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The breakdown of food
and the
absorption of nutrients
Digestion

Breakdown of food
and
Absorption of nutrients
Digestion

Mechanical breakdown:
Food broken into smaller pieces without changing
the chemical composition
Chemical breakdown:
Food broken down into smaller chemical
compounds
Mouth

 Receives food
 Begins mechanical breakdown
Salivary Glands

 Secrete saliva
 Saliva moistens, binds, and digests foods
 Amylase (begins breakdown of carbohydrates)
Pharynx

 Posterior to the mouth
 Leads to the esophagus
Esophagus

 Passes food from pharynx to stomach
 Just over 2 feet long
Stomach

 Mixes food with gastric juices
 Has thick folds called rugae
Gastric Juices

 Pepsin: begins the digestion of proteins
 Hydrochloric acid: provides acidic environment
needed for pepsin to function
 Secretions that line the stomach to protect it from
self-digestion
Small Intestine

 Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
 Attached to abdominal wall by the mesentery
membrane
 Intestinal villi: increase surface area
 Almost all absorption
takes place here
Large Intestine

 Not much digestion here
 Absorbs water
 Bacteria (intestinal flora) breaks down some particles
Rectum

 Final section of large intestine
 Temporary storage of feces
Anus

 Opening to the outside environment
 Two sphincter muscles, one under involuntary
control, the other under voluntary control