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The shrimp defense mechanism: simple
but efficient
Pikul Jiravanichpaisal
Germs are everywhere
Infectious disease process
Dose
1. Entry the host- getting in
2. Establishment- staying in
3. Avoid, evade, or compromise the host
defense- defeat the host defenses
4. Damage the host
5. Exit
Source: Y_tambe, dual-license with GFDL and CC-by-SA,\
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/H_pylori_ulcer_diagram_en.
png
Mode of infection
Ingestion
Wounds
(gill, shell)
Shrimp diseases
Pathogenic microorganisms/ pathogens
Viruses
Fungi
Enterocytozoon
Protozoa
Bacteria
Pathogens can be found in various compartments of the body
WSSV
YHV
Vibrio
Nucleus
Cell
Digestive organ
The Immune System
A body system designed to protect us from pathogens that
attack and try to invade our bodies
1. Innate, natural or non-specific immunity
2. Acquired, adaptive or specific immunity
Innate immune system
Adaptive immune system
Response is non-specific
Exposure
leads
to
Pathogen and antigen specific response
immediate
maximal Lag time between exposure and maximal
response
response
Cell-mediated and humoral components
Cell-mediated and humoral components
No immunological memory
Exposure leads to immunological memory
Found in nearly all forms of life
Found only in jawed vertebrates
Germ-line coded
Gene rearrangement
More than 95% of all known species belongs to the invertebrates!
Invertebrates rely solely on innate immunity
Blood circulatory system
Vertebrates
Closed circulation
Invertebrates
Open circulation
Blood:
bloodplasma + red & white blood cells
Hemolymph:
plasma + hemocytes
Shrimp haemocytes
Text
Hyaline cells
Semigranular
cell
Granular cell
How do shrimp defend themselves?
First line of defense
Optimal goal: Prevent microorganisms from gaining access
- The exoskeleton or cuticle
- layer of non-cellular material
- thin, but tough and flexible,
- cover the whole external body surface, stomach and
hindgut and reproductive ducts
Function:
- To limit the entry or loss of water
- Form an efficient barrier protecting against invasion by eukaryotic
parasites and infection by microorganisms.
Structure and formation of
cuticle of shrimp
the
Shell/cuticle/skin
Epicuticle
Exocuticle
Endocuticle
The inner-most layer
Epidermal cell
Shrimp gut
Physical and biochemical
barrier
Shrimp cuticle
Shrimp stomach
The immune role of the shrimp cuticle
-Physical component of the cuticle defense
-Biochemical component of the cuticle defense
-Mounting as a component of cuticle defense
Most pathogens aiming to colonize the haemocoel
The last line of defense or haemocoelic internal defense
Optimal goal: Neutralized and destroy invaders
Complex network of cellular and humoral responses that
work together to protect the body
Clotting protein
Phagocytosis
Antiviral
defense
Antimicrobial peptides
ProPO
Pattern recognition protein
Ecapsulation/
nodule formation
Lectins
Haemocoelic internal defense
Staphylococcus aureus - injected crayfish
E. Coli - injected crayfish
a
b
c
d
Aeromonas hydrophila - injected crayfish
a
b
c
d
Normal saline - injected crayfish
a
b
c
d
Intestinal Immunity
The digestive tract is a
first entry point for
many pathogens
AHPND/Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS)
Vibriosis
Enterocytozoon
Gregarines
White Feces Syndrome
28
Aqua Biz and www. Shrimpcenter.com Photo credits
Oral administration with V. parahaemolyticus to induce EMS/AHPND in shrimp
Control
6
12
24
h
scar
Control midgut
EMS/AHPND-infected midgut
Bacterial infection in midgut
Phagocytosis
He
Bac
Encapsulation and melanization
The intestine and its microflora are partners for the protection of the host
Intestine
Mucosal barriers
Local immune system
Microflora
33
www.visualphoto.com www.ecdu.europa.eu Photo credits
The bacterial community in the digestive tract of shrimp
34
Jiravanichpaisal et al. unpublished data
Relative expression of six genes in midgut (AM) and hindgut (PH) of shrimp during V. harveyi challenge by
immersion method
Soonthornchai W. et al., 2010, Developmental
and Comparative Immunity
Shrimp intestinal Immune system
Pathogens
Lectins
Commensal bacteria
AMPs
Peritrophic membrane
Epithelial cells
Basement membrane
Hemocytes
Adaptive immunity
Penlectin
©Jiravanichpaisal P. 2012.
?
Phagocytosis
Melanization
Clotting protein
Conclusion
Healthy Gut = Healthy Shrimp
THANK YOU