* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Download Key Individuals - This area is password protected
Document related concepts
French Revolution Exam Revision • Unit 4 – Area of Study One • Revolutionary ideas, leaders, movements and events. – French Revolution 1781 to 4 August 1789 – Outcome One • On completion of this unit the student should be able to evaluate the role of ideas, leaders, movements and events in the development of the revolution. The Study Design Unit 4 ◦ Area of Study Two Creating a New Society ◦ French Revolution 5 August 1789 to Year 111 (1795) (Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen to the dissolution of the Convention Year 111) ◦ Outcome Two On completion of this unit the student should be able to analyse the challenges facing the emerging new order, and the way in which attempts were made to create a new society, and evaluate the nature of the society created by the revolution. The Study Design Here We Go... • AOS1: Revolutionary ideas, leaders, movements and events. – French Revolution 1781 to 4 August 1789 The Royal Family Where does the royal authority come from? Theory Political authority- the theory of absolutism France did not have a constitution, the definition of royal power was contained in assorted documents, eg. The Fundamental Laws of the Kingdom and as an accepted practice. Religious authority- the rule by divine right The French monarch received his power directly from God. Dynasty The lineage of the royal family- the idea of a pure bloodlinethe ‘sacredness’ of the king Public perception Competence- the belief that the King can rule well. Benevolence- the belief that the King is a loving father of his people. Question: By 1789, do these ideas still exist? Why/why not? The Royal Family, cont. King Louis XVI Awkward and timid, no man appeared less like a king than Louis XVI. 20 years old when he came to the throne in 1774. On his accession, France was povertystricken and burdened with debts, and heavy taxation had resulted in widespread misery among the French people. Greatest fault was that he was always ready to listen to others and follow their advice-when this advice was good, everything was fine; but later in Louis XVI's reign the advice was bad and it cost the king his life. He was repeatedly under the influence of the beautiful but frivolous and extravagant queen, Marie Antoinette. He was also swayed by his selfish courtiers, who opposed any financial reforms. The Royal Family, cont. Queen Marie Antoinette Youngest daughter of the Austrian Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, Maria Theresa of Austria, and the Holy Roman Emperor, Francis I. Married Louis XVI on May 16, 1770. Often referred to as Madame Deficit- due to her luxurious tastes. Yet the stories of her excesses are overstated. Rather than ignoring France's growing financial crisis, she reduced the royal household staff, eliminating many unnecessary positions that were based solely on privilege. In the process she offended the nobles, adding their condemnation to the scandalous stories spread by royal hopefuls. The Social Structure under the Old Regime •Corporate society •Made up of powerful groups, enjoying special customs, laws and privileges. •Privilege •‘special deal’ worked out between the King and a certain group. The First Estate- Clergy •0.6% of the population •Owned about 10% of the land •Received tithe from the third estate- 8-10% of people’s income or value of their crops and livestock. The Second Estate- Aristocracy/Nobles •0.4% of the population •Owned 30% of the land •Dominated the highest administration roles in France •Enjoyed tax exemptions- although still paid some taxes The Third Estate •Largest group in French society •Poor, peasants, urban workers, artisans, shopkeepers, middle-class professionals, bourgeois landowners, and financiers (millionaires of their age) What issues exist within the social structure of France and what impact will this have on future events? The Enlightenment • Throughout the 18th century, the thinkers of the Enlightenment criticised the monarchy, the Catholic Church and the nobility. • For many historians it was this criticism of the Old Regime, that ultimately resulted in its demise. • Found some of its most powerful expression in the works of Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot and Rousseau. • Their ideas were extremely varied, but generally emphasised using science, progress and reason to create a more humane world. The Impact of their Ideas • The philosophes and other revolutionary leaders felt that their ideas challenged the old regime. • Historians argue that they crystallised people’s grievances. • Yet enlightenment ideas did not reach the majority of people. • Ideas of the Enlightenment were linked up with newer social movements during the 1780s, most notable the increasing confidence and ambition of the bourgeoisie and the growing doubt of some members of the privileged orders. The Financial Crisis Actual Cause •France’s involvement in four foreign