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A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE INTERNET, WEB, AND HTML Internet vs. World Wide Web What is The Internet? The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet. Information that travels over the Internet does so via a variety of languages known as protocols. What is The Web (World Wide Web)? The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet. The Web uses the HTTP protocol, only one of the languages spoken over the Internet, to transmit data. Web services, which use HTTP to allow applications to communicate in order to exchange business logic, use the Web to share information. The Web also utilizes browsers, such as Internet Explorer or Firefox, to access Web documents called Web pages that are linked to each other via hyperlinks. Web documents also contain graphics, sounds, text and video. The Web is just one of the ways that information can be disseminated over the Internet. The Internet, not the Web, is also used for e-mail, which relies on SMTP, Usenet news groups, instant messaging and FTP. So the Web is just a portion of the Internet, albeit a large portion, but the two terms are not synonymous and should not be confused. Fear of The Bomb • Early ‘60s (“Cuban Missle Crisis”) An Idea is Born • Mid ‘60s • Connect the servers at: • UC Santa Barbara • Standford Research Institute • UCLA • University of Utah ARPANet The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was one of the world's first operational packet switching networks, the first network to implement TCP/IP, and the progenitor of what was to become the global Internet. The network was initially funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA, later the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency or DARPA) within the U.S. Department of Defense for use by its projects at universities and research laboratories in the US. The packet switching of the ARPANET, together with TCP/IP, would form the backbone of how the Internet works. ARPANet Continues to Grow! • 1971 ARPANet NSFNet • 1980 - 1990 Advanced Research Projects Agency Network National Science Foundation Network Tim Berners-Lee (at CERN) • 1990 (World Wide Web is Born!) • Documents • • • Digital documents • • • • • Plain Text Long Paths GML SGML • • • • • "Snail" Mail Phone Calls IBM – Early '60s Goldfarb Mosher Lorie Created HTML as an application of SGML in order to add emphasis to digital documents using tags Add images Add links Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (Council for European Nuclear Research) Definitions • WWW or World Wide Web • A software infrastructure layered on top of the Internet • HTTP • HyperText Transport Protocol, layered on top of TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) • HTTPS • Secure HTTP using encryption • HTML • HyperText Markup Language • Browser • Application for interpreting and displaying HTML files NexT Web Browser (1991) NSFNet • 1980 Mosaic Web Browser • 1993 W3C – World Wide Web Consortium • 1994 W3C – World Wide Web Consortium • 1995 - NFSNET is decommissioned and allowed to go public … THE INTERNET and WWW AS WE KNOW IT IS BORN!