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Transcript
WORLD WAR II
8th grade U.S.
History
Slide 1
Problems of Versailles




Britain and France wanted
to punish Germany
Germany did not believe it
had started war
Reparations were too high
League of Nations was weak



Germany, Russia, US not
members
Allies did not come through
with land promises for Italy
Russian resentment with
loss of territory when they
surrendered to Germany
Slide 2
Problems for Europe
• Germany cannot pay reparations
• Italy has economic & political
problems
• Massive inflation (Italy & Germany)
• Great Depression ends any hope of
reparations
• US isolationism limits our
involvement
• Fear of a Socialist/Communist
revolution
• Dictators promise to restore
prosperity
• TURN AND TALK: Think about what you
would do or say if a dictator promised
you the help you and your family will
need to get out of turmoil. Would you
support the dictator? Why?
Slide 3
Slide 4
Reasons for the Rise of
Dictators in Europe
• Severe economic problems
• Fear of Socialism/Communism
• League of Nations does nothing
• Anger over Versailles
• U.S. isolationism
Slide 5
THINK PAIR SHARE The
publishers of a new children’s
encyclopaedia have asked
young people to define what
the terms ‘democracy’ &
‘dictatorship mean today.
With your partner or group
write a short definition of
these words.
Slide 6
• Democracy
• Dictatorship
• Government is determined
through free elections that
allow all citizens to vote.
• Voters can choose between
different candidates and
parties.
• Rule of law - Everyone has to
follow the laws passed by the
government
• Basic freedoms, e.g. speech,
religion, press, assembly
(demonstrate)
• Due process - No one is
arrested or put on trial
without first being made
aware of the evidence
against them
• No free elections – elections
(if any) are controlled by
government
• Voters cannot choose
between different candidates
and parties
• Some people do not have to
follow the law
• Little or no basic freedoms
• No Due Process – People that
dislike the government are
arrested and imprisoned
without evidence
Slide 7
What is the difference between a
democracy and a dictatorship?
Slide 8
Rise to Power
Slide 9
Adolf Hitler
Birth
• Adolf Hitler was
born on April 20,
1889 in Braunau,
Austria.
• Adolf was 1 of 6
children - 3 of who
died at early ages
Slide 10
Parents
Alois Schickelgruber Hitler was a customs official who
was illegitimate by birth. His father, Adolf’s
grandfather, may have been Jewish. He died when
Adolf was 14 and left him a small inheritance.
Klara Hitler was very young when she married the
older Alois. She showered young Adolf with love and
affection. Adolf carried a picture of his mom until the
day he died. She died of breast cancer when Adolf
was 18 years old.
Slide 11
Education
• Attended a Benedictine Monastery School where he
took part in the choir.
• When it was time to choose a secondary school,
Adolf wanted to become an artist.
• His father wanted him to become a civil servant, but
after his father died, he dropped out of high school
and attempted to get into the Vienna Academy of
Fine Arts - he failed.
• The following slides are examples of Adolf’s artwork.
Slide 12
A Piece of Artwork from Adolf
Slide 13
Another of Adolf’s Works.
What do you see in his work?
Slide 14
Years in Vienna
• After his mother died, Adolf (now 18) decided to
move to Austria to pursue his dream of becoming a
great artist.
• Again he failed to gain entrance into the Academy
• He eventually sold all his possessions and became a
homeless drifter who slept on park benches and ate
at soup kitchens throughout Vienna (age 19)
• Adolf did manage to sell some paintings and
postcards, but remained impoverished
Slide 15
Vienna - Importance
• Influenced by the antiSemitic mayor of
Vienna, Karl Lueger
• Became interested in
the idea of German
nationalism.
• Also received first
taste of politics
Slide 16
Military Service
• Adolf left Austria at the age of 24 to avoid mandatory
military service that was required of all men.
• He did sign up for
military service at the
start of WW I.
• He joined a Bavarian
Unit of the German
Army.
• This is a picture of
Hitler listening to an
enlistment speech.
Slide 17
World War I
• Excited to fight for
Germany.
• Found a home fighting
for the Fatherland.
• Highest rank held was
corporal.
• Was a regimental
messenger, not an
easy job at all.
Slide 18
Military Record
• Was awarded the Iron
Cross twice. (5 medals
overall)
• Highest military honor
in German Army.
• Single handedly
captured 4 French
soldiers.
• Blinded by gas attack
towards end of war.
Slide 19
German Loss in WW I
• Hitler was devastated when he heard the news of the
German surrender.
• He was appalled at the anti-war sentiment among
the German civilians.
• Believed there was an anti-war conspiracy that
involved the Jews and Marxists (Communists).
• Also, felt that the German military did not lose the
war, but that the politicians (mostly Jews) at home
were responsible for the defeat.
Slide 20
Life after WW I
• Hitler was depressed after
WW I.
• Still in the army, he became
an undercover agent whose
job was to root out Marxists
(Communists)
• Also, lectured about the
dangers of Communism and
Jews
Slide 21
German Worker’s Party
• Hitler was sent to
investigate this group
in Munich in 1919.
• He went to a meeting
and gave a speech.
• He was then asked to
become a member,
which he did
Slide 22
NAZI Party is Formed
• Hitler began to think big
for the German Worker’s
Party
• Began placing ads for
meetings in anti-Semitic
newspapers
• Hitler changed the name
to National Socialist
German Worker’s Party
or the NAZIS
Slide 23
Party Platform
• Hitler drafted a
platform of 25 points
• Revoke Versailles
Treaty
• Revoke civil rights of
Jews
• Confiscate any war
profits
Slide 24
Besides changing the party
name, the red flag with the
SWASTIKA was adopted as the
party symbol
Beer Hall Putsch
• October 30, 1923
• Hitler held a rally in
Munich beer hall and
declared revolution
• Led 2000 men in take
over of Bavarian
Government
• It failed and Hitler
was imprisoned
Slide 25
Trial and Jail
•At his trial (Hitler was charged with
treason), he used the opportunity to
speak about the NAZI platform and
spread his popularity.