wars Perceived Cause •Royal Wastefulness Institutional Causes •Wasteful, inefficient tax system Attempts to resolve the Financial Crisis Tax (fiscal) reforms proposed by Turgot (1774-1776), Necker (1776-1781), Calonne (1783-1787), Brienne (1787-1788) Calling of the Estates General 1788 The Impact of the Financial Crisis Public perception of the King’s competence- declined Resentment of Marie Antoinette Resistance by traditional bodies: the Assembly of Notables and the parlements (the Aristocratic revolt) Popular agitation Repression by the King Marxist Interpretation • For much of the 20th century the dominant interpretation of the French Revolution has been the Marxist interpretation. • Marxist historians such as George Lefebvre and Albert Soboul see the Revolution as predominantly a Bourgeois revolution. • Yet they see the revolution as going through four clear stages. 1. 2. 3. 4. The Aristocratic Revolt- 1787-1789 The Bourgeois Revolt- 1788-1789 The Popular Revolt- July 1789 The Peasant Revolt- July-August 1789 The First Phase- The Aristocratic Revolt, 1787-1788 • Privileged orders resisted the government’s attempts to make fiscal reforms. – The Assembly of Notables (22 February 1787- 25 May 1787, then November- 12 December 1788) – The Parlements (July 1787) • Their resistance was crucial, as it prevented the government from attaining international loans. • The Monarchy was forced to retreat back into authoritarianism. • This is seen as a ‘trigger’ of the French Revolutionas it progressively drew in the bourgeoisie, urban working-classes and peasants into the rebellion. The calling of the Estates General • As a result of the Aristocratic revolt- popular resistance began to gathered pace across France between May and June in 1788. • By August 1788, the French nation had slid into bankrupsy. • Brienne had no option but the call the Estates General for 1 May 1789. Cahiers de Doleances (the Books of Grievances) • Drawing up of lists of grievances to be presented to the Estates General • Nearly everyone in France contributed in some way to drawing up the books. • The process created new expectations among all social groups. • The process for each estate appears open and fair. • Yet for the Third Estate a problem arose; – Majority of peasants were illiterate and had to rely on local bourgeois to write the document for them- the process was dominated by the educated middle-class. – The final ‘general cahiers’ were not a representation of the Third Estate as a whole. The Working People- 1788-1789 • The calling of the Estates General led to a surge of optimism. • Yet the situation for the working was about to get suddenly worse: – Food crisis- a savage storm in July 1788 devastated crops around Paris- the result was increasing bread prices- with some families spending 65%-90% of their income on basic foods. – Working people began to link these problems with current political issues- including the rebelling parlements – This culminated in the Reveillon Riots of April 1789the beginning of a conflict between rich and poor. The Second Phase- the Bourgeois Revolt, 1788-1789 • This was the result of conflict over the Estates General. • At the last meeting in 1614- each estate was made up of roughly equal number of representativesmeaning that the two privileged minority orders were over represented compared with the large Third Estate- worse they voted by order- therefore the First and Second Estate would always outvote the Third Estate. The Second Phase- the Bourgeois Revolt, 1788-1789- cont. • The provincial assembly of Vizille- proposed a different system of voting – Doubling the Third Estate- giving the Third Estate twice as many representatives as the other two estates. – And instead of voting by order they vote by head • Radical pamphleteers (eg. Sieyes) began churning out pamphlets which suggested this form of voting. • In December 1788 Necker made half a decision, by doubling the Third Estate- yet trying to please the privileged he refused voting by head. The meeting of the Estates General • When the Estates General met (5 May 1789) it still reflected the hierarchies of the Old Regime. • The matter of voting had still not been settled. • The Third Estate invited other estates to join it in a common assembly- they elected Bailly (Mayor of Paris) as their president (10 June)- members of the the clergy began to join them (13-16 June)- a vast majority voted to call themselves the National Assembly (17 June). The Tennis Court Oath, June 1789 • 20 June- the deputies of the new National Assembly- arrived at the Estates General to find that they had been locked out . • They marched out of the Palace of Versailles and to a local tennis court, big enough to hold them all. • It was there that the deputies swore the Tennis Court Oath- under Bailly’s leadership. – Remain until the nation is given a constitution • Meanwhile the clergy had voted to join the national assembly and did so two days later. The Third Phase- the Popular Rising, July 1789 • As a result of all the points above by