-sense disambiguation wikipedia , lookup

Symbol grounding problem wikipedia , lookup

Untranslatability wikipedia , lookup

Pleonasm wikipedia , lookup

OK wikipedia , lookup

Morphology (linguistics) wikipedia , lookup

Malay grammar wikipedia , lookup

 B.A. Honrus SUBJECT: English Language & Literature TOPIC: Right Wards LESSON MAP: 4.3.C.1 Duration: 30:52 min Right Wards What do we mean by Right Words? Words are important elements of oral and written communication. They enable us to receive knowledge and information from sources around us. They make us reexamine what we know and help us communicate to others our beliefs, opinions, sentiments and experiences. Our choice of words determines the ideas we receive, how we think, and the accuracy with which we communicate these thoughts and feelings. In oral communication, meanings are affected by the way we say the words, by the tone of our voice, and by our body movements. Yet, the words must mean the same thing to the listener that they do to the speaker if we want to achieve effective and accurate communication. Failure to understand this may result in communication breakdown. Choosing the Right Words Good writers and speakers choose the most specific and concrete words in order to get their ideas across effectively and clearly, because they know that general or vague language can lead to misunderstanding, misinterpretation, and even befuddlement on the part of their readers or listeners. Therefore, in order to communicate our message, we need to choose the right words that clearly express our thoughts. Very often, in both informal conversation and public speaking, we make statements that are not very clear. For example: Unclear: Let’s go to a place where they sell those things we need for the office. Clear: Let’s go to the bookstore that sells books and school supplies. Synonyms/Antonyms/Homonyms/One word substitutes A) Synonyms: Synonyms are words that have almost the same meaning. In other words, synonyms are different words with almost identical or similar meanings. Appropriate use of synonyms adds flavor and newness to our communication. For example, synonyms for big: large, huge, gigantic. Task 1: Circle the 2 synonyms for each set of words. 1. Tasty chilly cool comfortable 2. Walk crawl stroll run 3. Argue scare confuse frighten 4. Bravery honesty courage winner 5. Cook drink eat munch 6. Record paint draw sketch Write a synonym for each word. Answers can vary. Sample answers are given below. 1. Thin: skinny 7. Tasty: delicious 2. Tiny: small 8. Silent: quiet 3. Store: shop 9. Smelly: stinky (keep) 10.Smile: grin 4. Fall: trip 11.Think: ponder 5. See: observe 12.Break: ruin 6. Friendly: kind B) Antonyms: Antonyms are words with opposite or nearly opposite meanings. For example, hot/cold; up/down. Antonyms play a very important role in spoken English. The savvy speaker can use them in order to create the desired emotion and sentiment in the audience. Antonyms provide an effective means with which we can add humor to a discourse. Antonyms can be found in the wit and wisdom of many humorists, and contrasting two words is a great way to create humor with impact. A proper understanding of the usage of antonyms in speaking is an essential component of enlarging one’s vocabulary. Task 1: Attach Awake Live x Cry x Sad x C) Homonyms: x detach x asleep die laugh happy The word homonym comes from Greek meaning “same name” and applies to any pair or group of words that sound the same but have different meanings. Most commonly these words are also spelled differently. When we use homonyms, sometimes, we are confused. Hence, a sound knowledge of context is required to use homonyms correctly. Some of the commonly misused homonyms are: •
Sale: half-­‐price sale and Sail: to sail a boat Pail: to collect water in and Pale: to have no colour Fair: to be just and Fare: a fee to be paid Bark (the sound a dog makes) and Bark: (the outer layer of a tree trunk) •
One (the number) and Won (having been victorious) Although sometimes the spelling remains the same, for instance ‘fair’ can mean to be just or it can also mean to be pale of skin. Homonyms are important in writing and are crucial in writing a story because with just one word we can completely change the meaning of a sentence. For instance: •
“Tom wasn’t sure, but in the end it proved the right root to take.” “Tom wasn’t sure, but in the end it proved the right route to take.” The first suggests that Tom didn’t poison himself, because he chose the right root vegetable to take for his supper. The second suggests Tom didn’t get lost because it was the right route home. How can we avoid using the wrong homonym? The very best way to avoid mixing your homonyms is to: •
use a thesaurus, highlight the word and hit the shift key and F7 at the same time (MS Word), try and become aware of the ones you consistently get wrong, and double-­‐check when homonyms come up in your writing. get your final work proofread. Task 1: Think of and write eight sets of homophones. Sample answers: night/knight, I/eye, by/buy, sea/see, flu/flew, hear/here, wear/where, flower/flour. D) One Word Substitutes: Word substitution is basically to switch or to change a phrase (with a few words) to only one word. By substituting word, we can make a shorter and more precise sentence. For e.g. She read the sentence over and over again. The phrase over and over again can be substituted with one word i.e. ‘repeatedly’. Thus, the shorter sentence is: She read the sentence repeatedly. This technique can be used with students of all levels and works best with concepts and ideas that can’t be easily seen or touched, like abstracts, or anything that is not a real object. There are different ways to use substitution: •
Synonyms – When you call someone, do you sometimes have to wait? You have to hold. Do trains usually run on time? They are on schedule. Antonyms – Is a Ferrari a cheap car?(No) It’s an expensive car. Substitution works very well with phrasal verbs, which usually have a one-­‐word equivalent: Do you put off going to the dentist? You postpone seeing your dentist. However, one should be careful when using words that are not exact synonyms or antonyms. Given below is a list of one word substitutes. Egoist (also Egotist): a person who is selfish, self absorbed and self centered Epitaph: inscription on a tombstone Fatalist: one who believes in the philosophical doctrine of fatalism Atheist: a person who does not believe in God or deities Amphibian: a land animal that breeds in water Autobiography: an account of somebody's life written by that person Biography: an account of somebody's life written by another person Cannibal: somebody who eats human flesh Omnivorous: an animal or a human being that eats any kind of food Illiterate: a person who cannot read or write Inflammable: something that is quickly and easily set on fire and burned Task 1: Give one word substitutes for the following. 1.
An unmarried woman is called a -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐ 2.
A person who sells fish is called a -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐ A person who writes plays is called a -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐ A person who leaves in a rented building is called a -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐ A place where birds are kept is called a -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐ A place where monks live is called a -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐ Answers 1.
spinster 2.
fish-­‐monger 3.
playwright 4.
tenant 5.
aviary 6.