•The whole nation suddenly knew
who Adolf Hitler was and what he
stood for
•He was sentenced to five years, but
actually only served about 9 months
•When he left prison, he was ready
to go into action again.
Slide 26
Mein Kampf
• Hitler’s book “My Struggle” wrote while in jail
• Sold 5 million copies, made
him rich
• Topics included: Jews were
evil, Germans were superior
race, Fuhrer principal, dislike
of Communism and
Democracy and need to
conquer Russia
• Turn and Talk What would a
book like this do to a rising
leader? Do you think this
helped him rise to
dictatatorship? Why?
Slide 27
Legal Rise to Power
• Used popularity from failed
revolution and book to
seize power legally
• Spoke to mass audiences
about making Germany a
great nation again
• Nazi Party:
– 1930 = 18% of vote
– 1932 = 30% of vote
– Hitler becomes
Chancellor in 1933
Slide 28
Appeal of Hitler
• Germany was in the midst of an economic
depression with hyper-inflation
• Hitler was a WW I hero who talked about bringing
glory back to the “Fatherland”
• He promised the rich industrialists that he would
end any communist threat in Germany
• Constantly blamed Jews for Germany’s problems,
not the German people.
• Hitler was an excellent public speaker.
Slide 29
Strong Arm Tactics
• The “Brownshirts” or SA
(Stormtroopers)
– Wore brown shirts, pants
and boots
– Numbered almost
400,000 by 1932
– Used to put down
opposition parties
– Threatened and beat up
Jews and anti-Nazi voters
Slide 30
Dictator
• “Reichstag fire” gives Hitler
total power
– A fire in the German
legislature was blamed on the
Communist Party
– All Communist seats were
given to Nazis
• In 1933, all parties were
outlawed except the Nazi
party
• People’s civil rights were
suspended
• “Night of the Long Knives”
Brown Shirts killed any
remaining opposition to
Hitler.
Slide 31
Absolute Power
• German economy was
improving, people
were happy
• Hitler had no political
opposition
• 1st concentration
camp opened in 1933
• Began rearming the
German Army
Slide 32
"If I can send the flower of the German
nation into the hell of war without the
smallest pity for the spilling of precious
German blood, then surely I have the
right to remove millions of an inferior
race that breeds like vermin."
- Adolf Hitler
What is your reaction to this quote? Take a minute
to discuss with your group.
Slide 33
swastika, Nazi party symbol
Hitler’s Policies
• Anti-Semitism
– Banned from law,
government, teaching,
medicine
– Lost citizenship
– Banned Jew – non-Jew
marriage
– Forced to wear yellow
Stars of David
• Ignores Versailles
– Builds military
– Restores economy &
shows strength to world
Slide 34
Nov. 9 & 10, 1938
Kristallnacht - Night of the Broken Glass
Purge against Jews in Germany
96 Jews killed
Over 1,000 synagogues burned
30,000 Jews arrested sent to camps
Considered the start of the Holocaust
Hitler’s policies:
- He created a totalitarian state, in which the Nazi’s
controlled every aspect of German society.
- Citizens must always obey the government, and the
government could not be criticized.
- Hitler built up his armed forces, in violation of the Versailles
Treaty.
- Jews had their German citizenship taken away, they were
forbidden from using public facilities, and they were removed
from most types of work.
They were dehumanized or considered less than human.
Slide 35
Dehumanization
• In November 1937 'The
Eternal Jew' exhibition opened
in Munich, claiming to show
the 'typical outward features'
of Jews The exhibition also
attempted to 'expose' a worldwide 'Jewish-Bolshevik'
conspiracy.
• It shows a Jew holding gold
coins in one hand and a whip
in the other. Under his arm is a
map of the world, with the
imprint of the hammer and
sickle.
Slide 36
Dehumanization
Circa 1935: two Jewish pupils are humiliated before their classmates. The
inscription on the blackboard reads "The Jew is our greatest enemy!
Beware of the Jew!".
Slide 37
Dehumanization
German soldiers cutting the beard of an
elderly Jew in Poland.
Slide 38
Dehumanization
German soldiers brutalizing a Jew in
Poland.
Slide 39
Dehumanization
A synagogue burns in Siegen, Germany, on November
10, 1938 (Kristallnacht).
Slide 40
Dehumanization Activity
Interpersonal Question:
After reviewing and discussing dehumanization, how would you react to this?
What are some examples of dehumanization that you know about in the world
today? In your guides, write your thoughts we will share these with the class in 5
minutes.
Slide 41
- Thousands of Jews were sent to concentration camps.
- Eventually, Hitler planned on killing all of Europe’s Jews in
a plan he called the Final Solution.
- Today the result of his plan is referred to as the Holocaust.
- We will talk more about this later.
Slide 42
Mussolini Italy
• 1922 Prime Minister
– Improves economy
•
Imperialism
– 1924 - Treaty with Yugoslavia
- takes Fiume – promised by
Versailles
– 1935 – Invades Ethiopia
What does this do for Italy?
• Sanctioned by League of
Nations – no teeth
• US does nothing
– Neutrality Acts prevent us
from aiding either side in a
conflict.
Slide 43
Guernica – Pablo Picasso
Spanish Civil War – 1930’s
Hitler & Mussolini support fascist
Franco
Rome – Berlin Axis is established
1939 Franco wins – Establishes fascist
dictatorship but stays neutral.
Fascists in Italy
• Fascist dictator Benito
Mussolini seized power in
Italy in 1922.
Mussolini’s policies:
- He controlled the press and
banned criticism of the
government.