July 1789 Paris was ready to explode. • The King called for military intervention to put an end to the popular agitation. • The radical bourgeoisie were challenging royal authority- they knew that the popular rising could aid their cause. • The Parisian crowd was spoiling for a fight- bourgeois such as Desmoulins and Danton, began calling for the people to arm themselves and rebel. • But worse of all the army was beginning to defect. The Storming of the Bastille • 14 July, 1789 • 30,000 people attacked Les Invalides, a military hospital- the crowd looted the hospital and seized a battery of 12 cannons and 40,000 muskets and dragged them across town. • Their target was the royal prison of the Bastille- believed to be an emotive symbol of the Old Regime- in search of gunpowder and shot. – The crowd attempted first to negotiate a handover – When that failed they broke into the courtyard- the guards opened fire, killing approx. 98 people – The crowd was reinforced when approx. 60 French guard arrived. – The governor of the Bastille de Launay was forced to surrender. The Fourth Phase- the Peasant Revolt (The Great Fear), July- August 1789 • News of events in Paris spread to the provincial cities and countryside- where revolutionary outbreaks also began to occur. • This rebellion sprang from the long-term anger over feudal dues, hunting rights, tithes, royal taxes and bread prices. • The bad harvest of 1788 also greatly affected peasant families. • A whole village population, led by their officials, would systematically go from one castle to another, breaking into the strongroom which contained the feudal documents and burning them. The August Decrees- 4 August 1789 • The reports of the peasant revolts terrified the deputies of the National Assembly- as many bourgeois deputies were themselves landowners. • This led to the night of ‘Patriotic Delirium’- where attention was paid to the rebellion in the countryside. • Nearly 100 deputies (the Breton Club)- asked that the assembly recognise the grievances of the peasants and relieve them of the feudal dues. • The debate was chaotic and emotional- some nobles gave up their privilege- this led to the stirring introduction of the August Decrees- abolishing feudalism altogether. – – – – Abolish privilege Establish equal responsibility for taxation Abolish venal offices End of feudal dues. • Yet this took time as deputies felt financially they could not abolish feudalism altogether, or cancel feudal dues. • It was not until 1792 and 1793- that the assembly finally abolished feudal duesas the peasants had simply stopped paying them. • Summarise the four stages which according to Marxist historians makes up the French Revolution? • By August 1789, who held power in France? • What were the key revolutionary ideals of 1789? And they all lived happily ever after... • Remember this Area of Study is about analysing the impact of ideas, leaders, movements and events on creating a revolutionary situation in France. • So lets think about that now. Ideas • Think about the ideas that came out of the Enlightenment- ideas relating to Liberty, Equality and Property- how influential were these? • Think about the documents we read by Sieyes and Mirabeau- what were their ideas and how influential were they? • What about merit and utility? • Think about the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen- this is where many of these ideas were put into practice. What were the most significant revolutionary ideals? Leaders Royal Leaders Think about Louis XVI, Necker, Calonne and Brienne. What mistakes did these leaders make, which ultimately resulted in the revolution? Think about their response to: The financial crisis The calling of the Estates General The popular rising Leaders- cont. Revolutionary Leaders • Think about leaders such as Mirabeau, Desmoulins, Bailly, and Lafayette. • These leaders moved quickly and acted decisively as the events of the revolution where developing and were able to push the revolution into dramatic new directions. • Yet many mistakenly believe that these leaders led and encouraged the popular movement- yet it important to be aware that the popular movement was very powerful and radical and needed no encouragement from leaderstherefore they spent a lot of time trying to channel the energies of the popular movement to serve their purpose. What was the role of leaders in the revolution, were they the driving force or did they simply guide the revolution? Movements • Think about the popular movement, peasant movement, bourgeoisie movement, aristocratic movement- all very different, yet influential in their own way. • Most important was the mass movement or crowd. • What was its impact? – The role of the crowd was not new- working people in France had a long tradition of action or protest and the use of violence. – The crisis of the French Revolution revealed how strong the crowd could be. – Also revealed that working people were not only concerned with material grievances but also national political issues. – Through 