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Text Structure Types and Signal Words
Text Structure
Signal Words
Message to Reader
Cause/Effect or
because, due to, since,
therefore, so, as a result,
consequently, nonetheless,
if . . . then, accordingly, thus,
These signal words alert the
reader to cause(s) leading to
effect(s) or problem(s) leading to solutions.
like, just as, similar, both,
also, too, unlike, different,
but, in contrast, on the
other hand, although, yet,
either . . . or, however, while,
as well as, not only . . . but
also, comparatively, likewise,
These signal words alert the
reader to upcoming comparisons and contrasts.
moreover, as with most,
additionally, in other words,
furthermore, second, next,
then, finally, most important,
also, in fact, significantly,
imagine that, for instance,
particularly, for example, in
front, beside, near
These signal words alert the
reader to an upcoming list or
set of characteristics.
before, eventually, first, during, while as, frequently, at
the same time, after, initially,
whenever, secondly, then,
next, at last, finally, now,
recently, when, to begin with
These signal words alert
the reader to a sequence of
events, actions, or steps.
Reproduced with permission from Johnson and Karns, RTI Strategies That Work in the 3-6 Classroom.
Copyright 2012 Eye On Education, Inc., Larchmont, NY. All rights reserved.