Slide 44
Benito Mussolini, 1936
Fascism
• A totalitarian government under a dictator with strict controls
of social and economic policies
• Uses terror, censorship, nationalism and racism to maintain
power and put down any opposition.
• Nazism is a form of Fascism
Adolf Hitler – Nazism
Slide 47
Benito Mussolini – Fascism
Fascism in Europe
Benito Mussolini
• Italian
• Invaded
Ethiopia in
1935.
•Took
Somalia,
and Fiume
• German
• Anger over the
Versailles treaty
• Believed
Germans were
a superior
• Formed a totalitarian “Aryan” race.
government
• Blamed the Jews
for Germany’s
problems.
• Used economic unrest and fears
of communism to gain support.
Slide 48
Adolf Hitler
• Used nationalism to
gain support.
Rise of Totalitarian Regimes
In a Totalitarian country, individual rights are not viewed as
important as the needs of the nation
Communist
Dictatorship
(USSR)
Fascist
Dictatorship
(Germany, Italy)
Totalitarianism
Military
Dictatorship
(Japan)
Slide 49
49
Fascism: military
government based on
racism & nationalism
with strong support
from the business
community
Appeasement – Preserve Peace
• German aggression
– 1936 – Rhineland
• France & Soviets want
military action but Britain
refuses
– 1938 – Austria & Sudetenland
• British Prime Minister Neville
Chamberlain pursues a policy
of appeasement
• Gives in to Hitler in exchange
for promise of peace
– 1938 - Munich Agreement
• Chamberlain cedes Sudetenland to Hitler
• Hitler promises no further expansion
• Hitler feels Britain & France are weak & will do nothing to
stop him
• Chamberlain proclaims “peace in our time”
Slide 51
Europe 1939
Slide 52
Appeasement - One day a father is at the shopping mall with
his small daughter. They pass a candy store and the child asks
for some candy. When the father says no, the child starts crying.
She continues crying until the father buys her some candy, but
he makes her promise that the candy is the last thing she’ll ask
for while they are at the mall. She agrees.
A few minutes later they pass a
cookie and once again she starts
crying when the father says no.
Frustrated, the father agrees to
buy her a cookie if she stops crying
and promises not to ask for
anything else. The little girl
agrees. Five minutes later they
pass a toy store. What do you
think happens?
Slide 5053
World War II Visual Metaphor
Slide 53
War Begins in Europe
• 1939 – Germany Invades
Czechoslovakia & makes demands on
Poland
– Chamberlain feels betrayed – pledges
to support Poland
– Nazi – Soviet Pact – Stalin agrees not to
interfere with Hitler’s plan to invade
Poland
– Hitler invades Poland – Britain &
France declare war – WW II
begins
• 1940 – France falls to Hitler only
Britain left
• June 22, 1941 - Germany launches a
surprise attack and invades the Soviet
Union which brings them into the war
on the British side.
Slide 54
The Holocaust
Slide 55
The Holocaust
• The Nazis killed over
6 million Jews during
World War II, which
became known as the
Holocaust.
• The Nazis also killed
approximately 6
million Poles, Slavs,
and Gypsies as well
during the Holocaust.
Slide 56
• Jews were forced to work in labor camps in order to help the Nazis.
• Those too old, young, sick, crippled, and the mentally retarded were
immediately sent to concentration camps where they were put to death.
• After 1942 some concentration camps were built to function solely as death or
extermination camps
Slide 57
Jewish
women at
forced labor
pulling
hopper cars
of quarried
stones in the
Plaszlow
concentration
camp, 1944.
The Final Solution
• The decision to systematically kill all the Jews
of Europe was made at a conference in Berlin,
in January, 1942.
– Hitler called it "the final solution of the Jewish
question“
• Why not just continue forced slave labor?
– Jewish populations in Eastern Europe were too
large – too many slaves for camps to handle
• Germany only 500,000 Jews - 0.75% of population
• Poland – 3,000,000 Jews – 9.5% of population
• Russia – 2,500,000 Jews – 3.4% of population
Slide 58
Prisoners from Buchenwald concentration camp building the WeimarBuchenwald railroad line.
Slide 59
Mistreated, starved prisoners in the Ebensee concentration camp, Austria.
Slide 60
Prisoners from Buchenwald awaiting execution in the forest
near the camp.
Slide 61
A mass execution of Jews in Nazi
occupied Soviet Union.
Slide 62
A mass execution of Jews in Nazi occupied Soviet Union. The
SS man is firing at a Jewish woman who is wounded and trying
to get up.
Slide 63
A mass grave in the Bergen-Belsen camp, 1944
Slide 64
One of the cremation pits used to burn the victims of the gas
chambers in Auschwitz, 1944
Slide 65
Bones of anti-Nazi German women are visible in the
crematoria in the concentration camp at Weimar,
Germany. April 14, 1945.
Slide 66
Slide 67
A crate full of rings confiscated from prisoners
in Buchenwald and found by American troops
in a cave adjoining Buchenwald.
A pile of the victims glasses at
Auschwitz.
Slide 68
Slide 69
A prisoner in a compression
chamber loses
consciousness (and later
dies) during an experiment
to determine altitudes at
which aircraft crews could
survive without oxygen.
Dachau, Germany, 1942.
A Romani (Gypsy) victim of Nazi medical experiments to
make seawater potable. Dachau concentration camp,
Germany, 1944.
Slide 70
Slide 71
The barracks
at
Buchenwald.
Elie Wiesel
is among the
prisoners on
the far right
of the center
bunk. This
photograph
was taken on
April 16,
1945, just
after the
liberation of
Buchenwald.
SS officer
Eichelsdoerfer, the
commandant of the
Kaufering IV
concentration camp,
stands among the
corpses of prisoners
killed in his camp.