1789- the popular movement revealed that they could act independently of the middle-class political leaders. By August 1789, what was the most significant movement in the French Revolution? Events • Think about the impact of the following events and think- what would have happened if these did not occur? • The Assembly of Notables, the battle over the Parlements, the calling of the Estates General, drafting the Books of Grievances, doubling the Third Estate, the Reveillon revolts, the declaration of the National Assembly, the Tennis Court Oath, the King orders troops to Paris, the capture of the Bastille, the Peasant revolt, the ‘August Decrees’ Which events were most significant in causing the revolution? So do you know, what you need to know? Key Knowledge This knowledge includes the chronology of key events and factors which contributed to the revolution. the causes of tensions and conflicts generated in the old regime that many historians see as contributing to the revolution; for example, rising and unfulfilled class expectations; fluctuations in economic activity; failed attempts at economic, social or political reform; perceived social or economic inequality or lack of political voice; the impact of war or economic crisis that contributed to revolution such as the harvest crisis and state bankruptcy in the French economy. the ideas and ideologies utilised in revolutionary struggle; for example, ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity. the role of revolutionary individuals and groups in bringing about change; for example, in France, Sièyes, Lafayette, Mirabeau. And then... AOS2: Creating a New Society ◦ French Revolution 5 August 1789 to Year 111 (1795) (Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen to the dissolution of the Convention Year 111) Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen, (26 August, 1789) • Its various articles constitute the main themes of Enlightenment political thinking, and it espoused ideals of equality before the law, due process, natural rights, freedom of religion, free speech, and the separation of powers • At the time it was printed in 1000s of leaflets and distributed around France to provide propaganda for the Revolution. • Still forms the prologue of French Constitution What was the purpose of the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen? Key Individuals • Lafayette – Liberal noble – Appointed Commander of the National Guard • Bailly – Mayor of Paris March to Versailles (October 5-6, 1789) • March by the "Poor Women of Paris" to Versailles to insist that the King and Government move to Paris, which they did. • From now on the government functioned under threat of mob violence. The Church (late 1789-1790) • This period brought massive a shift in power from the Church to the state. • On 2 December 1789- The Assembly addressed the financial crisis by having the nation take over the property of the Church • In order to rapidly monetize this enormous amount of property, the government introduced a new paper currency, assignats. • Legislation enacted in 1790 abolished; – the Church's authority to levy a tax on crops – cancelled special privileges for the clergy, – confiscated Church property. • The Civil Constitution of the Clergy, passed on 12 July 1790, turned the remaining clergy into employees of the State and required that they take an oath of loyalty to the constitution. What impact did the Civil Constitution of the Clergy have on the new society in France? Flight to Varennes (June 20, 1791) • By mid 1791 the National Constituent Assembly had begun drawing up a constitution. • This was a politically moderate document that attempted to establish a Constitutional Monarchy. • King Louis XVI, finding himself with less political power tried to flee France. • He was stopped at Varennes and brought back on June 24 a virtual prisoner. What was the significance of the Flight to Varennes in terms of the development of republicanism in France? Champ de Mars Massacre, 17 July 1791 • Crowd of 50,000 flowed to the Champ de Mars to sign a petition demanding the deposition of the King. • Debates exist concerning the events that followed, yet it is believed that the crowd turned on two suspicious individuals, preparing to murder them. Bailly called in the national guard, led by Lafayette, to restore order. Stones were thrown, shots were fired and suddenly the guards opened fire on the closely packed crown, about 50 people were killed and many more injured. • This was a crucial turning point because it was the first time that revolutionaries had fired upon fellow revolutionaries. What impact did this event have on the reputation of Lafayette? Declaration of Pillnitz (August 27, 1791) • Statement issued by the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II (Marie Antoinette’s brother) and Frederick William II of Prussia. • Called European powers to intervene if Louis XVI of France was threatened. • The declaration stated that Austria would go to war if and only if all the other major