Download KINGDOM MONERA Examples : bacteria, blue

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Examples : bacteria, blue-green algae (cyanobacteria)
Very small in size (about 1 micrometer)
Prokaryotic – The genetic material (DNA) is not enclosed in a distinct nuclear
Cell shapes can be round (“coccus” e.g. in streptococcal throat infection), rodshaped (“bacillus” e.g. Escherichia coli which normally lives in the human gut),
or spiral-shaped (“spirillus” e.g. in cholera)
The coccal bacteria may be arranged in rows ("streptococcus" e.g. in
streptococcus) or in clusters (" staphylococcus" e.g. in staphylococcus).
Some of the rod- or spiral-shaped bacteria may move by means of a whiplike
flagellum (plural: flagella)
Refer to diagrams of bacteria in your textbook: Recognise the 3 shapes of bacteria coccus, bacillus and spirillus. Also take note that bacteria have no nuclear membrane.
♦ Cell wall is not made of the same chemical as plant cell walls. Monerans can be
identified by whether their cell walls can be stained or not by a Gram stain. In the
case of disease-causing bacteria, this is of advantage in quick identification to
prescribe appropriate antibiotics.
♦ Many can survive unfavourable conditions such as extreme dryness or heat by
producing an extra spore coat.
♦ Most reproduce asexually by binary fission approximately every 20 minutes. The
bacterium duplicates its genetic material (DNA) and then splits into two smaller
♦ Some are autotrophic, i.e. produce their own nutrients from sunlight
(photosynthetic), from sulphur or iron (chemosynthetic).
♦ Some are heterotrophic, i.e. obtain their nutrients by absorbing them from other
living organisms (e.g. disease-causing or pathogenic bacteria that produce toxins).
♦ Some require oxygen to live (aerobic), and some do not (anaerobic).
♦ Some are harmful ( e.g. disease-causing or pathogenic bacteria), and some are
useful (e.g. decomposing bacteria which rot dead matter to recycle nutrients into
the soil).
♦ Pasteurisation involves heating milk to more than 60oC (when protein coagulates),
and then quickly cooling it.
Did You Know That…?Every square centimetre of human skin supports 5 million