Slide 72
A German girl is overcome as she walks past the exhumed bodies of
some of the 800 slave workers murdered by the SS guards near
Namering, Germany, and laid here so that townspeople may view the
work of their Nazi leaders.
Slide 73
German civilians under U.S. military escort are forced to see a wagon
loaded with corpses in Buchenwald.
Slide 74
Liberation Scene at Mauthausen, Austria 1945
Slide 75
General Dwight D. Eisenhower with other Army members view
the bodies of executed prisoners while on a tour of Ohrdruf
concentration camp on April 12, 1945
Slide 76
Never Again?
Slide 77
The Rise and Fall of Imperial
Japan.
Slide 78
A Quick Rise

Japan benefited from
World War I
– Trade with eastern
markets
– Gained territories in Asia
– Russia weakened from
war
• 3rd largest navy in the
world
• Lacks world respect
• Western powers’
colonies limit Japan’s
expansion
Slide 79
General Hideki Tojo
• Prime Minister of Japan and
primary military leader.
• Rose to power in the
Manchukuo ‘Kwantung’ army
• Nicknamed the ‘razor’
• Keen on ultra nationalistic
secret societies.
• Responsible for 8m civilian
deaths, countless deaths and
experiments on prisoners of
war.
• Executed for war crimes 1948
• Apologized for military
atrocities on his death.
• Commemorated at the
Yasukuni Shrine.
Slide 80
Gradual Japanese advances.
• The Japanese army gradually crept
Southward, through China, fighting all the
way.
Slide 81
Japanese occupation of China.
• By 1938 There were 1 million Japanese troops in
China.
• By 1941 2 million troops- but this was still not
enough.
• Japan could occupy only key areas and cities.
– Didn’t have enough soldiers.
• Out of fear they adopted The ‘Three All Campaign’
(‘Kill All, Burn All, Destroy All’)
• By 1945 4 million Chinese people had died and 60
million had been displaced.
• Many Chinese cities lay in ruins.
• If you were a president or leader of a country at that time
what would you have done about Japan? Would your
country remain Isolationist? Get involved? Cut trade to
Japan?
82
Slide
1
Slide 2
Japanese soldiers ‘conquer’ the Great
Wall 1933
Slide 83
The Japanese army rapidly advanced
through China, Indo-China, Malaya, and
Indonesia.
- Some Asian people
welcome them as liberators
from western Imperialists
- Soon they were generally
feared as new imperialists,
not as Asian liberators
• They treated non-Japanese
peoples with ruthless
cruelty.
Slide 84
A baby caught up in the bombing of a Shanghai
railway station
Slide 85
Nearing War
•
Japan needed natural
resources
– 1931 – Manchuria
• 1937 – sinks USS Panay
– Apology averts war
• 1940 – Joins Italy and
Germany
– Rome – Berlin – Tokyo Axis
• U.S. warns but no action
– Aggression continues
– Washington Naval Conference
– limits Japan Navy at 3rd
Slide 86
Nearing War
Japan wanted control of SE Asia resources
Control of SE Asia would give them control of
oil, rubber, and tin needed by the U.S.
US embargos oil and steel shipments to
Japan
Japan joins Axis – Germany and Italy
FDR froze Japanese assets in US
Slide 87
Japan Had Three Choices
1. Abandon ambitions in China and SE Asia
2. Work out compromise with US to get oil
and steel
3. Attack Dutch and British colonies in SE
Asia and attack American bases
 In 1941 they plan the attack on Pearl
Harbor while pretending to negotiate
Slide 88
Imperial Japanese
Expansion up to 1941
Slide 89
Japan’s Weapons to control the Pacific.
The ‘Zero’ Fighter Plane.
• Much faster and more
maneuverable than any
other fighter at the
time.
Slide 90
Slide 91
Big Battleships on Pacific
Slide 92
The aircraft carrier.
• Only a few people realized that old battleships were finally
made obsolete by the airplane.
• Pacific naval wars were to be decided by planes from ships,
not by big guns.
Slide 93
Soldiers
• Soldiers, highly skilled in
attack, defense, and
jungle warfare.
• Highly motivated to
defend their Emperor
and their land to the
death.
Slide 94
Britain's Response to Expansion of Japan
• The British government- alarmed at the
rapid Japanese advance-decided to send
some big warships to show strength.
• They ignored the advice of the navy that
already knew that airplanes could now sink
ships easily.
• Both ships were sunk by over 100 Japanese
planes.
• It was a major blow to Britain. Another
pointer to the new nature of naval warfare.
Slide 95
The Prince of Wales and the Repulse
Both Sunk Dec 1941.
Slide 96
The Japanese Plan for Expanding further in 1941
• By November 1941 the
Japanese were poised
to even strike Australia!
• Campaigns to attack
Burma and Midway
Island were to be a
prelude to this.
Slide 97
U.S. Involvement In World
War II
Slide 98
Depression Diplomacy
- Isolationists passed a
series of Neutrality Acts in
the 1930’s.
• banned arms sales or
loans to countries at
war.
• warned U.S. citizens
not to travel on ships of
countries at war.
- FDR announced the
Good Neighbor Policy in
an attempt to improve U.S.
relations with Latin
America.
Slide 99
U.S. Gets involved indirectly by
Roosevelt providing aid to the Allies:
Lend-Lease - 1939
US “lent” war materials to
cash-strapped Great Britain
Atlantic Charter
US secretly meets with England
to commit to defeating
Germany
London Firefighter Tackles an Air Raid Blaze
Slide 100
100
Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor
• December 7, 1941
– Surprise attack
– Sank or destroyed 8
battleships
– Damaged 10 other ships
– Destroyed 188 planes
– Killed over 2,300 Americans
– Luckily the 3 aircraft carriers
were outside the harbor
• December 8, 1941
– U.S. declares war on Japan
USS Shaw at Pearl Harbor
• December 11, 1941
– Germany & Italy declare
war on the U.S.