European powers would also go to war with France. The Constitution of 1791 (Sept. 3, 1791) • • • • The first constitution of France The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen became it preamble It created a French constitutional monarchy There was much controversy over the level of power granted to the king. • After long negotiations, the constitution was reluctantly accepted by King Louis XVI in September 1791. • Unicameralism (the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber) was adopted as per the proposal of Sieyès, in order to disable the possibilities of the nobility's overpowering in the assembly. • Gilbert's idea of the king's veto also passed. • Sovereignty, though, was clearly defined as belonging to the people. What was the system of government outlined in this constitution? Legislative Assembly (October, 1791) • The Legislative Assembly took over government on October 1 1791. • With the King unwilling to cooperate, it proved ineffective, and party conflict dominated its proceedings. • This eventually led to a radicalization of the Revolution. Political Clubs • From February 1790 onwards, the revolutionary movement worked mainly through political clubs. This enabled ordinary citizens to feel that they could become involved in national politics on this popular level. The club movement therefore linked up with the popular movement. – Sans-culottes: (not a club- a social group) literally means ‘without kneebreeches’ and refers to a broad group of urban, working class radicals. – Jacobins: Founded December 1789. A group of radical democratic republican deputies elected to the National Constituent Assembly after 1791. – Feuillants: Founded in 1791 by the constitutional monarchists, which split from the Jacobins. – Cordeliers: Founded in 1790 and formed to promote the Rights of Man and Citizen. Considered to be more radical than the Jacobins. Included many sans-culottes. – Girondans: group of moderate republican deputies elected to the National Constituent Assembly after 1791. Had a large following amongst the wealthy bourgeoisie. – Montagnards (the Mountain): the Jacobin deputies in the Convention. Supported by the sans-culottes. Made up the majority of the Committee of Public Safety. International War • War breaks out (April, 1792) The beginning of the French Revolutionary Wars. • Following the Declaration of Pillnitz, the Girondins pushed the Legislative Assembly to declare war against the Austrians. • The French armies were soon retreating, which caused radicalization at home. How did the experience of war in France, add to the radicalisation of the revolution? Responses to International War • Panic, paranoia and repressive measures: – Reports of defeats in the war created panic and then accusations – Brissotans and Girondins were condemned for starting the war – Foreigners in Paris were placed under police surveillance • The King – Fear that he would lead a coup d’etat- radicals began demanding the deposition of the King – Louis began dismissing radical Girondins from the convention • The Popular Movement (journee 20 June 1792) – Began demonstrating its power – Led an attack against the Tuileries, where they forced Louis to wear the red bonnet and toast the revolution- they demanded an end to Louis’ veto and the recall of the Girondin minsters- Louis refusedthe crowd withdrew. – The near insurrection made the Girondins more conservative and the Jacobins more radical. • • Opening up the National Guard- anyone The Duke of Brunswick’s Manifesto (25 July 1792) – Commander of the Austrian-Prussian army, declared the Paris population personally responsible for the safety of the royal family- if the family were harmed, Austrian troops would subject the entire city to ‘militray execution’ (destruction) • The formation of the Revolutionary Commune – The original 48 administrative sections of France were transformed into one virtual ‘parliament’- working people were excluded. – They were radical- 47 of the 48 units demanded the deposition of the King • The first measures of Terror Key Individuals • Danton – Popular leader and member of the Revolutionary Commune – Very influential in organising the war effort. – Powerful speaker Storming of the Tuileries (10 August, 1792) • Insurgents assailed the Tuileries were the King and Queen had been held. At the Tuilleries Palace Louis has only 900 mercenary Swiss guards, another 700 royalist volunteers and 2000 National Guards whose loyalty was doubtful. The King fled with his family to the National Assembly At the palace the National Guards joined the demonstrators and they asked the Swiss troops to surrender- they refused and began firing on the crowd. The crowd surged the palace, murdering servants and Swiss guards. Some were decapitated and their heads impaled on pikes, others thrown from windows while still dying, and naked bodies of Swiss guards were dragged away for further desecration. About 300 defenders were killed in the actual fighting, while another 500 Swiss guard were slaughtered in cold