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CHAPTER 2 PREVIEW.docx Name: _________________________ Period:_______ Date: ____________ CHAPTER 2 PREVIEW A Look Back at the First Americans Chapter 2: Exploring the Americas The first Americans were probably migratory hunters who came from Asia by crossing a land bridge during the last ice age. They gradually spread throughout the continents of North and South America. This process took thousands of years. Agriculture allowed complex civilizations to develop in Central and South America. These civilizations built long-lasting roads and monuments like the pyramids of the Aztec and Maya. They had cities, laws, religion, and art. The Native Americans in North America developed many different cultures due to their adaptation to different environments. There were hundreds of different tribes with distinct ways of life, languages, and religious beliefs. Some tribes were nomadic while others formed permanent communities. The tribes from the Plains of North America hunted buffalo and lived in teepees. The Iroquois lived mainly in New York. They lived in longhouses and their main source of food was cultivated crops. The new interest in learning during the Renaissance also spurred exploration. Europeans wanted goods from Asia, such as silk, spices, and gold. European countries grew in wealth, power, and technology. European explorers tried to find shortcuts to Asia by sea because overland routes were slow. One of these explorers, Christopher Columbus, sailed west and "found" the New World. This had important effects for Europe and the Americas. Spanish conquistadors took over a large empire in the Americas, conquering both the Aztec and the Incan empires. They came to the New World for different reasons: profit, adventure, and religion. As Spain grew wealthy from its American colonies, other European countries explored North America, trying to find a Northwest Passage by sea to Asia and to establish profitable colonies. Timeline of Events RENAISSANCE A period of artistic and intellectual creativity and learning. It was also an era of exploration. COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE An exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and ideas between the Old World and the New World. Europe and the Americas got new food crops, but millions of Native Americans died from new diseases. 1492 Columbus found the “New World” and spread the news to Europe. 1500 1400 1600 HERNÁN CORTÉS Conquered the Aztec Empire in 1521. JOHANES GUTENBERG Invented a printing press with movable type. Books were easily produced and knowledge spread. (1439) FERDINAND MAGELLAN Led an expedition that circumnavigated the world. (1519) HENRY HUDSON FRANCISCO PIZARRO Conquered the Incan Empire in 1533. Found the Hudson River while working for Holland. He was looking for the Northwest Passage. (1609) Important events, people, and vocabulary What are the Three G’s? Explain each one. Reasons for exploration “Gold, God, and Glory” Gold = money, profit, jobs God = religious freedom or to convert others Glory = adventure, fame What did he do? Francisco Pizarro What happened? Why was it important? Columbus “found” America and spread news of it in Europe. 1492 Columbian Exchange Effect of European contact on Native Americans What did he do? Ferdinand Magellan Led an expedition that sailed around the world. Magellan did not complete the voyage—he was killed in the Philippines. What is it? What effect did it have on Europe and the Americas? What did he do? What was his nickname? The exchange of goods, ideas, and diseases between the Old and New Worlds. This meant new foods for Europe. Native Americans did not have any immunity to European diseases. Spanish priest who spoke out about how the Spanish colonists were treating the Native Americans. He was called “Protector of the Indians”. Las Casas What was the most important effect on Native Americans? European contact led to the death of millions of Native Americans due to European diseases like small pox. What was it? Why were explorers searching for it? Northwest Passage What did he do? A water shortcut to Asia through North America that early explorers attempted to find. What did he do? Why is it important to us? Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztec Empire. Hernán Cortés Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan Empire. Henry Hudson The British explorer was working for the Netherlands when he found the Hudson River. This led to the colony of New Netherland, which was later taken over by Britain and became New York.