– U.S. declares war on
Germany & Italy
Slide 101
Pearl Harbor Movie
World War II
• Allied Powers – Big 3
– United States
– Great Britain
– Soviet Union
Slide 102
• Axis Powers
– Germany
– Italy
– Japan
Slide 103
The War in Europe
• U.S. & Britain agree to focus on defeating Germany
in Europe before focusing on Japan in the Pacific
Opening a Second Front
Help!! Attack
the Nazis on
the Western
Front, quick!
• In order to ease
pressure on the Soviet
Union, Joseph Stalin
asked the Allies to open
a Western front by
crossing the English
Channel and attacking
the Germans in France.
• This attack does not happen for 2 years – keep giving Stalin excuses
• Claim not to be ready
• Do not trust Stalin – Fear Soviets/Communism will take over all of Europe
• Roots of the Cold War
104
Slide
1
Slide 2
The War in Europe
• Soviets fight alone on the Eastern Front
–
–
–
–
8/22/1942 - Battle of Stalingrad – Finally Stop Germans
Continue through Poland and into Germany
May 2, 1945 – Battle of Berlin - Germany’s capital is captured
More casualties than all countries combined
• U.S & Great Britain on the Western Front
– Nov. 1942 U.S. & Britain - North Africa & Italy
• Soft underbelly
– June 6, 1944 – D-Day – Operation Overlord
• Invasion of Normandy, France
– December 16, 1944 – Battle of the Bulge
• Germany’s last big offensive battle
– April 30, 1945 – Hitler commits suicide
– May 7, 1945 Germany surrenders
Slide 105
Slide 106
War in the Pacific
• Japan takes Burma, Hong Kong,
Malaya & Thailand
• U.S. Strategy of Island Hopping
– Battle of Coral Sea
• U.S. stops invasion
• Disables 2 aircraft carriers
– Battle of Midway
• Turning point of the war
• Japan forced to retreat
– Iwo Jima, Okinawa & Philippines
• U.S. ready to invade Japan
• Atomic bomb makes invasion
unnecessary
• September 2, 1945 – Japan
surrenders
Slide 107
Slide 108
Major Battles That Turned
The Tide For The Allies
Slide 109
• In 1943, the Allies invaded Italy from North Africa,
eventually liberating Rome from Nazi control in June of 1944.
Slide 110
Allied
advance in
El Guettar,
Tunisia,
North
Africa,
3/21/43.
The Tide Turns
• The Allies enjoyed victories in the Pacific, North Africa, Italy
and Russia.
• In Italy, Mussolini had been overthrown and the new
government joined the Allies.
Slide 111
April 29, 1945
Mussolini and
15 other fascist
leaders are
executed and
hanged at an
Esso gas
station in the
Piazzale Loreto
in Milan.
World War II: Major Battles (1942 – 1944)
Battle of Midway Island:
When? – June 1942
Where? – Midway
Island (Pacific
Islands)
Results? - The U.S.
sank four Japanese
aircraft carriers.
Importance? – Limits
Japan's ability to attack
Hawaii and other Allied
positions – Turning
point of the war
Slide 112
World War II: Major Battles (1942 – 1944)
Campaign for Guadalcanal:
• When? – August 1942
• Where? Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands (Pacific Islands)
• Results? – The U.S. defeated the Japanese, gaining
control of the island.
• Importance? – Guadalcanal became a military base from
which to counterattack the Japanese.
Slide 113
Soldiers take a breather after making camp. The 25th Infantry
Division was a large part of the effort to force the Japanese off
Guadalcanal.
Slide 114
World War II: Major Battles (1942 – 1944)
Battle of El Alamein:
• When? – October 1942
• Where? - El Alamein, Egypt
• Results? – British and U.S. forces drove the German army,
led by General Rommel, from Egypt west into Tunisia.
• Importance? – U.S. Gen. Eisenhower led the Allies in an
invasion of Tunisia, from Algeria, forcing Rommel to
surrender in May of 1943.
Slide 115
Slide 116
Australian
soldiers at the
Battle of El
Alamein
• The planned invasion of Europe was called Operation
Overlord, and General Eisenhower was named commander of
the Allied forces in Europe.
Slide 117
• Eisenhower had to organize the eventual invasion of
Normandy France, known as D-Day, which involved over 3
million Allied forces.
General Eisenhower gives the order of the day "Full victory - Nothing
else" to paratroopers in England just before they board airplanes in
the first D-Day assault.
Slide 118
World War II: Major Battles (1942 – 1944)
D-Day:
• When? – June 6, 1944
• Where? – Normandy, France
• Results? – A fleet of 4,000 ships carried Allied troops to
Normandy in order to invade France in an attempt to
defeat the Germans.
• Importance? – On August 25, 1944, Allied forces
liberated Paris from Nazi rule.
Slide 119
Slide 120
American soldiers wading through water into Nazi machine-gun fire on the coast of
France.
Slide 121
At Utah Beach, members of an American landing party help
others whose landing craft was sunk by the Germans off the
coast of France. The survivors reached Utah Beach, near
Cherbourg, by using a life raft.
Slide 122
Crossed rifles in the sand placed as a tribute to this fallen
soldier.
Slide 123
Medics help an injured American soldier.
Slide 124
American assault troops of the 16th Infantry Regiment, injured while
storming Omaha Beach, wait by the Chalk Cliffs for evacuation to a
field hospital for further medical treatment. Collville-sur-Mer,
Normandy.
Slide 125
World War II: Major Battles (1942 – 1944)
Battle of the Bulge:
• When? – December 16, 1944
• Where? – border areas near Luxembourg, France and
Germany
• Results? – The Germans began a counterattack against
the Allies as the Allies attempted to drive the Germans
completely out of France.