blood. • The King and queen ended up prisoners and the Legislative Assembly suspended the monarchy. France Declared a Republic (September, 1792) • In August and September, 1792, there were mass riots in Paris (as a result of failures in the war), and the Legislative Assembly was forced to call for new elections to a National Convention • The newly formed National Convention first met September 21 1792 and declared France a Republic as its first act. • This date was later retroactively adopted as the beginning of Year One of the French Revolutionary Calendar. French Revolutionary Calendar • Started from 22 September 1792. • Note that the Republican calendar was not, in fact, introduced until 24 November 1793. • It was abolished on 31 December 1805 by the new Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, but was used again during the Paris Commune in 1871. • How the republican calendar worked – Each year, there were twelve months of 30 days. – A month was divided into three décades of ten days, with the décade’s last day being a rest day. It was a criminal offence to close a shop on what before had been a Sunday. That there were only three rest days a month, instead of four, was unpopular amongst the population. • The months were called: » » » » » » » » » » » » Vendémiaire- (22 Sep ~ 21 Oct) wine-harvesting Brumiare- (22 Oct ~ 20 Nov) foggy Frimiare- (21 Nov ~ 20 Dec) frosty Nivôse- (21 Dec ~ 19 Jan) snowy Pluviôse- (20 Jan ~ 18 Feb) rainy Ventose- (19 Feb ~ 20 Mar) windy Germinal- (21 Mar ~ 19 Apr) plant germination Floréal- (20 Apr ~ 19 May) flowering Prairial- (20 May ~ 18 Jun) meadows Messidor- (19 Jun ~ 18 Jul) harvesting Thermidor- (19 Jul ~ 17 Aug) heat Fructidor- (18 Aug ~ 16 Sep) fruit harvesting September Massacres, 1792 • 2 Sept. the Austrian army captured the last fortress before Paris- stories of women being raped and babies being impaled on spikes reached Paris. • This caused panic- generating violence. • Rumours spread by the popular press that the prisons were full of conspirators and Marat urged people to go to the prisons and murder refractory priests and other traitors such as imprisoned Swiss Guards. • Executions were carried out by beating the victims to death with metal bars. • At the Abbaye Prison, murder squads carried hatchets, razors and saws and under the guidance of a local butcher, literally hacked 19 priests to death. Key Individuals • Marat – Founder of the extremist newspaper L’Amni du peuple – Associated with the Jacobins – Was able to exercise direct control over the Parisian mob. – Continually called for the blood of the people’s enemies. International War, cont. • Late 1792- the military situation improved. • Battle of Valmy (20 Sept. 1792) the Prussian army was devastated by an outbreak of disease and began retreating to the frontier. • Battle of Jemappes (6 November 1792) the French Army defeated the Austrians and proceeded to caprure most of Belgium. • This was followed by a declaration of war on England, Holland and Spain in early 1793. Louis XVI executed (January 1793) • Radicals in the National Convention discovered letters to Austria in which Louis XVI had supported France's enemies. • The King was tried for treason. • The vote to condemn was: 28 were absent, 321 voted for other penalties, 13 for death with a respite, 361 for immediate execution. • The majority to execute was thus one vote. No one thought Louis was innocent. Counter-Revolution • Civil war in the Vendee region (south-west France)March-December 1793. • Like the Krondstadt Rebellion in Russia- was embarassing for the revolutionaries because it denied the revolution’s very rational (to be improving the world for the people). • Carried out mostly by peasants, who felt their situation was worse as a result of the revolution. • This began occurring across France- refer to map p. 151. What was the government’s response to counter revolution in France? The Federalist Revolt • Not technically counter-revolution, because its members supported the Republic and the Constitution of 1793. • Wished to protect the revolution from ‘direct democracy’ being urged on by the sansculottes in Paris. • They began a number of rebellions varying in seriousness during 1793. • Review map, p. 150 What threats were being placed on the survival of the revolution during 1792 and 1793 and how widespread were they? Key Individuals • Robespierre – Initially considered to be the ‘lawyer of the poor man’- spokesman of the working peopledemocratic, attacked active/passive citizenship, capital punishment and demanded an ‘open’ National Guard – Called to power when elected to the Commitee of Public Safety in 1793led to his use of extreme measures to keep the revolution alive. The Committee of Public Safety (1793–94) • In May/June 1793,there was a new insurrection, and the radicals known as "the Mountain" seized control in the Convention. • They appointed a "Committee of Public Safety" in June 1793, a body that was to rule France for the next year. • Under the leadership of Maximilian Robespierre, the