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Learning Goal:
• I can define and correctly use Anthropology,
Psychology and Sociology terms and concepts.
• I can use ethical guidelines to develop a
position on a social issue of importance .
Learning Goal: I can
use ethical guidelines
to develop a position
on a social issue of
importance
Ethics in
Social
Science
Research
and
Experiments
• Introduction to Ethics in Social Science Research and
Experiment
• Examples of unethical experiments (video and reading)
• Group work
• Tri-Council Policy Statement - group work
Sep 16, 2013
As you watch these episodes take a note of unethical conduct
by the researchers
• Little Albert http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hBfnXACsOI
• Asch Conformity Experiment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYIh4MkcfJA
• Stanford Prison Experiment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sZwfNs1pqG0
• The Milgram Experiment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BcvSNg0HZwk
• Monster Study (1939) http://listverse.com/2008/09/07/top-10unethical-psychological-experiments/ number 2 and 10
• The Well of Despair (1950-1985)
Task:
• In your groups, create a code of ethics that you believe
should be followed when conducting social science
research/experiments
Task
• Review and discuss in your group the assigned section of the
reading and present your findings to the class
• (http://www.pre.ethics.gc.ca/pdf/eng/tcps2/TCPS_2_FINAL_W
eb.pdf
• Chapter 1 (pg 7 – 11)
• Respect for Persons (pg. 8-9)
• Concern for welfare (pg 9-10
• Justice and Conclusion (pg 10-11)
• Chapter 9 (pg.105 – 110) First Nations ...
• Preamble (pg 105-106)
• Interpreting the Ethics Framework (pg. 109 – 110)
• Present
Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical
Conduct for research involving humans
• Protecting research participants and honouring trust:
should attempt to protect the physical, social and
psychological well-being of study participants
• Anticipating harms: should be sensitive to the possible
consequences of the study and work
General Principles of APA:
• Rights to confidentiality and anonymity:
informants and other research participants should
have the right to remain anonymous
• Fair return for assistance: there should be no
economic exploitation of individual informants,
translators and research participants; fair return
should be made for their help and services
• Informed Consent: participants need to give their
permission to participate in a study and be
informed of all of the potential risks
• Falsified Data: One of the most serious ethical
breaches a researcher can commit is publishing
falsified data. If researchers knowingly published a
project using falsified data, they might be
permanently banished from the academic
community.
• Deception: Intentionally misleading subjects about
the nature of the study in which they’re
participating.
The American Sociological
Association's (ASA's) Code of
Ethics
• sets forth the principles and ethical standards
that underlie sociologists' professional
responsibilities and conduct
• Ethics = what actions are acceptable and not
acceptable in social sciences
• principles and standards should be used as
guidelines when examining everyday professional
activities
• maintain the highest levels of competence
• recognize the limitations of their expertise; and they
undertake tasks for which they are qualified by
education, training, or experience
• consult with other professionals when necessary
Principle A:
Professional Competence
• honest, fair, and respectful of others in their
professional activities—in research, teaching, practice,
and service
• do not knowingly act in ways that jeopardize either
their own or others' professional welfare
Principle B:
Integrity
• show respect for other sociologists even when they
disagree on theoretical, methodological, or personal
approaches to professional activities
• adhere to the highest scientific and professional standards
and accept responsibility for their work
Principle C:
Professional and
Scientific Responsibility
• strive to eliminate bias in their professional activities,
and they do not tolerate any forms of discrimination
based on:
• age; gender; race; ethnicity; national origin; religion;
sexual orientation; disability; health conditions; or marital,
domestic, or parental status
Principle D:
Respect for People's
Rights, Dignity, and
Diversity
• They apply and make public their knowledge in order to
contribute to the public good.
• When undertaking research, they strive to advance the
science of sociology and to serve the public good.
Principle E:
Social Responsibility
The American
Psychological Association's
(APA's) Ethical Guidelines
• Psychologists are committed to increasing the knowledge of
behavior and people’s understanding of themselves and others and
to the use of such knowledge to improve the condition of
individuals, organizations, and society.
• Psychologists respect and protect civil and human rights and the
freedom of inquiry and expression in research, teaching, and
publication. They strive to help the public in developing informed
judgments and choices concerning human behavior.
• In doing so, they perform many roles, such as researcher, educator,
diagnostician, therapist, supervisor, consultant, administrator,
social interventionist, and expert witness.
• This Ethics Code provides a common set of principles and
standards upon which psychologists build their professional and
scientific work.
• Beneficence is action that is done for the benefit of
others - to help prevent or remove harms or to improve
the situation of others.
• Non-maleficence means to “do no harm.”
• must refrain from providing ineffective treatments or
acting with malice toward patients
• many beneficial therapies also have serious risks – the
ethical issue is whether the benefits outweigh the burdens.
PRINCIPLE A:
BENEFICENCE AND
NON-MALEFICENCE
• establish relationships of trust with those with
whom they work
• uphold professional standards of conduct, accept
responsibility for their behavior, and seek to
manage conflicts of interest that could lead to
exploitation or harm
• consult and cooperate with other professionals
and institutions to the extent needed to serve the
best interests of those with whom they work
PRINCIPLE B:
FIDELITY AND RESPONSIBILITY
• promote accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness
• do not steal, cheat, or engage in fraud, or intentional
misrepresentation of fact
• have a serious obligation to consider and accommodate
the harmful effects that may arise
PRINCIPLE C:
INTEGRITY
• fairness and justice are entitled all persons to access to
and benefit from the contributions of psychology
• ensure that their potential biases do not lead to unjust
practices
PRINCIPLE D:
JUSTICE
• respect the dignity and worth of all people, and the
rights of individuals to privacy and confidentiality
• are aware of and respect differences (based on age,
gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national
origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language,
and socioeconomic status)
PRINCIPLE E:
RESPECT FOR PEOPLE’S
RIGHTS AND DIGNITY
• Should researchers be allowed to run unethical
experiments if they benefit our understanding of human
behavior and health?
• Is it morally right to use the information gained by
unethical experiments in our society?
Moral Dilemma