• Importance? – This battle showed the desperation of the
German forces. While the Germans were able to slow
down the Allied advance, they could not stop it
completely.
Slide 126
1. rationing - conserve food for the
troops, 2. women in blue collar jobs replace men to maintain production, 3.
scrap drives - conserve resources for the
war effort, 4. victory gardens - conserve
food for the troops, 5. War Bonds - raise
money for the war effort
The Home front Propaganda
Slide 127
Man The Guns
• Masculine strength was a common visual
theme in patriotic posters. Pictures of
powerful men and mighty machines
illustrated America`s ability to channel its
formidable strength into the war effort.
American muscle was presented in a
proud display of national confidence.
Slide 128
Slide 129
Slide 130
It’s A Women’s War
• In the face of acute wartime labor shortages, women were
needed in the defense industries, the civilian service, and
even the Armed Forces. Despite the continuing 20th century
trend of women entering the workforce, publicity campaigns
were aimed at those women who had never before held jobs.
Poster and film images glorified and glamorized the roles of
working women and suggested that a woman`s femininity
need not be sacrificed. Whether fulfilling their duty in the
home, factory, office, or military, women were portrayed as
attractive confident, and resolved to do their part to win the
war.
Slide 131
Slide 132
New Roles for Women
· There was an urgent need for
women to enter the workforce
to help with the war effort and
to keep the nation’s economy
going.
· Over 6 million women
entered the workforce,
replacing men that joined the
military.
Slide 133
1942: a woman grinds the
points on drills, and the drills
will be used in the war effort.
· “Rosie the Riveter”
symbolized the millions
of women that worked in
factories producing
planes, tanks, ships, and
other war goods.
· Women enjoyed a
newfound confidence in
their ability and right to
work outside of the home
and many began to earn
salaries equal to men.
Slide 134
We Can Do It!
Rosie the Riveter
Artist: J. Howard Miller
“Rosie the Riveter”
Lyrics by Redd Evans and John Jacob Loeb, 1942
All the day long,
Whether rain or shine,
She's a part of the assembly
line.
She's making history,
Working for victory,
Rosie the Riveter.
Keeps a sharp lookout for
sabatoge,
Sitting up there on the
fuselage.
That little girl will do more
than a male will do.
Slide 135
Rosie's got a boyfriend,
Charlie.
Charlie, he's a Marine.
Rosie is protecting Charlie,
Working overtime on the
riveting machine.
When they gave her a
production "E,"
She was as proud as she could
be.
There's something true about,
Red, white, and blue about,
Rosie the Riveter.
United We Win
• During World War II, racial restriction and segregation were
facts of life in the U.S. military. Nevertheless, an
overwhelming majority of African Americans participated
wholeheartedly in the fight against the Axis powers. They did
so, however, with an eye toward ending racial discrimination
in American society. This objective was expressed in the call,
initiated in the black press for the "Double V"-victory over
fascism abroad and over racism at home.
The Government was well aware of the demoralizing effects
of racial prejudice on the American population and its impact
on the war effort. Consequently, it promoted posters,
pamphlets, and films highlighting the participation and
achievement of African Americans in military and civilian life..
Slide 136
Slide 137
Mobilizing for Victory
· During World War II,
10 million men were
drafted, and another 6
million men and women
enlisted.
Slide 138
Slide 139
Warnings
• Public relations specialists advised the U.S.
Government that the most effective war
posters were the ones that appealed to the
emotions. The posters shown here played on
the public's fear of the enemy. The images
depict Americans in imminent danger-their
backs against the wall, living in the shadow of
Axis domination.
Slide 140
Slide 141
Slide 142
Slide 143
Slide 144
He’s Watching
• Concerns about national security intensify in
wartime. During World War II, the Government
alerted citizens to the presence of enemy spies and
saboteurs lurking just below the surface of American
society. "Careless talk" posters warned people that
small snippets of information regarding troop
movements or other logistical details would be
useful to the enemy. Well-meaning citizens could
easily compromise national security and soldiers`
safety with careless talk.
Slide 145
Slide 146
Slide 147
Slide 148
Use It Up Or Wear It Out
• During the war years, gasoline, rubber,
sugar, butter, and meat were rationed.
Government publicity reminded people
that shortages of these materials
occurred because they were going to the
troops, and that civilians should take part
in conservation and salvage campaigns.
Slide 149
· The government
controlled the economy as
it did during World War I.
Examples:
- the government set prices
and rationed scarce goods
- the War Production
Board helped factories to
produce war goods
Slide 150
Slide 151
Slide 152
Slide 153
· Consumers faced a shortage of goods due to the war.
Examples:
- Many items, such as fuel and sugar, were rationed during the
war.
- No new cars were produced after 1942.
Slide 154
Slide 155
Slide 156
Slide 157
The wartime demand for goods ended the Great Depression
and unemployment fell.
Slide 158
Slide 159
Slide 160
The Home – Japanese Internment
Slide 161
Relocation of Japanese Americans
· After the attack on Pearl Harbor, many Americans questioned the loyalty of Japanese
Americans, fearing they may act as spies or help Japan invade the U.S.
Slide 162
We're gonna have to slap
the dirty little Jap
And Uncle Sam's the guy
who can do it
We'll skin the streak of
yellow from this sneaky
little fellow
And he'll think a cyclone
hit him when he's thru it
We'll take the double
crosser to the old
woodshed
We'll start on his bottom
and go to his head
Performed by Carson Robison, December 1941 – audio link
Slide 163
When we get thru with him he'll wish that he was dead
We gotta slap the dirty little Jap
We're gonna have to slap the dirty little Jap
And Uncle Sam's the guy who can do it
The Japs and all their hooey will be changed into chop suey
And the rising sun will set when we get thru it
Their alibi for fighting is to save their face
For ancestors waiting in celestial space
We'll kick their precious face down to the other place
We gotta slap the dirty little Jap
Slide 164
The Wartime
Relocation
Agency
(WRA)
forced
approximately
120,000
Japanese
Americans to
sell their
homes and
businesses and
relocate to
inland camps.