Committee of Public Safety functioned as a ruthless but effective government. • Its policy of "terror" was designed to suppress opposition to the Revolution. The Jacobin Constitution, 1793 • Formally made France a republic. • Was more radical than 1791 • Ideas: – the people as the source of sovereignty (literally the population of 28 million) – Fundamental principles of 1791- equality before the law, recognition of merit, freedom of thought and worship, basis upon how laws are made, rules by which arrest, trial and punishment take place, property was a fundamental human right. – The right to insurrection • Democracy of hold- the constitution was almost immediately suspended until the revolutionary government gained peace. What system of government was outlined in this constitution? The Reign of Terror (July 1793-1794) • • • • • • • Marked by mass executions of ‘enemies of the revolution’ Was formally accepted by the Convention, through the creation of the Committee of Public Safety and the Law of Suspects (document that listed people classified as suspects) After the murder of a prominent radical Marat, killed by Charlotte Corday on July 13 1793, the height of the Terror lasted from Fall 1793 to July 1794. First Marie-Antoinette and the Royal Family and aristocrats were executed. In 1794 the Terror moved to the provinces and included peasants and sans-culottes. Finally by Spring 1794 even republicans like Danton faced the Guillotine. The repression accelerated in June and July 1794 and this period soon became known as the ‘Great Terror’. – The backlog of suspects to be tried led to the Committee of Public Safety passing the Prairial Year II Law (June 10 1794), effectively reducing the 'trial' process to a simple appearance before a judge without the right to speak and prompt sentencing. • Estimations of the total number executed during the reign of terror vary and range from 16,000 to 40,000, including the many summary executions, mass drownings and other atrocities. De-Christianisation • Hébert’s atheist movement (Cult of Reason)initiated a religious campaign in order to dechristianise society– waged against Catholicism, and eventually against all forms of Christianity. – Included the deportation of clergy and the condemnation of many of them to death, the closing of churches, the institution of revolutionary and civic cults, the large scale destruction of religious monuments, the outlawing of public and private worship and religious education, forced marriages of the clergy and forced removal from their priesthood. – The enactment of a law on 21 October 1793 made all suspected priests and all persons who harbored them liable to death on sight. The climax was reached with the celebration of the goddess "Reason" in Notre Dame Cathedral on 10 November. • Robespierre did not support the Cult of Reason- as his power increased this became regarded as counterrevolutionary, extremist enragés such as Hébert were guillotined in the Spring of 1794. • The Cult of the Supreme Being – May 1794 Robespierre delivered a major speech to the convention announcing that atheism was evil and that henceforth a state cult based on Rousseau’s civil religion would exist. – Decreed the existence God as the ‘supreme being’ and the immortality of the soul. – On 7 June 1794 the worship of the deistic Supreme Being was inaugurated as an official aspect of the Revolution and instructed the convention to institute a series of public festivals- the first being the Festival of the Supreme Being on 8 June- involved great feasts, many long speeches, the burning of effigies, baskets of flowers, music, statues and children all paying homage to Robespierre’s ‘supreme being’. – This strict new religion of Virtue was received with signs of hostility by the Parisian public and other members of French society- did not allow freedom of religion, which angered the population of France because it contradicted the supposed ideals of freedom of the Revolution. – Many historians argue that Robespierre's proclamation of the cult as the new state religion in 1794 was possibly one of the factors that prompted the Thermidorian Reaction. Key Individuals • Hébert – Atheist movement initiated a religious campaign in order to dechristianise French society. – Ultimately led to his demise. Thermidorian Reaction (July 27, 1794) • The Reign of Terror was genuinely terrifying, and even radical politicians feared for their own heads when Robespierre made a threatening speech on July 26th, 1794. • Before he could act, he himself was arrested and condemned to the Guillotine by the Convention on 9th of Thermidor. • Since the end of Robespierre's power came in the new month of Thermidor, the name of that month was attached to the entire moderate rejection of the terror. List some of the key reasons outlined by historians as to what caused Robespierre’s downfall. Constitution of Year III (1795) • In the wake of the Terror, • the Convention approved the new "Constitution of the Year III" on 22 August 1795. A French plebiscite (referendum) ratified the document, with about 1,057,000 votes for the constitution and 49,000 against. • The results of the voting were announced on 23 September 1795, and the new constitution took effect on 27 September 1795. What system of government was outlined in this constitution? So do you know, what you need to know? So what should you know? • Key knowledge • the contribution of individuals and groups to the creation of the new society; for example, in France, Danton, Marat and Robespierre. • the cause of difficulties or crises faced by the revolutionary groups or governments as a new state was consolidated; for example, the revolutionary war in France. • the response of the key revolutionary individuals, groups, governments or parties to the difficulties that they encountered as the new state was consolidated; for example, Jacobin Terror in France. • the compromise of revolutionary ideals; for example, the radicalisation of policies; for example, during the authoritarian rule of the Committee of Public Safety in France. • the changes and continuities that the revolution brought about in the structure of government, the organisation of society, and its values, and the distribution of wealth and conditions of everyday life. Key Questions AOS2 • What impediments were there to the creation of a new society? • What were the responses to these impediments? • How did he new regime cope with ruling the new society? • How/Did the new regime realise its ideals? Historiography The history of the French Revolution is highly debated and there are a range of interpretations of it. Below is a brief outline of three key groups. CONTEMPORARY INTERPRETATIONS • Mostly held by 19th century and early 20th century French historians - often viewed as being the conservative stream of opinion. • Accused of simplifying and romanticising descriptions of the revolution. • View the revolution from above- from the viewpoint of those who dominated society, such as the nobles and bourgeois. • Tend to focus on the achievements of the constitutional monarchy of the National Assembly, disowning later, more radical events. • The ordinary people were seen as undifferentiated mass, who reacted predictably (by rioting) to food shortages and who followed the political lead of the upper classes. Historiography MARXIST INTERPRETATION • Dominant interpretation of the French Revolution for much of the 20th Century. • Often socialist ideals, viewing the Revolution “from below”, favouring explanations in terms of class. • The revolution was made up of four stages: first there was the “aristocratic revolution” of the Assembly of Notables and the Paris Parlement in 1788; then the “bourgeois revolution” of the Third Estate; then the “popular revolution” symbolised by the Fall of the Bastille; and then finally the “peasant revolution” represented by the “Great Fear” in the provinces and the burning of chateaux. • Sees a rising capitalist middle-class (bourgeoisie) overthrowing a dyingout feudal aristocratic ruling class and instilling a capitalist society in France - also focussed heavily on the role of the lower classes and in particular the sans-culottes as a vital revolutionary force, particularly during the years 1792-94 - noted that their support was necessary to enable the bourgeois leaders to achieve their outcomes - rejected the idea of the mob and saw that the lower classes had their own ideas and institutions, which were often opposed to one another. • George Lefebvre, Albert Soboul, George Rude Historiography REVISIONIST INTERPRETATION • • • • • • • Beginning with Alfred Cobban in 1954 – attacked the “social interpretation” (Marxist) of the Revolution. It was not the capitalist bourgeoisie (business-men or merchants) who led the revolution, but instead lawyers and other professional men – believed the revolution retarded the development of capitalism in France, as by 1799 industry still remained small. Believe that there was no class-struggled between the nobles and bourgeoisie as rich bourgeois could buy noble offices and therefore what they wanted to do was join the nobility rather than get rid of it - both nobles and rich bourgeois formed part of the same elite class. Maintain that the abolition of privilege and noble status did not significantly change the nature of the elite which ruled France, birth was no longer important, but wealth was. Focus a lot of their attention on the counter-revolution - this had little to do with international agents or aristocratic plots - it was wide-spread, lasting and popular, covering large areas of France between 1793-97 - it is seen to be the cause of much of the radicalisation of those years, including the Terror, the failure of constitutional government and the eventual need for a dictator. Some saw violence as being a central factor in the revolution; Simon Schama claimed that it was “not the unfortunate by product of the revolution, [but] the source of its energy”. Alfred Cobban, George V. Taylor, Simon Schama, Richard Cobb, William Doyle and Lynn Hart.