Slide 165
Slide 166
Japanese Americans were forced to live in crowded barracks
behind barbed wire. No Japanese American was ever found to
have helped the enemy.
They were
released in
1944, after
victory against
the Japanese
seemed
imminent.
Internment
camp in
Manzanar,
California
Slide 167
Many Camps Were Over Crowded
Slide 168
Japanese American Internment
Kenji - Manzanar
This is a video to the song
"Kenji" by Fort Minor, or
Mike Shinoda of Linkin Park.
It describes his family's life in
the time of World War II and
how they were put in a
Japanese Internment Camp.
Effects used in this make it
seem as though the video was
actually from 1942.
Slide 169
German American
Bund had
over 100,000
members
None were put in
camps or arrested
Several ex-Bund
members were
later found to be
German spies
Slide 170
Bund March In New York
Slide 171
Day 11
VE and VJ Days
Slide 172
Election of 1944
· FDR won an
unprecedented fourth
term in office in 1944.
· However, in April of
1945, FDR died,
forcing Vice-President
Harry Truman to
assume the Presidency.
Slide 173
Slide 174
Harry S Truman taking
the oath of office after
the death of Franklin
D. Roosevelt, April 12,
1945. The following
day, Truman spoke to
reporters and said, "...I
don't know whether
you fellows ever had a
load of hay fall on you,
but when they told me
yesterday what had
happened, I felt like the
moon, the stars, and all
the planets had fallen
on me."
Victory in Europe
· By April of 1945,
American and Soviet
troops were closing in on
Berlin.
· Adolf Hitler committed
suicide on April 30, and
Germany officially
surrendered on May 7.
Slide 175
The endless procession of
German prisoners
marching through the
ruined city streets to
captivity.
Red army soldiers raising the Soviet flag on the roof of the Reichstag (German
Parliament) in Berlin, Germany.
Slide 176
· On May 8, the
Allies
celebrated V-E
Day (Victory
in Europe).
Churchill waves
to crowds in
Britain after
broadcasting to
the nation that the
war with
Germany had
been won, May 8,
1945.
Slide 177
V-E Day Celebrations in New York City, May 8, 1945.
Slide 178
V-E Day celebrations, Bay Street, Toronto, Canada
May 7, 1945
Slide 179
VE-Day Parade, Red Square, Moscow, Russia on 6/24/1945
Slide 180
Island Hopping in the Pacific
• The two main goals of
the U.S. in the Pacific
• Regain the Philippines.
• Invade Japan.
• The U.S. began a policy
of island hopping, using
islands as stepping-stones
towards Japan.
Slide 181
· By February of 1945, the U.S. had recaptured the Philippines
and captured the islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa.
Slide 182
Raising the
Flag on Iwo
Jima depicts
five United
States
Marines and
a U.S. Navy
corpsman
raising the
flag of the
United States
atop Mount
Suribachi
during the
Battle of Iwo
Jima
The photograph became the only photograph to win the
Pulitzer Prize in the same year as its publication, and
ultimately came to be regarded as one of the most significant
and recognizable images of the war, and possibly the most
reproduced photograph of all time.
Slide 183
Slide 184
· The Japanese continued to fight, oftentimes using kamikaze
attacks against U.S. ships.
Yoshinori Yamaguchi's plane explodes in a ball of fire.
The Yokosuka D4Y3 dive bomber piloted by Yoshinori Yamaguchi strikes the USS
Essex, November 25, 1944.
Slide 185
Slide 186
Burial at sea after
the Kamikaze
attack. Sixteen
men lost their lives
as a result of this
action.
Defeat of Japan
· The U.S. planned to invade Japan in 1945, though experts
warned that the invasion could cost over a million casualties.
Stalin, Truman and Churchill at the Potsdam
Conference.
Slide 187
· Upon learning
about the atomic
bomb, Pres.
Truman sent the
Japanese the
Potsdam
Declaration,
warning them to
surrender or face
“prompt and utter
destruction.”
· Unaware of the atomic bombs, the Japanese ignored the
Potsdam Declaration.
The first atomic bomb ever made was a uranium-enriched bomb. It was
dropped on the city of Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945.
Slide 188
Paul Tibbets, pilot of the Enola Gay, which dropped an
atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945.
Slide 189
· On August 6, 1945, the U.S. dropped an atomic bomb on
Hiroshima, Japan, killing at least 70,000 people and
destroying most of the city.
Slide 190
A Uranium bomb, the first nuclear weapon in the world, was
dropped in Hiroshima City. It was estimated that its energy was
equivalent to 15 kilotons of TNT. Aerial photograph from 80
kilometers away, taken about 1 hour after the dropping.
Slide 191
The aftermath of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima.
Slide 192
Ohmura Navy Hospital:
A 14 year old girl after the
bombing of Hiroshima at
Ohmura Navy Hospital on
August 10-11.
Slide 193
· On August 9, the U.S. dropped another atomic bomb on the
city of Nagasaki, killing at least 40,000 people.
Mushroom cloud from the
nuclear explosion over
Nagasaki rising 60,000
feet into the air on the
morning of August 9 1945
Slide 194
Slide 195
· On August 14, Japan
officially surrendered
ending World War II.
This date became known
as V-J Day (Victory
over Japan).
Slide 196
For millions of
Americans, Alfred
Eisenstaedt's 1945
LIFE photograph of a
sailor stamping a
masterly kiss on a
nurse symbolized the
cathartic joy of V-J
Day.
Crowds outside the White House celebrate V-J Day, the
Japanese surrender and the end of World War II. August 1945
Slide 197
Spread of Communism
• All of Eastern Europe become Communist and
Germany is divided?
1. At the Yalta Conference the allies decided to Divide
Germany into four zones
2. Great Britain, United States, France, and Soviet Union
each took one of the four zones.
3. Did the same with the city of Berlin
– The Soviet Union was communist, while the other
countries were non communist.
4. Later the U.S. Great Britain & France combine their
sections to form the democratic country of West
Germany; the Soviet section becomes the communist
country of East Germany See Map on next slide
198
Slide
1
Slide 2
Dividing Korea
1. Japan defeated after
WWII.
2. In the North they
surrender to the
Soviets. In the South
the surrender to the
U.S.
3. Korea is divided at the
38th parallel into North
& South Korea –
supposed to be
temporary
Slide 3
Counting The Costs
Slide 199
Cities and towns worldwide were completely destroyed and millions of
people were left homeless.
Wesel,
Germany –
97% of the
town’s
buildings
were
destroyed
by Allied
bombs.
Slide 200
Slide 201
Warsaw, Poland – August, 1944
Bataan Death March
• The
Japanese
forced about
60,000 U.S.
and Filipino
soldiers to
march 100
miles with
little food or
water after
Japan
defeated the
Philippines
in 1942.
Americans improvise to carry comrades who have collapsed
along the road from a lack of food and water.
Slide 202
• About 10,000 people died or were killed during the march.
Allied POWs
with hands
tied behind
their backs
pause during
the Bataan
Death March.
Slide 203
A war crimes investigation photo of the
disfigured leg of a survivor from
Ravensbrueck, Polish political
prisoner Helena Hegier (Rafalska),
who was subjected to medical
experiments in 1942. This photograph
was entered as evidence for the
prosecution at the Medical Trial in
Nuremberg. The disfiguring scars
resulted from incisions made by
medical personnel that were purposely
infected with bacteria, dirt, and slivers
of glass.
Slide 204
War Crimes Trials
· In 1945 and 1946, as a result of the Nuremberg Trials, 12
Nazi leaders were sentenced to death for their war crimes.
Slide 205
Goering,
Hess, Von
Ribbentrop,
and Keitel in
front row
Prosecution Points
Goering bore
responsibility for
the elimination of
Jews from political
life and for the
destruction and
takeover of Jewish
Hermann Goering:
businesses and
• Reichsmarschall
property....He was
and Luftwaffe
(Air Force) Chief quoted as saying, "I
wish you had killed
• President of the
200 Jews and not
Reichstag
destroyed such
• Director of "Four
valuable
property.”
Year Plan"
Slide 206
In the End
Goering committed
suicide on the day
before his scheduled
hanging by taking a
cyanide pill that was
smuggled into his
cell. Goering wrote
in his suicide note,
"I would have no
objection to getting
shot," but he thought
hanging was
inappropriate for a
man of his position.
Rudolf Hess
Deputy to the
Fuhrer and
Nazi Party
Leader
Slide 207
Prosecution Points
In the End
Hess was "the
engineer tending to
the Party
machinery." He
signed decrees
persecuting Jews
and was a willing
participant in
aggression against
Austria,
Czechoslovakia,
and Poland.
Hess was
sentenced to life
in prison. He
remained--lost
in his own
mental fog-- in
Spandau prison
(for many years
as its only
prisoner) until
he committed
suicide in 1987
at age 93.
•
Many top Nazis committed suicide
• Heinrich Himmler
•
•
•
Josef Goebbels
•
•
•
•
•
Orchestrated the mass deportation of Jews from their countries into waiting
ghettos and extermination camps
Captured by the Israelis in Argentina in 1962 - Tried and executed in Israel
Sadly some Nazis did escape
• Joseph Mengele
•
•
•
Minister of Propaganda, and a vehement anti-Semite
Goebbels speeches of hatred helped initiate the final solution
Killed himself, his wife and six children just after Hitler’s suicide
Some Nazis tried to escape
• Adolf Eichmann
•
•
the architect of the holocaust. He tried to breed a master race of Nordic
appearance, the Aryan race.
He committed suicide by swallowing a cyanide capsule.
Experiments included attempts to take one twin’s eyeballs and attach them to
the back of the other twin’s head
Escaped to Argentina and died without being caught in 1979
Thousands of other Nazis were found guilty of war crimes and were
imprisoned, and in some cases, executed.
Slide 208
• The Allies also tried and executed Japanese leaders accused
of war crimes including Prime Minister Hideki Tojo.
• No one in the royal family including Emperor Hirohito was
tried or punished.
One of the
earlier images
of the war to
come out from
China, this
photo appeared
in LIFE
magazine.
(Nanking,
China, 1937)
Slide 209
Hsuchow, China,
1938. A ditch full
of the bodies of
Chinese civilians,
killed by Japanese
soldiers.
Slide 210
Aitape, New Guinea, 1943.
An Australian soldier, Sgt
Leonard Siffleet, about to
be beheaded with a katana
sword. Many Allied
prisoners of war were
summarily executed by
Japanese forces during the
Pacific War.
Slide 211
Two Japanese
officers, competing
to see who could
kill (with a sword)
one hundred people
first. The bold
headline reads,
"'Incredible
Record' (in the
Contest To Cut
Down 100 People—
Mukai 106 – 105
Noda)
Slide 212
Casualties in World War II
Country
Military Dead
Military Wounded
Civilian Dead
Britain
389,000
475,000
65,000
France
211,000
400,000
108,000
Soviet Union
7,500,000
14,102,000
15,000,000
United States
292,000
671,000
2,850,000
7,250,000
5,000,000
77,500
120,000
100,000
Japan
1,576,000
500,000
300,000
Total
12,895,500
23,518,000
20,573,000
Germany
Italy
Slide 213